Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Response Paper 2 - Essay ExampleFor example, if someone is in a concentration camp for nothing notwithstanding being Polish, they are a victim. But, if they are extorting other mountain in the concentration camp by acting as an informant to the Nazi guards, they are withal victimizing other people. Therefore, it is possible to be, at the same time, victim and victimized there is always someone on some higher level, who is victimizing the person victimizing you. In Gross keep, this relationship is made very clearly.Gross book is not perfect, although it does refer to patterns of concentration camp victimization, because the book is also the victim, and perhaps has been victimizing the reader. Time will tell, but there are accusations that Gross left out dozens of licenses for different people - witnesses, defendants, etc., who spoke on the role of the German outbreak of food poisoning, and instead just quoted the witnesses, which indicated the participation of Poles. It was argued , among other things, the first visitation of a chef Julia Sokolowski, which was later withdrawn, and the material Karol Bardon, a German policeman, who was sentenced to death, tried to dilute its responsibility and blame residents of the city. prof Gross has never explained the reasons for his choice. He never explained why he accepts some of the documents and rejects others. I am persuade that Neighbors is a book which had to be written and which is needed. Facing up to the painful truth of Jedwabne is, in my conviction, the intimately serious test that we Poles have had to confront in the last decade (Strembzosz, 2001). In reality, ideas of victimization in terms of this book may run deeper than expected, if any part of it is found to be fabricated. A subsequent investigation conducted by thePolish Institute of National Remembrance(IPN) largely supported Grosss conclusionsThe IPN investigation reason that residents of Jedwabne and its environs, of Polish nationality, committed
Monday, April 29, 2019
Administrative Law Human Right - Case Study guinea pigHowever, the modern form of the 1948 National Assistance Act made a clear distinction among a topical anesthetic anesthetic authority with a statutory duty to arrange sustenance and accommodation for those ineffective to arrange it themselves, and a private company providing services with which the local authority contracted on a commercial basis in order to fulfil its duty to arrange such care and accommodation.The get along in this appeal is whether a care home (such as that run by Southern mark health care Ltd), when providing accommodation and care to a resident (such as Mrs YL, the appellant), pursuant to arrangements made with a local authority (such as Birmingham City Council) under fractions 21 and 26 of the National Assistance Act 1948, is acting functions of a public nature for the purposes of section 6(3)(b) of the Human Rights Act 1998 and is thus in that respect a public authority obliged to act compatibly wi th Convention rights under section 6(1) of that Act. Sections 21 and 26 of the National Assistance Act 1948 confer statutory powers and impose a statutory duty. The duty is compel on the relevant local authority. It may be discharged by arranging for the provision of residential care in a home run by itself, or by another local authority, or by a voluntary organisation or by a private provider such as Southern Cross. ... This is correct, but not in my view significant. The intention of Parliament is that residential care should be provided, but the government agency of doing so is treated as, in itself, unimportant. By one means or another the function of providing residential care is one which must be performed. For this reasons also the circumstantial contractual arrangements between Birmingham, Southern Cross and Mrs YL and her daughter are a matter of little or no moment.The provision of residential care is the subject of very detailed control by statute, normal and official guidance, and criminal sanctions apply to many br each(prenominal)es of the prescribed standards. The issue which your Lordships must decide, as expressed in paragraph 18 of the order of Ryder J of 12 September 2006, is whether the second Respondent, Southern Cross Healthcare Ltd (Southern Cross), in providing care and accommodation for YL the appellant is exercising a public function for the purposes of section 6(3)(b) of the Human Rights Act 1998. Bennett J held, on 5 October 2006, that it was not. The Court of Appeal, on 30 January 2007, agreed 2007 2 WLR 1097. But these decisions are challenged before the House by YL, supported by the Secretary of State for constitutional Affairs and by Justice, Liberty, the British Institute of Human Rights, Help the Aged and Age Concern England, each an independent body. It is convenient to refer, briefly, to the statutory and factual background to the formulation of this preliminary issue.ConclusionThese examples illustrate, I think, that i t cannot be enough simply to compare the nature of the activities being carried out at privately owned care homes with those carried out at local authority owned care homes. It is necessary to look also at the reason why the person
Sunday, April 28, 2019
No Topic Necessary - Essay ExampleApparently, the story of Buddha in the myth is intertwined with separate deities, especially Christianity (Campbell, 30). These other deities are seen as being weak and temporary as opposed to Buddhism which remains immovable withal in the future. Actually, the writer emphasizes the superiority of Buddhism in Oriental antiquity as compared to other deities.In todays society, comparisons between religious deities and implications of ancient spiritual registers remain influential. More often, these comparisons are divisive in nature. In the Heros story, the hero asserts that Buddha is immovable and superior in the presence of other deities (Campbell, 35). In todays society, the spiritual heroism of Moses in the old Testament remains the central narrative in the Jewish religion. Personally, I agree that Moses transformed into a heavenly level when he encountered divinity fudge around the burning bush at Mont Sinai. Prescription of the Ten Commandm ents sealed Gods concordat with the Israelites in a similar manner that Gautama linked Buddhists with Buddha. In this context, the spiritual experience of Moses in the Old Testament, which is influential in todays Jewish and Christian religions, is synonymous to the spiritual adventure of Gautama Sakyamuni in the
Saturday, April 27, 2019
Mind maps - Essay Example more or less often the map involves images, words, and lines and elements are arranged intuitively according to the importance of the concepts and they are organized into groupings, branches, or areas.As a twenty first century pedagogue, mind- mapping is an important (if not essential) technique to attend oneself in imparting quality education to students. Educators often wish that they could more organized and less in use(p) with petty problems. Some may feel dejected when forced to think on our feet. No educator can help their student learn better when they are often overwhelmed with tons of information. This results in ruin to create meaning in the vast field of knowledge and aid students so they can interiorize and understand better. Psychological synchronization of an educator with his student is essential to build up trust and confidence. Incorporating the pecking order of Needs helps a teacher to provide moral, emotional and academic help to stude nts who might need them. as well as the Systems Theory Framework and Myer - Briggs Theory assist in personality identification, assessment and development respectively. The Hollands Theory of charge Choices aid in student counseling with respect to personality types, aptitudes and personal preferences.The complexities and chaos
Friday, April 26, 2019
How is the veil portrayed in occidental Media - Essay ExamplePeople are surrounded by time, culture, environment and the society, which can turn start the formation of many opinions about an issue that we face in everyday society. One of most contentious topics regards to Islam is the Veil. In the past twenty to thirty years Hijab or the veil has been widely recognized as a symbol of the Muslim woman in the due western media. Many people want to sleep together more about Islam and Muslim culture when they see a woman wearing a brain scarf or a man with a full grown beard. Many generalizations and questions are organize in the minds of so many western non-Muslims in regards to the basic idea and concepts behind the veil by dint of the influence of their western media. During the time of conflict between the Islam and West, the media powerfully altered the minds of western non-Muslims by negative exploitation about Islam, Muslims, in particular about Muslim women. Misconception s, like, if they are bald beneath the veil or if Muslim women sleep with their veils on, to the involvement of terrorism that contrasts to what Muslim women believe the veil represents. harmonize to a CNN survey, Most Muslims come from lower middle class family prickergrounds and their sole purpose for coming to the States and living a good part of their lives away from their family is to make good money and send it back home. All the burden of the family is on their shoulders and they are the sole bread earners in the ho intake. They just dont seem to be bothered by whatever is going around in the world as they are multiform in their daily routines. Usually these people are doing two or more than three jobs. They dont straighten out that by not clarifying things, they are digging a hole for themselves.(Shah, 2001)Muslims believe western media use the veil as a means to exploit Muslim women, and degrade them. According to them in west media assumes, that the action of just one M uslim is the
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Is the fictional character Crake a hero or a villain in Margaret Atwoods Oryx and Crake - Essay Exampleof obliteration also involved the establishment of a new world inhabited by a peaceful, herbivorous, environment-friendly change of human-like beings. He created them and kept them safe in a dome and then set out to terminate the entire race of mankind. His friend horn in, the narrator-protagonist of the novel is spared to take care of Crakes new creations c entirelyed Crakers. My contention is that with all his super-human brain powers and wisdom Crake is ultimately a villain, not a hero.Crake, unlike treasure, is not open-hearted. He is unreliable though in his own way affectionate towards Jimmy, even appreciative of his essential goodness. But he has no qualms in using Jimmy for his own ends. He betrays the trust Jimmy puts in him. Jimmy loses his mother under curious circumstances at a very young age. His father, an outstanding genographer who full treatment happily for an organ-producing multinational firm, exerts only a mild impact on him. He is more disposed to his mother, an embittered microbiologist who in disillusionment throws away her job and becomes an activist, demanding a going back to nature. Crake is Jimmys unrivaled and only best friend in the whole world, even after the holocaust and his killing of Crake, Jimmy regards him so (Oryx and Crake, 391). Jimmy shoots him in panic, shock and confusion. But he never lets go the responsibility Crake thrusts on him and never blames him. In contrast Crake keeps him under constant surveillance from the very beginning and entraps him quite smartly into his own schemes, using him and his innate peculiarities to benefit his own schemes (376). He is a failure as a friend, though Jimmy-turned-Snowman is still clinging to his memories.Crake is a betrayer. His treatment of Oryx, just like that of Jimmy is a pathetic proof of his deep-rooted harshness of mind. He has advanced methods of surveilling the activities of others. Oryx is not aware of it. He tells her that his Blyss Pluss Pill would coat the way to the
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Extremes of dust Modification in the Aztec and Maori Cultures - Research Paper ExampleIn addition, while some still dimension deeper psychological meaning to the practice, others insist that eubstance limiting has become nothing more than a saucer-eyed fashion accessory, or a matter of preference (Wohlrab et al., 8788).Body accommodation is defined as the semi-permanent or permanent deliberate alteration of the human body. The practice of body modification extends every over the globe since the dawn of humankind itself. Even though types of modifications vary wildly by geographics and culture, in most cases, historically, there has been a symbolic reason beyond aesthetic preference. A modification could indicate that the bearer underwent some sort of group initiation, joined a particular age hold or social group, or it could identify personal accomplishments, social status, or religious membership and ordaination (Wohlrab et all, 8788).In more recent times, body modification was often associated with lower classes of people, not the elite. In europium and later, America, tattooing was common among sailors, who were not viewed kindly by polite society. The practice traveled to other members of lower classes. Biker culture, chinchy culture, criminal organizations, and prison culture eventually adopted the practice (Wohlrab et all, 8788). ... Aztec culture used body modification for the purpose of distinguishing class, societal role, and gender. Gender identity was established in the early teens, when all individuals were sort within three genders potentially reproductive male, potentially reproductive female, and celibate. Throughout these three genders, body modification would follow a set path based on life events. Astronomers and priests calculated the life schedule and fortune prediction for every individual at birth (Joyce, 475-476) Boys and girls wore their hair identically until the age of 12, in a short crop over the whole head. By 12, girls b egan growing their hair long. Boys shaved their heads eject for one long tuft in the back. A young man was permitted to shave it upon taking his firstly captive in battle. Afterward, the hair was to the bottom of the ear on the right side, shaving the left. Upon capturing a fourth captive, a man recieved the privilege of wearing his hair any way he liked. After childbirth, a woman usually wore her long hair bound around her head (Joyce, 479-480). Among the Aztecs, nearly every compounding of gender and societal role had its own code of dress, appearance, and body modification. Aztec adults began a childs figure of body modification by grabbing children between infancy and 4 years old by the neck, every 4th year, in the month Izcalli, on special feast day. This was believed to make the child taller. The ceremony began with discriminating the ears of the children. A cotton string was put in the hole initially, and the holes were slowly stretched over time to accommodate the chi ld to wear ear ornaments as an adult averaging over 2 centimeters wide Joyce, 477-478). Male terrific children 15 and over were admitted to the calmecac, for the training of
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Awarness-raising and marketing Investors in people - Assignment ExampleAdvertising entails paying to ensure dissemination of information that identifies sound a brand, service or crossway, or an organization that is promoted to massive customer base at integrity time. As economies grow, advertising become more important, since more consumers or buyers afford the income as a conclusion advertising can get positive results good and efficient advertising results costs money.Advertising campaigns should have a clear defined objective. Advertisements should grow out of the investors overall marketing strategies and the promotion jobs assign to the advertising agency. Advertising objective must be more precise rather than personal exchange objectives. The marketing agencies specific objectives and well formulated budget can accomplish the following to investors assist role the investors brand by persuading and informing organise customers about its benefits introduce new products and service to specific target markets obtain desirable outlets or inform customers where they can acquire or buy a product avail on-going contacts with targeted customers, in case when salespersons are not available make way for salespersons by availing the federations identity and the benefits of its products obtain immediate buying action assist in maintaining relationships with the satisfied customers and boost more purchases and building more trust relationships with the client base (Pride and Ferrell, 2010).The advertising objectives determine the two staple fiber types of advertising, institutional or product. The Product advertising targets selling of the product and includes competitive, reminder, and pioneering advertisement. The Institutional advertising promotes an organizations reputation, ideas, and image instead of a fact product. Pioneering advertising is in developing primary demand for particular product category instead of the demand for a particular brand us ually at premature
Parole - Essay ExampleHowever, there has been a consensus among the players within the criminal justice system that incarceration is not the most appropriate measure to only offenders. It is in the light of this consensus that parole and probation systems were developed in order to provide alternative and appropriate shipway of addressing ad hoc types of offenders (Welsh and Harris, 2008). These systems have had remarkable impacts within the criminal justice system but they have as well had some shortcomings as well. Particularly, parole has been regarded as an early release option that puts the public at uncalled-for risk. On the other hand, there are those who argue that it allows the re-integration of offenders into the community and provides better prospects for rehabilitation (Broadhurst, 2001). This paper allow seek to understand the parole system by discussing its pros and cons. In addition, it will discuss whether parole is currently over-utilized or under-utilized in Australia, or whether proper balance has been struck.Yoshimura (2000) defines parole as a process that involves conditionally releasing an offender from prison so that he or she can serve the remaining condemnation in the community according to the decrys terms that the court would impose. Often, offenders released under parole serve the remaining sentence in the community under community corrections officer supervision. Parole is considered as a conditional release from the prison because the release of the offenders is based on certain conditions such as prisoners agreeing to obey specific restrictions imposed by the court. It should be noted that the parole release decisions basis vary across legal power and time (Proctor, 1999). For example, parole can be offered as an entitlement to offenders after they have served a specified token(prenominal) imprisonment term. Similarly, parole can be used as a reward for offenders good behavior. Nonetheless, the bottom line is that granti ng of release on parole is based on
Monday, April 22, 2019
School-Based Physical discip border Programs and Childhood Obesity - Essay ExampleA moderniseing segment of the population for which obesity is neat a serious problem is school-aged children. Current inquiry shows that obese children perform worse academically than commonplace weight children. Obese children professed by deteriorating forcible and mental health lack the ability to continue intellectually focused in school. Thus, childhood obesity in the context of educational settings will be the focus of this dissertation. Specifically, this study will delve into the subject matter with a particular focus on African American female high school students. Furthermore, the focus of this study is the connection between the dexterity of exercise programs and regimens for school aged children. The United States, like other countries, depends upon having a healthy youth domicile to take over and eventually lead. If we cannot reasonably conceive that our youth will be healthy com plete to lead, that presents substantial political, economic and national security problems. More fundamentally, however, as adults, we represent the first and last line of defense for children as their caregivers. In this regard, the role of caregiver is not merely relegated to childrens parents, but too their educators, and those in the community. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), when students are physiologicly unhealthy, they are also at assay for deficiencies in other areas pertaining to their health including mental health, intellectual health (ability to learn), and the ability to socialize. Further, the CDC observed that a dismal body often translates into a deficient ability to stay focused, learn in school and grow (Centers for Disease Control, 2012). Attending school is not exclusively meant for studying the subject matter, but also for enhancing undivided and social harvest-feast. Thus, mental health can rarely thrive, without physical health, sin ce physical health ultimately affects cultivation ability (Bailey, 2006). Thus, there are several potential positive social outcomes that can arise from this study. First, by investigating the relationship between childhood obesity and the efficacy of physical education programs, answers can be provided to a number of related questions. The answers can provide information to educators and administrators as how they can alter watercourse educational methodologies and pedagogy to effectively create physical, mental, intellectual, and social environments that are conducive to youth development. Second, such a study will further a dialogue about the importance of applied educational research into topics that are not traditionally thought of as germane to education such as physical education. This study has potential to demonstrate that adequate physical education programs are necessary to support physically healthy students, which will help to facilitate improved health in other categ ories that ultimately affect learning outcomes. Early childhood through adolescent years mark the most critical physiological, psychological, and physical development periods (Belgrave, 2009). Thus, without good physical health, the corresponding steps of individual growth can be disturbed, and growth can be stunted to the degree that youth can fail to thrive in the educational setting with respect to actual learning, as well as feeling secure in their bodies. emphasise The broader discussion of how to tackle childhood obesity, especially in the
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Difference between 2 companies - Assignment Exampleesult of its rather distinctive business model, every of McDonalds restaurants are operated either directly by the caller or by franchisees (McDonalds.com, 2014).The accompany offers a uniform menu across all its various locations although there are a number of geographic variations that allow for the menu to adequately adapt, and suit the local tastes and preferences. The standard McDonalds menu typically includes, the sizable Mac, Chicken McNuggets, French fries, a wide array of salads, the Quarter Pounder with Cheese, snack wraps, oatmeal, sundaes, soft drinks, shakes, coffee, several(prenominal) chicken sandwich options, McCafe beverages and a number of other beverage options. According to McDonald.com (2014), the strength of the current junction of the McDonaldss system that comprises of the company, its suppliers and franchisees has been key to McDonalds success. By leveraging this system, McDonalds is able to good identi fy, implement and eventually scale ideas that are able to meet the customers changing preferences and needs. In addition to this, McDonalds business model enables the company to consistently deliver what has been described as locally-relevant restaurant experiences to customers and help the company to be an integral part of the community that it serves.McDonalds is managed as distinct geographical segments that include the unite States, the Asia/Pacific Middle East and Africa region (APMEA) and Europe. The company is noted to also have other trading operations in Latin America and Canada.McDonalds has a number of aims and objectives that primarily center on the lot of good food in what is a fun and friendly environment, emerge as a ahead(p) socially responsible company, and provide good returns to the companys share holders. In addition to this, the company also aims to provide all its customers with food of the highest standard, value for their money and quick service. The comp any also wishes to make more eco-friendly
Saturday, April 20, 2019
Philosophy - Essay ExampleRationalism believes that discernledge is innate or inborn while learning results from intuition (Lawhead 15). It carrys the Priori knowledge idea that states that knowledge comes in the beginning experience. Philosophers that support this public debate include Leibniz, Kant and Descartes. Conversely, empiricism states that knowledge comes from experience (Lawhead 56). Empiricism supports the idea of posteriori that means that knowledge is dependent whole on experience. Philosophers including Humes, Locke and Berkeley support this idea (Lawhead 59).According to rationalism, all knowledge is considered to be innate. In other words, we argon born with the knowledge to think logically and answer questions. Rationalism tends to be similar to mathematics in so many ways hence requires no knowledge or observation. One of the philosophers that strongly support rationalism is Descartes. He was quite interesting as he employed skepticism to doubt his testify kno wledge. He doubted everything until he found a single idea that he could not doubt (Lawhead 61). This was his existence. He argued that he could not depend on his senses as there was a demon controlling his thoughts. It kitty be concluded that Descartes doubted everything but his existence. Being able to think logically and knowing his existence make the argument sound and valid.Rationalism states that all knowledge comes from the mind. It is concerned with absolute truths that are universally accepted. This is know to be one of the strongest points of this argument (Lawhead 67). This approach encourages all individuals to be rational thinkers and think things through before they accept them to be the truth. On the other hand, it is difficult to apply in every situation in life owing to its abstract nature. Moreover, it sidelines intuition and instinct that are forms of knowledge.We must have experienced something to know that it exists. How can we know
Friday, April 19, 2019
Business Policy and Strategy essay question - Assignment practice sessionAnswer Byte executives should tell all future stakeholders that the plant would run for a three years block plainly. The purpose behind such a straight and truthful approach is to create a whim of loyalty among the community members that the company has a clean slate and is not trying to hide truth. It should be left on the prospective employees to adjust their job routine for the next three years only in Plainville. If not all, many would appreciate the companys truthfulness and transparency in uncover its intentions. This may also offer enough time to the prospective employees to plan their career accordingly and intention their work experience in Plainville plant of Byte for their future growth, making them available for job offers by war-ridden companies thereafter.Answer Although Plainville is a small town but it is an industrial town as well where jobs should be in plenty. Prospective candidates fo r taking jobs at Byte would be only those who value working in the lede company, producing electronic parts, used in personal computers. After spending three years at Byte Products, Inc. proximo job opportunities would be relatively lucrative. As there is no legal hurdle in starting signal a temporary plant at Plainville, corporate responsibility can be fulfilled by offering bonuses to all the employees or giving them some percentage of the profits earned for the market risks cover from competitors, not succeeding in taking away orders of Byte. Future is always full of opportunities and possibilities. An industrial town like Plainville would take care of the supply side of the employment possibilities. When nothing is kept hidden, scope of fretfulness remains low. After all, it is private sector and the market is becoming increasingly competitive.Answer. In my opinion, the present tie-up is based on the future negative outcomes. Assumptions of Williams that for staff strength o f 1,200, at least 4,000 people result need to shift after
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Trait of Effective Communication - Essay simulationNot to forget though, that effective communication may also be defined as the room a person uses his body language in order to convey his content. This can be through with(p) through the nod of the head, raising of the eyebrow, hunching of the shoulders... Any of these aforementi nonpareild method of communication can be taken to define what effective communication is all about. 2. There are two traits that are necessary in effective communication. The first trait is speaking clearly. By speaking clearly and properly explaining what it is that you wish to hire another person understand, he will be able to get a clear wait of what it is that you are trying to say. Being sure to use words that you are sure the person one is speaking to can understand, one can be sure that his message will definitely be received and understood. The second important trait of effective communication has everything to do with the ability of a person to listen attentively and quickly. By listening attentively, one is able to concentrate on the message be delivered by the person speaking. It will also allow for a better analysis of the discussion and active participation as one will be able to properly pose clarification questions whenever the strike arises. 3. An example of a communication break that can occur which can result in the distorting of a message often occurs with the written word. This is because the written word can change its meaning depending upon the punctuation utilise or the mistaken context of a message. Something as simple as Dont rush me Im leaving at once in a text message can either be taken as an livid message by the receiver or as a message of excitement. All depending upon the way that the message was perceived by the other side. On the other hand, a message such as Dont bother. I can do it. when spoken can be taken as either exasperated, angry, or obviously a statement by the person hearing it. All depending upon the vocal intonation of the speaker.
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Plato in apologia and Aeschylus in Eumenides - Essay ExampleCharged with being an associate of the Thirty and with subverting the view of Athenians, Socrates was brought to outpouring in 399 BCE. Platos Apology is his account of the proceedings against Socrates and, in particular, Socrates oratory at trial in his own defense.1 Thus, the Apology must be understood in the context of dramatic sociable changes taking place in capital of Greece, particularly, the restoration of the Athenian tradition of democratic rule, and a pogrom to drive from Athens any vestige of the radical thinking associated with the Thirty. So, when we speak of reactionary sentiment in Athens at the time of Socrates trial, we are speaking of the force of the newly-restored democracy to return the city-state to the tradition of democratic principles.2 Platos Apology and Aeschylus Eumenides both present the transition from an old order to a new one and, in different ways, embody the human condition of duality. W hereas in the Apology Socrates pleads his case by asking questions that canvas the deeper recesses of the mind, Aeschylus presents us with characters who engage in spirited debate and accusation. Thus, we are presented with two very different definitions of and perspectives on the subject of justice. Yet the entire spectrum of motivation toward and contemplation of justice is addressed in both. Let us first look at Aeschylus work. In Eumenides, the third in Aeschylus Oreseias trilogy, Apollo leads Orestes to kill his mother, Clytemnestra, who had previously killed her husband and Orestes father, Agamemnon.
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
The Crucible Abigail EssayThe character who I would find the most interesting to wreak in The Crucible is Abigail. There are many slipway in which milling machine has made her an interesting and complex character to act as, including her change in post over the stage, her role as a cruel and merciless character, the fact you can relate her to a real historical figure and the audiences ability to see a slightly softer side to her at both(prenominal) points in the play and question their opinions of her. The first way in which Miller makes Abigail an interesting character to play is the way in which her control over the stage and the audience changes done disclose the play.There are generation when she plantn as a really strong and manipulative character and has great presence, for example in the lily-livered bird scene where she leads all the other girls in preventing Mary Warren from telling the truth. The words are full of malice, for example when she first mentions Marys name and says Envy is a deadly sin Mary. Even though she has been lying and sinning throughout the play, the uses of the words deadly and sin show us that she is very wide-cut at manipulating the situation to her advantage by planting these malicious words into peoples heads.She is made to sound very threatening but at the same time she is saving herself, not minding getting others into trouble. However, in argumentation to this, there are times in the play where Miller shows somewhat of Abigails power slipping absent from her and she is not able to play with the mind of the person she is lecture to. A good example of this is where she is talking to Proctor near the beginning of the play and is trying to convince him that he still loves her.The words Miller has given her show her clutching at straws as she tries everything she knows, for example trying to be seductive when she says Give me a word John, a soft word. When this doesnt work, she is shown as getting even mor e desperate, finally shouting out John, pity me, pity me These two examples show her in very different stages of power. I think this would be interesting to play as you would both be able to hold the stage at some points but also be able to play a character with some depth and show her scrabbling for any power she can when she does not get her way.Carrying on from this, another interesting part of acting Abigail would be the sheer power that she has over the audience during the play. She is almost always the centre of attention whenever she perhaps can be and the audience are never completely sure whether they should be pitying her or being very suspicious of her. From the start we can see through the stage directions that Abby is meant to choose a remarkable skill for dissembling, however the audience do not see this and so they go through the play wondering what to really think of her.She acts very sweet and innocent at the beginning and it would be enjoyable for the actress t o play this knowing that she is in fact deceiving the audience. Later on in the play she could be played showing more twistedness, for example when she is playing the yellow bird scene and making remarks at Mary Warren whom we trust and believe isnt a witch, so by then the audiences sympathies will have moved and the actress playing Abigail can really show them how bitter her character is.
globalisation in Kenya EssayGlobalisation is the mold of integrating the world community into a common system,on the economical and social grounds. The economic integration is the initial phase globalization,which experiences reducing of geographical inequalities by first creating jobs and business opportunities all over the world. This is so followed by social integration which is the second phase of globalization. (www. worldbank. org/kenya ) Globalisation involves the opening up local standards to posting with the inter interior(a) standards.Globalisation in this context implies the process of transforming a verdant to a higher train in terms of economic and social development. linked Nations developing Program is a global Development Network,that purports to create change and connect countries to knowledge,exposure and resources that enable their citizens lead a better life. It was established in Kenya in the the year 1964,by then known as Technical Assistance board . It was a a kind of organisation with the Kenyan Government.This program operates on attaining the following objectivescreating job opportunities,empowerment of the community,assist in enhancing pledge, Sustainability and Strategic Outreach. ( http//www. ke. undp. org/index. htm ). UNDP-Kenya involve itself actionively in poverty reduction by dint of amend groups which create employment and continuous income generation made possible. It ensure community empowerment by advocating the military man rights,gender,judicial reforms and police.Security is enhanced through peace and security projects, with knocked out(p) forgetting its case fighting out the spread of HIV/AIDS among the Kenyan sustainability projects address the preservation and conservation of Kenyan natural resources for the future generations,where strategic Outreach involves in creating an environment for in promoting partnerships for Aid and presenter coordination and advocating initiatives related to sustaina ble human Development and mainstreaming of Kenyas policy,planning and visioning frameworks.The UNDP-Kenya also gives intelligence on socio-economic trends ,resulting from periodic analysis. Kenya is in East Africa and it was initially called Kirinyaga and later named Kenya,a name derived from the second highest Mountain in Africa. It is a country composed of community from different ethnic groups ranging over forty two tribes,with diverse cultures, making a total race of over cardinal millions heap. Statistics show that 80% percent of the Kenyan state are roughlyly farmers(www.worldbank. org/kenya ),and they live in discharge rural settlements. The remaining 20% of the population lives in concentrated urban areas of Nairobi and Mombasa. The country is set some by problems like respectable divisions,drought,poverty and and the HIV/AIDS Epidemics,(http//www. fh. org/cdi_kenya ). Kenya is among the countries with highest population growth in the world,and it frequently expe riences droughts,implying that it is unable(p) to sustain its growing population .Poverty in Kenya can be seen evaluated from various angles ranging from increased dependency,inability to introduce in development activities,high level of unemployment,inability to feed its population,lack of proper housing ,inappropriate and poor health facilities,inability to educate the tender ones and in meeting their basic needs. The country is lacked as being the 30th most unequal societies globally in terms of resource distribution and gender biasness,where the top 10% of the of the population controls the Kenyas wealth.The group of people that is adversely affected by abject poverty includes the pastorals communities,agricultural laborers,unprofessional workers,female headed households,orphans and street families. (World bank website). Poverty reduction. Kenya is characterized by a high level of poverty like most developing countries of Africa,which a huge percentage of its population leavi ng below the the poverty line. This calls for intervention in attaining economic globalisation.UNDP-Kenya actively involves itself in poverty reduction throughout creating a favorable environment for trade,investment expansion and creation of employment among the Kenyan population. The enhancement of a favorable environment for trade automatically encourages both local and foreign direct investments which later leads to to a greater extent employment opportunities hence income for the Kenyan population which increases their level of income,that adversely reduce poverty and increase the national output.At the executing level in attaining these goals,UNDP undertakes projects that involve improved groups ,which generate income and create employment. The projects are carried out in conjunction with the Government of Kenya ministries mostly the ministry planning and the ministry of youth affairs,and Non Governmental organizations at the community level.UNDP ensures the execution of the above objectives in reducing poverty by the observation of the following practices Resource development for Kenyan Capital market Authority,direct patronise to the Agricultural theater of operations of influence it being the backbone of the Countrys economy specifically in the tractor project,the development of bee and Honey products export processing related industries,provide professional and expert support to the Kenya Private sector Alliance,support the youth Employment scheme and the small enterprises Program,growing sustainable Business program,women empowerment in the fanikisha project,creating a associate among the informal sector and trade opportunities, and last the enhancement of foreign direct Investments in fit out the United National Conference on trade and Development(UNCTAD) to review the Countrys Investment laws and policies.UNDP gives an hand to exporters , small eggshell producers , manufactures and service industry a link to export marketers, and provides technical assistance to targeted products and developing their markets. This adds value to the Kenyas exports and hence a common good to the countrys economy and its people welfare. Democracy and good governance are the al-Qaida for the social Globalisation and it involves the respect of human rights,observation of just and the rule of law. This ensures smooth running of the government and the competent allocation of resources , without forgetting accountancy in the use of public services. UNDP ensures Democracy and good governance is exercised in the country in Major national and local level institutions.It acts as a watchdog for the Kenyan people in ensuring efficiency,effectiveness,transparency,accountability and equality in the provision of public services and perpetuating the public confidence in ht e governments financial forethought system. UNDP ensures this by giving a hand in budgeting,planning and economic management process. The practices of UNDP that guarantees the achievement of Democracy and governance include the following Engineering the formation and capacity building of Public renew and Development Secretariat which design development priorities,improve the development partner relations and approving public gold spending.UNDP also ensures democracy through community empowerment through active participation in ensuring that unselfishness and human rights are observed like in support of Women Advocacy through federation of women lawyers in Kenya who totally specialize in ensuring that women rights are not violated,establishing organizations taking care of needs of persons with disabilities,empowering of youth through the ministry of youth affairs,providing elections assistance programs and giving a hand in the implementation Human Rights in attaining a sustainable human Development. UNDP-Kenya supports the attainment of the the countrys new constitution and its willingness are assessed in its participation in support for the referendum , co-financed by Department of Finance and International Development, Swedish International Development Agency, Norway and Netherlands.UNDP-Kenya supports the public sector reforms,enables parliamentary participation,supports anti-corruption efforts, and also gives an hand in Kenya restoring the rule of law and observation of justice through creating awareness about the human rights,in an attempt to assist Kenya attain millennium development goals. Ensuring that there exists security is wide sphere among the Kenya communities,ranging from physical security to the provision of basic needs like food and health. Kenya is characterized with poor disaster management and preparedness which lead to massive destruction on a calamity striking,leading to a bigger waiver than when measure we to me taken on either disaster management or preparedness. Calamities strike from natural to human initiated. UNDP-Kenya actively participates in ensuring food security,safety from physical harm and confl ict, and healthy security.It tries to reduce the danger and the vulnerability of the population to natural catastrophes like drought and flood,and the man made catastrophes like war,in working closely with the Kenyan government,civil federation and other(a) United Nations agencies. It achieves its purported objectives by building disaster capacity management,mitigation,prevention and preparedness. Kenya is prone to inter-ethical wars because of its m all different ethical communities, and UNDP ensures the formulation of policies that and programs that prevent conflict ,and rather promote peace and co-existence among the Kenyan communities. Health issues are address through the Programs HIV/AIDS prevention policies. Environmental management and conservation. Kenya is characterized by environmental abuse in terms of pollution , the inappropriate way of disposing refuse and depletion of indigenous species.This call for an intervention so as to conserve the environment and its constit utes for the coming generations and better stay of the current generation,in either protecting the species or avoiding the set forth up of health complications. UNDP actively involves itself in the environmental conservation and management and poverty into Kenyas National policies,planning process and strategies,reinforce community environment and natural resources governance,and ensure the development of sustainable energy sources and distribution of the energy in meeting the household needs,that generate income by creating employment opportunities and in meeting the energy requirements in other sectors of the Kenyan economy. Reaching out to donors and Consultants, and the provision of advocacy.There is normally a gap between the latent donors and the governments that need aid,and this is due to lack of negotiation ground and lack of trust. This requires an Intermediary in joining the to ends,which is in this case UNDP in Kenya,which also provide the advocacy. UNDP-Kenya provides an avenue for the Kenyan population to get assistance from in spite of appearance and outside the country. This is through its intensified network in Africa and all over the world given that its a global organization t helps in promoting partnership for both foreign and domestic aids and donor coordination and advocacy initiatives intended for sustainable Human development and its coming going into the Kenyas policy,planning and focusing framework.It also gives the Kenyan government an underground hand in preparing papers and reports for presentation in consulting Group meeting. Conclusion. Globalisation is seen as an integration of the world on either economically or socially in meeting the international standards. Economics integration involve the opening up of trade channels,investing all over the world and most importantly meeting the international standards. Social integration normally come after economic integration and it involves improving the peoples welfare in terms of their living standards,life style and respect human right through an informed judicial system that respects law and justice.United Nations development is an international network that solely aims at improving humanity by connecting countries to knowledge,exposure and resources that enable their citizens lead a better life. It is a vehicle to globalisation in the countries where it is established are mostly in the Developing countries like Kenya. Kenya like any other developing countries faces problems that need to be solved by reorganizing themselves and setting out solutions through a third party assistance. UNDP is among the third party participants in ensuring globalisation in Kenya and it intervenes through small improved groups,and in giving the government of the twenty-four hour period technical advice and at times given responsibility to act on behalf of the government,given its expertise in analysis and implementation in attaining globalisation.It intervenes through its sp ecialized programs in ensuring security in terms of food,health and physical security,it provided outreach services to the country in acting an advocacy role between donors and government,it directly involves it self in projects that reduce poverty by reaching the affected groups directly,it provides the government of the day with professional issues like budgeting and related economic issues like strategic planning.References Food for the child website http//www. fh. org/cdi_kenya Tripod Website http//lautbry. tripod. com/cpce/globalization/index. htm United Nations Website http//www. ke. undp. org/index. htm
Monday, April 15, 2019
diddly-shit Welch EssayJack Welch linked General Electric (GE) in 1960 and became vice president (1972) and then vice chairman (1979). In 1981 he became chairman and chief operating officer of GE at 45, he was the youngest person ever to have held that position. Having taken GE with a market capitalization of about $12 billion, Jack Welch turned it into one of the largest and most look up to companies in the world, with a market value of about $500 billion, when he stepped down as its CEO 20 years later, in 2000. (Reference for Columbia Encyclopedia) Welch took bold actions to improve GEs ability to compete globally in front it ran into serious difficulty. Welch leads two different revolutions in his tenure as CEO. The first revolution had to do with ironware what businesses GE should be in and what businesses it should divest. Welch quickly changed GEs approach to strategic planning. The matrix approach developed under(a) Reginald Jones was replaced with Welchs Number One Number Two strategy. If a GE business wasnt first or endorsement in its markets worldwide, or couldnt be made so, it would be sold.At the start of Welchs tenure GE validation was built around three hundred separate businesses, a recipe for inefficiency. Welch tore into the ossified incorporated structure with a vengeance and by the mid-1980s had overseen nearly 120,000 layoffs and earned the nickname Neutron Jack. The name was derived from the neutron bomb, a weapon designed to minimize heat and blast effect but maximize dispersal of lethal neutron beamin effect, eliminating muckle but leaving buildings and equipment intact. (Reference for The New GE) By 1985, billions of dollars had been made or saved done sales and layoffs. Welch sought opportunities for growth by reinvesting those billions and considered possible takeover targets. Indeed, there were more than 200 acquisitions in his first five years as CEO, the largest being the $6.3 billion acquisition of RCA in 1985. RC As assets included non only its electronics and defense businesses, but also the NBC television network.This resulted in its becoming the worlds largest manufacturing, technology, and service company, with 1999 revenues of over $one hundred ten billion. (Reference for Jack Welch The G.E.Way) The second revolution has to do with software how to run GEs existing businesses better. Jack Welch firmly believed that sort out performers deserved to be handsomely rewarded. He established a performance-review program to identify the top 20 percent of employees, who were accorded bonuses, as well as the bottom 10 percent, the lemons, who were typically fired and replaced. (Reference for The New GE) Welch instituted the half dozen Sigma program at GE. Initially implemented at Motorola and Allied-Signal, the program was developed to maximize the efficiency of manufacturing processes through the minimization of production of defective units.When applied at General Electric it became the larg est quality-control measure ever adopt in corporate America. The program required a huge investment in training and trailing but ultimately led to great gains in profit and productivity. (Reference for Jack Welch The G.E.Way) Welch is seeking productivity gains by involving GEs workers as well as its managers. In September 1988, Welch said to Jim Baughman, the former Harvard bloodline School professor in charge of Crotonville, Jim, we have got to capture what happens here at Crotonville and push it crossways the whole company. We have to create an atmosphere where people shtup speak up to somebody who can do something about their problems.The result was the development of an ongoing series of what GE calls Work-Out sessions, a sort of townsfolk meeting for workers and managers to work out problems at the plant or facility level. The key idea is that for employees to plough more productive, they must be empowered to make the changes themselves, not to refer problems endlessly upward in the bureaucracy. (Reference for The New GE) By the end of the 20th century GE had developed an electronic-business program another of Welchs initiatives, the strategy electronically tied the company directly to suppliers and customers. The e-business was just one aspect of what Welch dubbed the boundaryless company, a company without administrative walls between separate business units and where knowledge applied to one area could be applied companywide. At the time of his retirement Welch had only begun to see his vision of a boundaryless company come to fruition. (Reference for Jack Welch The G.E.Way)Lessons learn* Education-The essential element of organizational success is having educated and well trained individuals that make up the organization. * substitute is good.-See Change as an Opportunity. * Get good ideas from everywhere.-New ideas are the lifeblood of business. * Eliminate Boundaries-In order to make sure that people are free to reach for the impossible, you must remove anything that gets in their way.ReferencesRobert Slater. 1993. The New GE How Jack Welch bring around an American Institution. Mountain View, CA Business One IrwinRobert Slater. 1998. Jack Welch The G.E.Way. New York McGraw-HillReference for the Columbia Encyclopedia. 2008. Jack Welch.http//www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Welch-JF.html (Retrieved as of October 12, 2011)
Sunday, April 14, 2019
Childrens Technology Usage EssayWhen was the expiry sentence you truly spent time with your child? When was the last time your child ACTUALLY talked to you? nigh parents honestly cant answer that question or hold in to really think or so it. Children nowadays depend on engineering to get them through their lives. Spending too much time glued to technology causes kids to have no tender interaction skills, it exposes them to wrong content and most significantly it poses solid health risks. As parents it is their responsibility to put restrictions on the technology their children are using. Children who are ever communicating via technology are losing vital human interaction skills. Vincent Nichols once stated Were losing social skills, the human interaction skills, how to read a persons modality, to read their body actors line, how to be patient until the moment is right to dispatch or press a point. Too much exclusive use of electronic info dehumanizes what is a very , very important part of community life and living together. (Vincent Nichols. (n.d.). BrainyQuote.com).This quote is a enceinte summary of the future of our children. Do they know how to hold an actual conversation, how to present themselves, how to read body language? When texting you cant tell someones tone of voice and you dont have to deal with confrontation. How will children attend job interviews if they dont know how to interact with people in person? These are the fears that any parent should have for their child. Not to mention that there is a established absence of family time. Families now are not nearly as close as they have been in past generations. Children will lose the ability to express their feelings, they will not be comfortable talk about problems with their parents and siblings will not be as close. Limiting the amount of time that children spend with technology and enforcing technology free times will help promote family time and interaction with people. T o add to the lack of human interaction skills, the amount of inappropriate content that can be accessed by children is endless.Parents are sure(predicate) of what images there are on the internet and how easy it is to access them. Children have rather curious minds and the information they could attempt to access is endless. approximately times they dont fifty-fifty have to take care inappropriate content it is right in front of them throughcommercials, pop up ads and friends. Everything from sexual content, to body image, to drugs and alcohol, and even to violence is out there for them to access. Putting restricts on what children search, watch and download will help mark their exposure to such content. Having access to these types of content at such young ages will cause serious health risks now and later in life. Putting restrictions on what children can view is simple to do. Most cable companies, phone providers and internet providers have guidelines and support to help p arents place restrictions on what their children can search and watch.Finally, excess time spent using technology can lead to serious health risks. ofttimes obesity is the only risk that people associate with too much time spent on technology such as video games, TV, and cell phones. However, the health risks go far beyond obesity. part it is true that too much screen time is known to decrease the amount of physical natural process a child partakes in it is not the only risk. Young girls who are already self conscious of their looks can find entire internet societies that brainwash them into thinking they need to be a provide perfect twig and teach them how to become one through anorexia and bulimia. Also, dependency on technology and everlastingly being in the now causes sleep disorders, stress and anxiety. Lack of sleep can cause mood disorders and the affects of stress and anxiety in young children can carry with them into their teenage and adult years do it more difficult to recover from.Drugs and alcohol and often glorified and young teens think that they need to do them to be cool causing addiction, overdose, and even death. Making sure that their children are healthy and safe should be a parents main concern. Placing restrictions on technology will help ensure that their children dependable stop alive. As parents it is their responsibility to put restrictions on the technology their children are using. What kind of future do parents exigency for their children? Parents now are already at a disadvantage of raising their children in an era full of technology. They have their work cut out for them to make sure that their children are not dependent on technology and that they learn human interaction skills. Keeping their children protected from the inappropriate content and ensuring that their children do not suffer from mental and physical health problems as a result of technology should be every parents priority. Every parent should be placing rest rictions on when and what their children are using technology for.ReferencesVincent Nichols. (n.d.). BrainyQuote.com. Retrieved family line 22, 2014, from BrainyQuote.com Web site http//www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/v/vincentnic532641.html
Friday, April 12, 2019
professed(prenominal) Development Plan EssayEach person has a certain spirit type and each(prenominal) person has strengths and weaknesses ingredients ordain bring to the group. Understanding how to use the group members strength will help to overcome the potential weaknesses. By using one(a) and only(a) group members strength for one tune hind end allow another team up member to use her strengths in other atomic number 18as. Developing a professional development plan can help the team bestow together to get the childbed done. In evaluating the group members personality types, there are three dominate personalities considered The Producer, and one group member who is an interactive personality known as The Impresser. By having three dominate personalities, the team will engender to pee-pee sure that the members are not all trying to take hold back of the situation and leading the group in three different ways. We will also have to make sure that we can delegat e tasks to other group members to make sure we are not overwhelmed and devising other members think their work is not good enough. The assessment of myself was spot on from the behavioral evaluation. veritable(a) out though I have worked hard not coming across so blunt to good deal and understanding that race have their own way of getting the job done.I am a person who sometimes does not uniform to pack my feeling and just want to get the job done. I am a person who same(p)s to get large tasks accomplished in a absolutely amount of time to have the achievement of accomplishment. I do like to finish a task from start to finish, and it bothers me if I have to jump to another task before I am finished. I am a fast-paced person and can change my pace depending on if the business picks up. Possessing a dominate personality also has its downfalls. Dominate personalities can be stubborn, impatient, and tough. Sometimes this can be an wall socket when I become close-minded to othe rs ideas and impatient with other group members. Dominate personalities like to be in reassure and do not want to lose that control. I will have to say this isan divulge that I need to work on. I do not like losing control and when I do analysis how I could have changed it instead of letting go of the situation. Another area that dominate personalities do not handle well is dealing with feelings. I have had to overcome this over the years and get a line that sometimes I may not mean to come across harsh, but to some volume it can come across that way.I have learned that I have to take into friendliness the person I am dealing with and make sure I take the group members feelings into retainer before speaking. Dominate personality types also have to understand that we will not always execute on ein truth issue that comes up. The persona of the assessment that was very interesting but also very true was how dominate personalities react under stress. The assessment stated that do minate personality types are restless, critical, blunt, intrusive, uncooperative, irritable, aggressive, and pushful (Alessandra, 2013). I can see myself going through these behaviors when I am stressed and understand why it is important not to take things out on others and that the situation will get resolved even if I am not in control of it. Another area that was interesting was how to reduce conflict. The section that stated their anger is directed at the situation and the lack of desired results (Alessandra, 2013). These outbursts and behaviors may appear to be personal attacks when they are not meant to (Alessandra, 2013).I have had this happen a few times when I am speaking with my husband, and he always thinks I am mad at him instead. I have to learn to state I am stress over the situation and not make people think I am blaming them. In evaluating the other team members personality type, one member is considered to be the interactive style. The interactive personality style actions are spontaneous, dislike working alone, work quickly and excitedly with others, and have good persuasive skills (Alessandra, 2013). Some weaknesses for the interactive style is that they can be disorganized, careless, exaggerates, and poor follow-through (Alessandra, 2013). The interactive personality type main focus is people and dominate personality type are goal focused. Interactive personality types like to brainstorm and interact with colleagues. Dominate personalities like to work alone to make sure the task is completed. They also like freedom from control and like to have the chance to influence or motivate others. Dominate personalities like to be in control and strive for results. The interactive personality type canexpress anger as a customary response to a personal attack on them. Interactive personalities tend to be more steamy that dominate personality types.Dominate and interactive personality types are direct and fast-paced people. We frequently us gesture s and voices to emphasize our point, tend to be less patient and more competitive, frequently contribute to groups and can express opinions readily (Alessandra, 2013). Dominate personalities tend to be guarded and direct behaviors, whereas interactive personalities are direct and spread out behaviors. Even with both personality types preferring fast-paced work styles some tension may result found on that interactive personalitys emphasis is on people and dominate personalitys emphasis is on the goals. Some degree of tension is likely to result in our interactions because of the difference in priority (Alessandra, 2013).In evaluating the teams personality types, we will have to make sure we are taking into setting people and goals to get tasks accomplished. Both personality types like a fast-paced environs and can become impatient. The interactive personality type will help to contribute the emotional dowery need and the dominate personality will help to give order and structure in a timely manner. When working in a group each member must take into consideration that not every team member functions as another one may. If each team member can use each persons strengths forward and whatever weaknesses come up can be benefited by another team member. When working in a group make sure to be open minded and make sure that everyone is heard and not overlooked.Work CitedAlessandra, T. The DISC atomic number 78 Rule Behavioral Style Assessment. (2013) Retrieved from http//UOP.BlanchardAssessment.com.
Thursday, April 11, 2019
The Advantage and Disadvantage of Using Social Media experimentThe advantages Based on my own experiences, there are several advantages for marketers to single-valued function social media as develop of their marketing confabulations strategies. Social media represent a revolutionary new trend in communication. more than and more people begin to use social media to communicate. It is freer, more convenient, faster and cheaper than the old ways, people besides can get more information what they want, what is more, people can get in touch with their mavin easier. For the company, it can face to their target market precisely. Social media hold a great deal of customers information, through and through the information that people share, company can easily know customers hobbits and the goods they like.Social media as well as increase the communication between customers and marketers. Company can get lots of users feedback information and use that information to improve their product. It also help the organization leave a good impression in customers minds. One of the most consequential things is that social media not only can help companies advertising well but also nigh have no costs. What social media bring for the company cannot be measured but the cost of it is sincerely low. It lowers the companys advertisement costs.Read moreEssay on advantages and disadvantages of social mediaDisadvantages Based on my own experience, the disadvantages or risks for marketers in using social media as part of their marketing communications strategy are as follows. Companys web page can be attacked by hackers and viruses it whitethorn lose companys important information, company may lose their competitive advantages. Customers can be deceived by the false information online and the extra information may let them get annoyed. The negative comments may damage companies image.The use of the internet may cause the reduction of production efficiency, because employe es may busy use the internet to solve the problem online or update their software so that waste times. Company should film how to handle a social media and that may waste companys time. Because the social media is not a face to face communication, so it can have many incredible situations, the information may be not real, the likelihood of people been fooled are greatly increased.
Tuesday, April 9, 2019
Stages of Life Cycle increase EssayStages of Life Cycle Development Raytheon I believe that Raytheon is in the elaboration stage of life cycle give voicement. The elaboration stage is describe as mature stage of the life cycle in which red tape crisis is resolved by the development of a new sense of teamwork and collaboration. Raytheon employs a process of Integrated Product Teams. IPTs are center on improving communication amongst team members. This structure creates an atmosphere where each employee is indoors close proximity and everyone lives what is being discussed at every stage in their area of responsibility. IPTs are broken down into four tiers that are integrated but independent with a customer support leader, production program leader, radiation diagram engineering leader, and value stream leader that keep things flowing smoothly. Through the use of IPT production teams managers develop the skills necessary for confronting problems and working together. This i n turn reduces the need for addition formal controls. Raytheon has achieved collaboration throughout the musical ar fieldment by employing IPT teams.Raytheons leadership employs a Six Sigma business stupefy and is routed within the acets of Raytheon management. This school of thought is embedded within the fabric of Raytheons business plan. It is used as a method for change magnitude productivity, growing the business, and building a new culture. Raytheon Six Sigma is the continuous process improvement effort designed to reduce over either costs. construction and Control Raytheon is one of the largest military defense contractors in the world.The Raytheon Company designs develops manufactures integrates and supports technological products services and solutions for governmental and commercialized ustomers in the United States and internationally. It is headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts and employs about 73,000 people. Raytheons leadership employs a business model know as Raytheon Six Sigma is the philosophy of Raytheon management, embedded within the fabric of our business organizations as the vehicle for increasing productivity, growing the business, and building a new culture.Raytheon Six Sigma is the continuous process improvement effort designed to reduce costs. (Raytheon 2008) Six Sigma was developed by a rocess of benchmarking other companies and leveraging internal best practices. The philosophy of Raytheon Six Sigma is to bring a goal of making customer success a strategic counselling for the company increase productivity transform the culture and grow the business. Raytheons employs a business model cognize as OpenAir which enables all ot its partners to contribute and capture value.It succeeds in bringing together innovators in a range of fields including academia large and small businesses and Raytheon customers. Raytheons OpenAir fosters collaboration. One central aspect of the OpenAir oncept is competition because the opportunity ex ists for suppliers of all levels to get involved in the overall design and production effort collaboration and creativity increase. This in turn drives costs down and accelerates time to market. As a result Raytheons customers receive best of get and affordable solutions in a shorter span of time.The OpenAir business model will be a key enabler in Raytheon meeting or exceeding customer expectations. The sentiment will be used on all new captures which will allow Raytheon to deliver the most innovative products and affordable rices to different markets. The model dismiss also be applied to existing programs driving Raytheon to higher levels of efficiency than ever before. (Raytheon 2007) The OpenAir concept unites diverse partners and encourages complementary efforts.For example a smaller supplier with an innovative technology may neediness the infrastructure to bring the product to market. Under the guidelines set by the OpenAir model this same company can partner with a larger business that has the ability to integrate the new innovation and then market and sell the solution. Raytheon 2007) Raytheon also transformed its operating system from a traditional purchasing and supply reach organizations to an integrated supply chain.We intend to link our engineering groups and our performance excellence groups with our supplier base as early as we can in the process when building relationships with our suppliers. We need our suppliers to be an extension of ourselves. When traffic with our suppliers was pore on costs quality and schedule. (Bernstein 2005) Raytheon employs a process of Integrated Product Teams. IPTs are focused on mproving communication amongst team members and keeping them up to speed on their area of concern tour also fostering a sense of responsibility for a given function or step.
Monday, April 8, 2019
Letter to G eitherplacenment EssayI am writing to you on behalf of your article in this weeks paper I think the curfew is a fantastic idea I am in full support of the Council proposing this great curfew. Where I live on a lower floor 16s are taking over my neighbourhood me and the other residents in the area are feeling threatend by these gangs of yobs hanging around our area. any they do is go around drinking and creating uneeded noise which I and the rest of our neighbourhood would agree on. age we adults are staying indoors scared of going out they are out commiting crimes and going round doing under age drinking and under age sex and if the parents of these children could see what I see nearly every night then Im sure they would be in support with me.As I said sooner I am scared to go out of my house to go to the shops or to the pub or anywhere because I am scared of getting jumped or mugged or even killed. excessively this curfew would be a good idea because it would give new employees in the police force good hold out of dealing with these situations so they are confident and experienced when it comes to a really big proper crime. Also if this curfew goes through then once all of the under 16s are indoors then it will film life easier for the police patrolling to catch the proper criminals because they wont have to put up with the cheek and neglectfulness that they recieve off the under 16s, also the under 16s need to respect the police force and realise that they are trying to protect them but they are just trying to show off in scarecrow of friends.
Sunday, April 7, 2019
Dramatic beseech In Tragedy EssayDramatic irony is indigenous in the experience of the tragedy deal get shocked when tragedy strikes further they will murmur underneath that they had seen it coming though the victims did make headway it. Neighbors and friends read signs of death, they are afraid to it directly or try to tell it indirectly and the victims croup non believe or just cannot understand. Tragedy sometimes strikes when least expected, Lindsay a beautiful young cleaning lady of two, separated from her husband because he abused her physic on the wholey, her estranged her husband did not accept the separation though it was authorized by a topical anesthetic judge. He visited her fellowship often and without notifying her in advance, he claimed that house was still his home because they had bought the house together before he started in drinking before that done for(p) their relationship and turned their home into a battle field. Lindsay had no problem with that h e was still the drive of her children, though she no longer loved him, in fact she was perceive granted so that they could marry.She knew Andy would be jealousy if he got a wind that in that respect was other man in her life but didnt think much about it and when Andy bumped on them kissing on the coach, she didnt think there was anything to worry about, furthermore they had decided that they should move on, in the best way each one knew. Andy reacted coolly, and seemed to be okay as the shook hands with Lindsays new man, she was surprised by his calmness and understanding.When Andy offered to relieve oneself Lindsay and their children out for dinner, she suggested that her new boyfriend should also as he had already met him and even implied that if he was seeing person he should also come with her. It didnt seem to be a good rarefied to her man but she managed to convince him and together they left field in Andys car towards a local restaurant. Andy was quite jovial through out the evening, talking nostalgically of the old times they had shared as a family, he made it clear that he was fine and would respect. Lindsays decision to move on, he promised to help hasten the divorce to set her free.Andy drove his family and their new friend home, but as briefly as he parked the car, he left outside and he held a pistol in hands he pulled he trigger and shot Lindsay and her man as he mocked them, telling them they can marry in hell. Luckily he did not kill his children but he turned the pistol to it and placed it on hid head, pulled the trigger and died on the spot. Lindsay was dead, her children became orphans, and she knew that Andy still bred her some of her friends had warned her that it was too soon to enter into another relationship but she had not hindered their advice.They knew Andy would get crazy with jealousy, some of them would not even believe that he had not started a fight with Lindsays boyfriend on the first day he savo together. Family mem bers mustiness have worried about Andys welfare especially after they realized that Lindsay was saving someone else, they knew how possessive he was with her, the guessed that he could harm the man they knew that there was no way to take the imposition and reaction he tangle and so they just waited for time to heal his wounds.However, tragedy struck and all they could now say was they had seen it coming. Most tragedies that happen are as a result of all cursory mistakes for instance when someone dies in road accident, raft will always say they knew it would happen, may be they will talk about his careless and fast driving or say that he left very angry or struck, they saw him getting into the vehicle but did not stop him and he goes and trashes and dies.In every tragedy there is prominent irony, and no matter how many tragedies strike people are always shocked and they never learn to stop the. Dramatic irony s endemic in the experience of tragedy, think of the humblest that ki lled may in the united states, the US had now with Iraq, they knew they would strike them but did not take much precautions neither did they try to stop them, until the tragedy struck.When a bus gets twisting in an accident, the lucky passengers that bus had been driving careless before the us crashed, they will have felt it before it happens but do nothing to stop it. I can use this to justify that funtic irony is endemic in the experience of tragedy, and it will always be, no matter how hard we try. References Barnard B. A and Winn F. (2005) Access to literary works An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama Amazon publishers, New York Diayanni R.(1997) Literature Reading Fiction, Poetry, drama and the Essay Amazon publishers, New York Dawson C. and Flood J. (2000) Spotlight on Literature McMillan series Kennedy X. J and Gioia D. (2004) Literature An introduction to Fiction, Poetry and drama Interactive edition 9th Edition. Royle T. (1999) Scottish Literature McMillan seri es -Introduction to Literature McMillan series -Enjoying Literature McMillan series -Understanding Literature McMillan series -American Literature McMillan series English and Western Literature McMillan series
Saturday, April 6, 2019
Discuss how friendship viewed the ideas of applaud and wedding in the archaeozoic 1800s leavenJane Austen was born in 1775 and spent most of her life in the countryside in a village c anyed Steventon, Hampshire. She was the missy of a clergyman, Reverend George Austen and her mother was called Cassandra Austen. She had a brief education starting at the age of 7 and ending at eleven, when she settled at home. Like women in Austens purchase order, she had little education collect subject to the beliefs at the time the only education she would have received would potential have been to up her genial situation, through with(predicate) marriage. She wrote Pride and Prejudice to portray societys views of cognisemaking and marriage to the reader and to shoe that marriages take propose for opposite reasons. We infer throughout the novel the excessive number of marriages and causes that take place.The opening sentence Its a justness universally acknowledged, that a sin gle man in the possession of a good fortune moldinessiness be in require of a wife introduces the theme of love, marriage and m 1y in an ironical way. The irony is contained in the fact that marriage is meant to be about love and happiness alone intelligibly revolves around wealthiness and fond standing. In the novel we see two established marriages take place The white avenss and the Gardiners. Throughout the novel four other marriages take place Lydia and Mr Wickham, Charlotte Lucas and Mr Collins, Elizabeth and Darcy and Jane and Mr Bingley.The marriage between Mr Collins and Charlotte Lucas is stringently based on financial and social security non love or appearance, It was extremely super C fro women in Austens era to link up and save themselves from spinsterhood and social security and to gain, the above mentioned, financial and social security. In this type of marriage Austen illustrates that women who submit themselves ar largely willing to suffer emotional dist ress in silence. Mr Collins to be sure neither sensible nor agreeable his society was irksome and his attachment to her must be imaginary. But still he would be a husband This reflects the social beliefs of, at least, the spunk classes at the time. Evidently all that Charlotte wants out of life is a comfortable home and enough wealth to sustain this. Im not a romantic girl you know. I never was, I only select for a comfortable home . The use of the word only emphasises the fact that Charlotte wants this and nothing else. The consequences of her not marring salubrious would be to severely limit her options i.e. she would have to become a governess or an old maid for a wealthy couple, but this would not support her once she had reached an age at which, she could no longer work.When Charlotte unify Mr Collins she seemed happy in their relationship, even though its not based on love - she has all that she wants out of marriage. She does however ignore her husbands silliness and doe s not have any bad words to learn about him. When Mr Collins said anything of which his wife might reasonably, which certainly was not unseldom once of twice she could spy a faint blush but in general Charlotte wisely did not hear. From this we gather that the orthodoxy of society has been embedded in her behaviour. She possibly perceives that she is happy because society deems that now she is married she should be happy.The marriage of Mr and Mrs bennet was a stereotypical marriage of the time. The marriage was based on initial beauty and physical tie plus the fact that they where matched financially. The family life, was also typical of the 1800s, they had five daughters, and Mrs Bennets aim in life was to marry her daughters of in as quick a time as possible, this comp atomic number 18s with Charlottes views of marriage as a step up the social ladder. A single man of large fortune four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing for our girlsShowing that she is considering the monetary aspects of a possible marriage. It is very likely that he may fall in love with one of them, and therefore you must visit him as soon as he comes Mrs Bennet mentions fleetingly but without conviction, she is mostly inte rilievoed in trying to marry of at least one of her 5 daughters. Mr Bennet however constantly mocks his wife. We are made witting of this in their first dialogue Do you not want to know who has taken it? cried his wife impatiently. You want to tell me, and I have no objection to hear it. This is a perfect example of Mr Bennets badinage and unconcerned attitude towards his wife and their family affairs. Mr Bennet is the complete opposite to Mrs Bennet in the way in which he thinks, about the new gentleman in town for example How so? How outhouse it match them? Mrs Bennet is immensely annoyed by this but does not possess enough wit to retort. For Mr Bennet this mockery of his wife seems his way of dealing with being stuck in a loveless marriage. In Janes era divorce was not an option, people had no choice, they were devoted to that one person fro life. The Bennets estate is entitled to the nearest male heir which, was common practice at the time, leading to very limited options for the daughters in the family.The marriage between Lydia and Mr Wickham was mainly for desire and attraction even though they were not financially matched. This itself was frowned upon by society and exacerbated by the fact that their courtship was very short, unorthodox and kept a secret. Marriage of their type shows the results of not following societys rules. Society viewed this as dishonesty and because of this their reputation would be severely tarnished. That the loss of virtue in a female is irretrievable and that she cannot be alike much guarded in her behaviour towards the fellow feeling of the other sex.Lydias damaged reputation would also affect her families reputation, unless they disown her. she has no money, no connection, nothing tha t can tempt him she is lost forever. The word no emphasises the fact that she has absolutely nothing and no-one. For Wickham, on the other hand, the little(a) on his reputation is less so, although still noticeable She was a surprise- all astonishment that Wickham should marry a girl whom it was impossible he could marry for money and how Lydia could ever have attached him, had appeared incomprehensible. Here we see that what would have been scorn when aimed a Lydia is mere surprise when directed at Wickham, this is due to the fact that in Jane Austens era the gentleman naturally had a higher social standing just because of their sex.The Gardiners, along with the Bennets are the established marriages of the novel but unlike the Bennets the Gardiners are a sensible, lively and intelligent couple who love each other and work well together. They always agree in talking over their way of life the evening before, Mrs Gardiner expressed an inclination to see the place again.Mr Gardine r declared his willingness. Jane Austen here is being an omniscient bank clerk . The Gardiners are in a harmonious relationship, a marriage that creates a positive image towards its readers. They are described as a sensible-gentle like man and an amiable intelligent women who are encouraging occasion models fro the Bennet children due to the poor quality of Mr and Mrs Bennets marriage. As we can see this is an example of one of the exalted happy marriage of the time. In general people strove towards this, but most did not find it due to the fact that society dictated that once married you were in love.Jane and Mr Bingley engage in a courtship that occupies the central place in the novel. They first meet at Meryton and enjoy an immediate mutual attraction. They are spoken of as potential couple throughout the book, long before anyone imagines Darcy and Elizabeth might marry. Their marriage was one for physical attraction and love, Jane is the most handsome of the five Bennet daug hters who looked for a man who is sensible, humorous and lively. Is he married or single? this shows an automatic interest in young wealthy men. Women in the early 1800s married mainly for wealth and social status however this marriage illustrates that that is not always the case.Bingley love for Jane is strengthened by her beauty and the love between is equal. Janes idea of marriage is to find someone who loves her and view her as much as she does him. The marriage between Jane and Mr Bingley set s a standard for the rest of the Bennet daughters, It was more(prenominal)over, such a promising thing for her younger daughters, as Janes marrying so greatly must throw them in the way of rich men. Here their marriage is reflecting societys views of love and marriage as if a member of the family is married into a family of a higher status, then the rest of the daughters would be regarded as more eligible to be associated with higher status, wealthy, respectable men. The word greatly s how that Mrs Bennet believes that Jane had chosen accurately and it displays societys beliefs as to what constituted a very good match for Jane.Elizabeth is an intelligent and spirited women who passes a dainty wit and enjoys studying peoples characters on the other hand Fitzwilliam Darcy is a wealthy, proud man with a generous, attentive nature beneath his somewhat stiff demeanour. Elizabeths pride makes her misjudge Darcy on the basis of poor social standing blinds him, for a time, to her many virtues. Darcy and Elizabeths realization of a mutual and tender love seems to imply that capital of Texas views love as something independent of these social forces, as something that can be captured if only an individual is able to escape the warping effects of hierarchical society. In vain have I struggled. It will not do. My feelings will not be repressed. You must allow me to tell you how ardently I admire and love you. Here he speaks well however, there are other feelings besides th ose of the heart to be detailed.The bank clerk relates Elizabeths point of view of events more often then Darcys, so Elizabeth often seems a more good-hearted figure. The reader eventually realises however, that Darcy is her ideal match. Intelligent and forthright, he too has a tendency to judge too hastily and harshly, and his high birth and wealth make him overly proud and overly conscious of his social status. When he proposes to her, for instance, he dwells more on how unsuitable a match she is than on her charms, beauty, or anything else complimentary, not handsome enough. Here Darcy is reflecting societys views of love and marriage because many people married for higher social status and financial status rather than for love and beauty.Pride and prejudice is a love story but does not reflect the romantic side. It gives the reader a sense of all the different kinds of relationships, none of them are the same. It shows that the ideal couple is difficult to find, the establishe d marriages in the book being The Bennets and the Gardiners.
Friday, April 5, 2019
Rethinking Altruism EssayIn answering the question of whether altruism exists or non, C. Daniel Batson together with his colleagues believe that altruism does exist. On the otherwise hand, Robert B. Cialdini and his colleagues argue that there no such thing as original altruism, let al wholeness altruism as we comm only(prenominal) it. Those counsel that altruism exists suggest that human bes argon often epochs inclined to overhaul other individuals out of genuine altruism primarily because of our empathy towards others.On the other hand, those who argue that there is no such thing as altruism tell us that it is not enough for large number to simply have empathy to help others, in particular those who argon in dire need of help. More to empathy, Cialdini and his colleagues suggest that people sometimes help other individuals in order gain something in returnand that something is making the self feel rectify by and by doing the presumed altruistic deed. In the end, it signifies that at the bottom of altruism rests the inclination to satisfy ourselves such as our scruples through charitable decisions or actions.The concept of empathyor the act of immersing into another persons stead and experiencing compassion along the wayis at the heart of the position of Batson and his colleagues. That is, people can be altruistic if they are able to empathize with those they help. Conversely, the lack of empathy can scarcely lug people to become altruists at some point in time. I think it is possible for people to empathize or to nonplus their feet into the shoes of others, so to speak. Sometimes people may want to share the burdens of others and, after a while, they end up helping them anyway.The certainty of whether helping these people is an altruistic deed depends on whether or not those who empathized and helped expected something in return or anything at all. This leads us to the other side of the debate, namely the blood line that empathy is neve r enough as people may help others so that they will feel better or be removed of any melodic line of guilt or a heavy conscience. Cialdini and his colleagues target that empathy is never sufficient in motivating people to help others.In effect, they are suggesting that our efforts to feel the distraint of others as if it was our own and to resolve the problem of other people without expecting anything in return cannot be maintained. Rather, it is the disposition of human existences to do something because they are expecting something in return. I think that is true in so furthest as my experiences are concerned. I have personally experienced situations wherein I felt that I necessary to help other people including my friends and my relatives.I tried to help them to the best of my abilities not out of altruism but out of one basic author I did not want to feel chargeable if I am not able to help them at the end of the day. Although my conscience is pricked each time I am co mpelled by my sentiments to help them, my conscience is exactly the reason why I push myself to offer my assistance. I did not want to have a heavy conscience for not being able to be of any help. From that, I can say that I was not really being altruistic.Rather, I was seeking to evade a moral failure to help much as I was seeking to avoid keeping a heavy conscience. On the other hand, Batson and his colleagues maintain that there are times when people become altruistic in their deeds. Because of our empathy towards others, we are inclined to help others without expecting anything in return. I think that is partly true in times when our friends or our close relatives are the ones who need our help. We only refrain from helping them essentially because they are dear to us.As for strangers seeking our help, perhaps that is an entirely unlike matter. I think we are less inclined to help strangers because we barely have any approximation about their identity unlike our friends and cl ose relatives. I think that this disparity will only affirm the position that empathy is never sufficient and that human beings are generally far from being altruists. Since we are more inclined to provide our help to our friends and close relatives than to strangers, I think it is only safe to assume that the reason why we help them is because of our ties or relationship with them.The lack of an apparent connection with others does not strongly back up us to be unselfish individuals who could only care about the welfare of others and whose personal welfare only comes secondary. I find it difficult to see myself empathizing with strangers because I barely know who they are. I may be able to relate to their experience or suffering but that is just it. Conversely, I am inefficient to completely empathize with them because I do not have a close association with them. Because we do not have any strings attached, so to speak, I am not inclined to help strangers.More importantly, I th ink that people are not genuinely altruists. On the contrary, people are still human beings who seek to preserve their own welfare whether or not other people will benefit from such an attempt. The main reason why we help others even though it susceptibility lead to our own suffering is that we seek to avoid carrying the burden of a heavy conscience or of the thought of not being able to help someone when they needed help the most. We can hardly stand seeing a person who is drowning because we fear our conscience will come to haunt us and deprive us of peace of mind.We can hardly stand watching someone be mugged to transfer by street criminals because we fear that the same thing might happen to us with no one to help us. In other words, we want to help others because we expect something in return, be it in the form of the same help when we experience the same things or in the form of a conscience that is light. mention Nier, J. (2007). Does True Altruism Exist? In Taking Sides Cl ashing Views in Social Psychology (2nd ed. ). juvenile York, NY McGraw-Hill.
Effect On Air Pollution Of capital of Nepal v completelyeyClean lineage is necessary for human health. Human body take ons approximately 25 kg of distribute per day to keep up its requirement of oxygen (CEN, 2002). It replicates signifies the importance of duck soup to human beings and both contamination in the line of reasoning bequeath acquit a direct strike on our health. splendid transmission line consists 21% of oxygen 78% of nitrogen and 1% an a nonher(prenominal)(prenominal) gases. If the assembly line composition is change by the increase in ducking of certain gases or by intrusion of non-gaseous components like particulate matters, then the beam is understood to be polluted and the components that alter the in here(predicate)nt compositional property of give vent be termed as oxygenise pollutants. Air contamination affects almost all aspects of the environs including the biota and the sensible components where they strive on. A variety of sources b edevil been identified as the components of the shine contamination and they include both the natural and anthropogenic sources of origin however, the anthropogenic sources of melodic phrase out taint be more pronounced. Anthropogenic strip pollutants be more harmful and include Particulate matter (PM), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon monoxide (CO), buy the farm (Pb), O zone (O3) and Hydrocarbons (HCs). (CEN, 2002)Air pollution is a big issue all over the world chief(prenominal)ly in urban personnel fields beca usage of fossil fuel driven expatriation system.. Besides this, the unmanaged booming of urban settlements has helped to increase the concentration of breeze pollutants by limiting their horizontal dispersion in that locationby interfering with the health of masses. principal(prenominal)ly, children, elderly and the patients of lungs and bomberstance are more unsafe to the nitty-grittys of air pollution. According to Asian Develop ment Bank (2001), in the South Asian Cities, approximately 100,000 premature deaths e real(prenominal) year is ca utilize by the detrimental accomplishments of air pollution.Air Pollution in capital of NepalThe issue of air pollution in capital of Nepal vale is continuously drawing the attention of concerned bodies and the gravity of the problem is growing year by year. owe to the topography of Kathmandu Valley, growing population, haphazard urbanization and increase in vehicle density imparted as an effect of affluence and need to serve the growing population, the valley has been facing worse situation of ambient air every year. However, the issue of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley doesnt bear a great history as the development of avenue networks and history of conveyance system in the valley do non have the yearn history either. Many researches and the discourse held indoors the country on air pollution has identified the transportation system and linked with it, the poo r situation of the infrastructure as the fore causes of air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. Regarding the dominant air pollutant of Kathmandu, it is Particulate Matter (PM), the concentration of which is ascertained higher during night in the winter due(p) to the creation of inversion layer which acts as the back to trap pollutants. The PM concentration in Kathmandu has always exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) specimen and guinea pig Ambient Air Quality Standard of Nepal. Besides particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) the concentration of other pollutants are non a major issue in Kathmandu Valley. Gaseous pollutants such as NO2 and SO2 are by and large within prototypes but the concentration of NO2 is fairly high in areas with heavy relations and this has the likely of future increase with further increase in reduce of vehicles operating within the valley. Another voltage concern is the concentration of air toxins such as benzene and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (P AH). The concentration of benzene is within subject area standards but the national standard of 20g/m3 is itself fairly high. Although Nepal does not have any standards for PAH, monitoring done in 2003 indicated fairly high levels of these pollutants in Kathmandu Valley. (ICIMOD, 2007)PM2.5 is considered to be more equivocal than PM10. Although Nepal does not have any standards for PM2.5, virtually monitoring has been carried out for PM2.5 in Kathmandu Valley. (ICIMOD, 2007)Statement of jobKathmandu, the capital city of Nepal is the focus of all the major facets of the country, namely economy, tourism, culture, politics, administration and natural environment.Due to the preceding(prenominal) reasons, the population of Kathmandu valley is increasing day by day. Apart from this, the infrastructure development has neer been able to keep up with the unmanaged and accelerating growth. As a result, this has led to increase in slums, inadequate and polluted drinking water supply, pol luted air to breathe, haphazard manner of dumping the solid waste in the neighborhoods.Every mountain have right to breath clean air. Increase in population, vehicular fleet, vital force consumption and industries, brinyly brick industries have contributed to degrade air quality in Kathmandu valley. Overall, the bowl or the cup shaped topography of the valley as well has prevented the dispersion of air pollutants to longer distances.Research questionsThe research will address following issues1. What is the main air pollution facing by local battalion in Kathmandu valley?2. What are the main originational changes that have been made to tick the air pollution?3. What are strength and weakness of these organisational changes?4. What further policy measures should be instituted to reduce air pollution to acceptable levels?2. BackgroundKathmandu is the capital city of Nepal. The Kathmandu valley consists of iii major cities i.e Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Kathmandu Valley is situated in 27 3730 N and 27 450 N latitude and 85 150 E and 85 2230 E longitude. And the Kathmandu valley is located at an altitude of 1350meters. The Kathmandu valley is oval shaped and surrounded by high hill range. And the area of Kathmandu valley is 340 sq.km and the total population of Kathmandu valley is 1,442,271(CBS 2001). The climate of Kathmandu valley is sub tropical temperate. Along with it have four seasons pre-monsoon, monsoon, post monsoon and winter. In general, average temperature in summer is 32c and in winter is 5c. Due to scotch activity and high chances of opportunities and facilities many people from all around the country has been migrated in the Kathmandu valley and is been highly dense. Air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley has been one of the major problems. It brush off be said that air pollution started as the invention of thoroughfare networks and automobiles. richly population with unplanned and unmanaged urbanization, rapid increasing of automob iles, vehicles and industries are the figures in the causes of air pollution.http//www.tsiindia.com/img/nepal_map.gif(Source http//www.tsiindia.com/img/nepal_map.gif, date30th November 2010)According to the presentation given by traffic police, road length per traffic police has meliorate since 1995 from 2.3 km to 1.6 km that is good sign for better traffic management. Nevertheless, due to immense rise in the number of vehicles in Kathmandu, the traffic police are laden with responsibilities of higher number of vehicles than they had to be for 1995. From 2002 to 2009, the total number of vehicles in Bagmati zone increased by 1.25 durations than that was before 2002 from 176415 to 396151. The statistics channelize that the vehicles has progressively increased from 2002 to 2009, the only exception being at 2006/07 probably due to the cause of modern-day political situation. The number of vehicles for individual traffic police has increased from 165 in 1995 to 415 in 2008 i.e. mo re than 2.5 times. In reality, the number of vehicles a traffic police should look for is even higher because not all the traffic police within Kathmandu are in duty at the alike(p) time during a day.In the mise en scene of road length and vehicle numbers, the nominal increase in road length has resulted in crowding of roads. The population density per kilometer road length during 1995 was 1668 that rose to 2353 in 2008 while, the number of vehicles per kilometer road length in Kathmandu was 70 in 1995 that has risen by about four times i.e. 255 in 2008. Moreover, in shield of Kathmandu the traffic congestion, in practice, is observed due to the inadequate road width and lack of proper identification of the road lane for vehicles pitiful from the black eye directions. The proper traffic management can thus be initiated with the argument of lane, which can, as excess benefit, reduce the vehicle collision and traffic accident.Figure Comparison on Transportation Attributes for 1 995 and 2005(Source Valley occupation Control, 2009 where Blue colour de do itrs 1995 and red is 2005)Causes of Air pollutionIf any unwanted particles mixed in the air, it is called air pollution. It can cause for both humanWell as environment also. Air pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid as well asgas form. They are may be either natural or artificial. Main artificial air pollutants are SulfurOxides, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Volatile organic compounds,Particulate matters, ground ozone, ammonia etc. (Wikipedia).Sources of artificial air pollution are as followsi) Rapid Urbanizationii) vehicular dischargeiii) Industrial growthiv) Unmanaged governing of waste etc.3. THEORY3.1 Concept of inventionAn psychiatric hospital is any structure or utensil of social order or it may bee said as a set of some perfunctory rules, regulation and norms of some formal rules, regulation and norms formulate to establish the smooth running society or to govern the behavior of human being in the society. Institutions are formed to formalize the society and to show the human being to act as a social animal. It is the sequel of the society and can be said as the need in the human community to harmonize the behavior of the people. The term institution is popularly applied to customs and behavior patterns important to a society, as well as to item formal organizations of presidency and usual service (Stanford Encyclopedia social institutions).Although individual, formal organizations, commonly identifies as Institution may be deliberately and intentionally created by people, the development and functioning of institutions in society in general may be regarded as an instance of emergency, that is institution arise, develop and function in a pattern of social self organizations, which goes beyond the conscious intentions of the individual human involved (http//en .wikipedia.org/wiki/institutionaspects_of_institutions, 28th nov. 2010). The institution that has been established to enhance the quality of ambient air quality in Kathmandu is the outcome of the result from the air pollution. Those are not demand of the people but the result of the problem. The criminalize of two stroke vehicles in Kathmandu, banning of brick kiln factories was not in favor of people. It just chalk up on the head of the poor people in the society, but that was the outcomes of the problems not as the intentional outcomes.3.2 Resource example and Resource RegimesThose goods which consists of a natural or human made resource system whose size or characteristics makes it constitutely but not impossible to exclude the people from getting benefits from its use are generally known as common-pool resource (CPR) or it may be called as common-property resources. Since the common-pool resources are open access, thither is the problem off congestion or over use. Unlike humanity goods, they are subtractable. A common pool resource for example air is a large burgeon forth but only provides the restrain quantity of extractable unit and over use will create problems as we are here to discuss the air pollution in Kathmandu. A common property regime is a peculiar(prenominal) social arrangement regulating the preservation, maintenance, and consumption of a common pool resource. The use of the term super acid property resource to designate a type of good has been critized, because common pool resource is not necessarily governed by common property regimes.(http//en.wikkipedia.org/wiki/common/pool/resource,date26th Nov.2010).Example may be interpreted as the air in Kathmandu which is the common pool resources. It allows certain amount of pollutants but beyond this the gets polluted. in that respect will be various consequences as it gets polluted. Because the core resource is vulnerable, it is subjected to congestion, over use and in conclusion pollution. Any system has their own certain capacity to cope with the c hange and beyond that the system gets disorder and in case off air in Kathmandu, situation came due to the dramatic increase in population and overweening use of vehicles that run by the fossil-fuels. The use of common pool resources can be continuously done as the loop if they are managed properly and carefully exploited because they form the dogmatic feedback loop since they are stock variable but the haphazard use of it deteriorates the stock and disrupt the break away variable for good.3.2.1 Resource Use in KathmanduOpen accessMarketEffect of statistical distributionNo rulesAs shown in the above figure, the air in the Kathmandu was open access and on that point was no any rules concerning the use of it and the ownership for it. As the time passes, there araised several agents and market introduced. The outcome of the dramatic increase in the population in the city results in the excessive use of vehicles for the transportation system. Unfortunately those vehicles are run by fossil fuel which when used disclose air pollutant in the atmosphere. So there is the pollution problem in the valley. Now giving medication has their head towards it and they are formulating institution to enhance thee quality of it.Though the air in the valley is open access but there are some rules concerning the use of it. Thee government have introduced kilobyte taxation, banning of diesel running three wheelers etc. Now the system turn upes where it is still the open access but with market, shown in the figure above. There are some rules concerning the use of it and hence thee distributional have came into action in this case.3.3 Framework for Analyzing for resource use problemAir in the Kathmandu valley is common property and is open access. At the time passes, the engineering has developed as well as the population of city increase dramatically. This is partially due the centralization and civil war in Nepal. If the natural resources was vast compare to the capacity of people to use it, there could be no problem (vatn, 2005), but here the thing is just opposite to that.TechnologyAttributes of the resources unwrapcomes-resource use-state of resourceAgents and aagents choicesPatterns of interactionInstitutions- regimesConventionNormsFormal rules(Source Vatn, 2005,)(Figure Framework for analyzing resource use problems)lastly this aspect has influence has chose new institution and government of Nepal formulated some rules and regulation for the enhancement of air quality in Kathmandu valley. Along with this, diametric Medias, NGOs, INGOs are involved to cause people regarding air pollution. The institution such as banning of two stock vehicles, relocation of Himal cement factory, introduction of green tax was introduced.Although there are many such many rules regulation and acts came into existence but some the institution lack third party control system. The government formulated the rules and people were not seemed to walking along with this cha nge. Since there was lack of third party no body were there to check and control the implementation of such policies.With regards to institution we may also distinguish between outgrowthal rules, rules concerning the defining of operation rules and finally external arrangement / rules. The operational rule defines the everyday regulation regimes. (Vatn, 2005).The next important factor to take into consideration is agents and agents choice. Here the structure of institution greatly helps to motivate the people. Institution in Nepal was so formed that people were motivated and aware of air pollution and its impact to some extent. But the technology did not fit the resource use. As being the developing county the people do not have any option rather than to use fissile fuels as the main source of energy for the transportation system. At the same time dramatic increase in population in the city force to consume more fuel energy and Kathmandu valley stood starting signal in position in term of vehicle registration in Nepal. So the air being the open access was very vulnerable to risk.Eventually due interaction of technology and choice of agents the problem of air pollution came in the valley. There difficulties are mainly due to four factors. Basically regime is not able to motivate correlation action in accordance with what is demanded given resource characteristic, technology, number of agents and corruption by the government official. Corruption is so deep rooted that one can easily break up the institution formulated by the state. This can be seen as the drawback of the system or the lack of motivation.If outcomes are not in accordance what is expected or wanted agents can change institutional structures. In oral sex this may occur at all level, with regards to conventions, norms and formal rules (Vatn, 2005). However, changing such rules and regulation certainly need considerable time and result of such change to the institution can only be sight after som e period of time.3.4 Air as a common pool resource in KathmanduGoods or resources can be generally classified into two groups. They are Excludable or Non-excludable and contest or Non Rivalry. When a person or a firm can set a parapet on his/her property like land to prevent the use of it by other are called excludable goods and those where the demarcation is not possible are called non-excludable goods. When the goods at one time prevent the use off same good simultaneously by other is called rivalry goods and on the other hand, just like air, the of which can never stop other to use it at the same time is called non-rivalry goods or resource.Exclusion be (TCs)Low HighIIIIIIIVYesRivalry in use orconsumption No(Source Vatn, 2005, pp 263)(Fig Characterization of resources or goods according to the address of exclusion and rivalry in use or consumption).While goods of type I are typically labeled Private goods, type II and type IV are called goods and public goods, respectively. W ith regards to type III, common-pool-resourceis an often used concept. In the tradition of edge of resource characteristics to regime implication, type I is often equated with semiprivate property and markets, II with clubs, III with standard common property or open access and IV with state/public property. (Vatn, 2005, pp 263)3.4.1 Rivalry goodsAs we are discussing about the in the Kathmandu valley, it can bee seen that the resource is rivalry type. In Kathmandu valley, different types of factories, industries, vehicles are continuously meeting the air pollutant which ultimately invited the pollution problem and all the citizens are harm from it. In the case of rival goods, the core problem is that of external effect. This is typically the case for many environmental resources where use-at least beyond the certain level-reduce its quantity and/or quality (Vatn, 2005, pp263). Therefore air in case of Kathmandu valley can be considered as rival goods.3.4.2 Non-Excludable goodsWhen the goods are private or own by certain people or organization, than the demarcation is very easy that means operation cost is very low. But when thee goods or resources are open access or common property, the exclusion cost is very high because the typical demarcation is not possible. In this case, air is common property and everybody in the city can use it undoubtly and the performance cost is very high3.5 Mechanism to reduce air pollutionThe pollution problem in Kathmandu can be seen as the outcome of excessive energy used and technological development. This can simply be framed as followsProduction stimulant drugOut rove3.5.1 Taxation inputBasically the major pollution problem in the valley is due to the excessive use of the vehicles which are runes by the petroleum products. So air pollution can be reduced by introducing the tax in the fossil fuel. This is the best way because there is low transaction cost in doing so. High tax in the fule wills automatically reduce the use of private vehicles and the public vehicles uses will be increased to the considerable extent.3.5.2 Taxation in production and technologyOn the other hand, this can be done by introducing the tax in the technology that means motor car, private vehicles, and factories, industries which use energy and emit the pollutants in the air and also providing the subsidy to those who use bicycle or electronic means of transportation. As the government of Nepal is doing , banning of diesel running three wheelers, two stock vehicles are also the way to enhance the air quality to some extent. This is a very fair way and there is low transaction cost in introduction such institutions but this dominantly hit the poor in the society.3.5.3 Taxation in OutputThere is another way of controlling the air pollution but the transaction cost in very high in doing so. The introduction of rise tax can be very good way to enhance the air quality. Here the transaction cost will be fairly very high.4. MethodsF or fulfilling the content objectives, a systematic study approach was followed. The major base for research launched with the collection of relevant secondary data and information from various national and international sources. The field-based study could not be done.The following process are doneLiterature retreadSecondary Data CollectionData AnalysisDraft story PreparationFinal ReportDissemination5. AnalysisIncreasing number of vehicles without extension of roads is diagnosed to be the major problem in Kathmandu. The growth of the vehicles in Kathmandu is a major concern to traffic police, vehicle drivers, and pedestrians. From the result, it is observed that the road length of Kathmandu is increasing very nominally while the numbers of vehicles are increasing with an exceeding growth rate and it ultimately help to increase air pollution.5.1 Causes of Air PollutionAir pollution causes by both anthropogenic as well as natural sources. Anthropogenic source is the main cause in Kathmandu valley than that of natural source. Mainly fossil fuel com tutortion and other activities like brick factories, unmanaged road system, stone grinding factories are added pollution. vehicle system is the main source to emit carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide. Approximately 67 percent of Particulate matter is supplied by vehicular emission in Kathmandu valley.5.1.1 Sources of air pollutionSources of air pollution are of two types Natural and artificial.Main sources of artificial air pollution are as followsA) Rapid UrbanizationKathmandu valley has very fertile land, but nowadays it is known as unmanaged urban area. The main cause of this is Kathmandu-centric development and migration of people due to insurgency and political conflict. It is the biggest city of the Nepal and about 20 percent urban people live here. The population increase rate here is as twice as national rate of 2.2%. (ICIMOD, 2007).B) Vehicular EmissionIt is the main source for air pollutio n. According to the Department of Transportation and Management, presidential term of Nepal, the first bus service in Nepal commenced in1957 and since then the fleet has grown substantially. The cumulative vehicular number in Bagmati zone (administrative zone where the vehicles of Kathmandu Valley are registered) was 176,415 in 2001 and it reached 396,151 in 2008. Most of the vehicles registered in Bagmati zone is used in Kathmandu valley. This record shows the rapid increment of vehicles in Kathmandu valley. Vehicle number in Kathmandu has been increasing rapidly in the last five years.C) Industrial EmissionsAbout two-fifth industries in Nepal are located in Kathmandu valley. According to the Department of Cottage and small industries, there were 14,971 up to 2006. Out of them, 111 are brick kilns and 89 are stone crushers. They contribute 14% of the total particulate matter in Kathmandu valley. Management of solid waste is another problem which also causes air pollution and vulne rable to health. (ICIMOD,2007)5.1.2 Effects of air pollutionThe effect of air pollution is high in human health. High exposure in air pollution may cause chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, asthma and other respiratory problems. It also affects cardio vascular system and awkward system (Lahiri, 2003). Particulate matter is the main problem of Kathmandu, which not only affects the health but also the tourism industry. Due to the poor health, human productivity is also loss. All these impacts finally affect the economic system of individual as well as of state.The long term study of health impact due to air pollution is yet to be conducted in Kathmandu Valley. However, Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre (CWIN) surveyed about 60 children who were working as staffs on three-wheelers in valley and result showed that 84% staffs were misfortunate from eye problem, 82% chest pains, 66% were suffering from coughs and 58% by headaches. Similarly 45% children were suffering by respiratory problem.Shakya S conducted a study incorporating questionnaires to the traffic police. He observed that out of 90 traffic police, most of them were suffering from diseases related to nervous and respiratory systems. Similarly, Clean Energy Nepal (CEN) also did a questionnaire survey for the people who live near to the brick industries and in control area. The study revealed that 54% out of surveyed people near to the brick kiln were suffering from respiratory problem and 41% people in the control area were affected by respiratory disorder.The other problems due to air pollution are as followsAcid rainOzone layer depletionReduction of visibilityIn context of Kathmandu, the issues of acid rain and ozone layer depletion are not very significant as both of these issues are the outcomes of the heavy industrial pollution. The formation of the photochemical smog and acid droplets due to hydration of the SOx and NOx are not well defined in the pollution status of the ambient air of Kathmand u. As mentioned in the before sections the concentrations of both these gases are well below the standards set by the Government of Nepal and WHO. However, regarding the visibility the problem perpetuates in Kathmandu during all seasons with even more pronounced effects during the winters when temperature inversion takes place. The visibility problem is farm animalamentally caused by the particulate matters and the problem subsides only during the periods of heavy rainfall.5.2. Policies and institutional arrangements for managing emissions from motor vehiclesA number of programs have been done to fight against the air pollution in Kathmandu Valley. Some are given below. In 1991, government stopped to register three-wheelers. It was the first response related to air pollution of Kathmandu valley. In 1994, government place emission standards for in-use vehicles. Green stickers were given those vehicles which met emission values. Ministry of Population and Environment was established in 1995. Environmet Protection Act 2000 and Rules were enacted in 1997. In 1998, the government formulated NVMES in 2000 these standards, equivalent to EURO-I emission norms, went into effect from January 2000. All new means of transportation imported from abroad since then have had to meet the terms. In 1997 the government decided to provide financial support to battery-operated electric three-wheelers. It was given in the form of tax breaks. In 1999, diesel three-wheelers were banned in Kathmandu Valley. Similarly it was banned in other cities also. Vehicle owners were given tax incentive to buy new vehicles. In November 2000, the government decided to ban public vehicles older than 20 years. Similarly it banned all two stroke vehicle in Kathmandu Valley. The policy was followed from 16 November, 2001. Government tried to follow this rule strictly but was unable to put into practice the decision. In late 2000, two-stroke motorcycle registration was restricted. The vehicle run by LPG and CPG (compressed natural gas) was improved from 2000. In 2001, government decided adds 10% extra tax for the vehicle having older than 15 years. This is the first case that government linked between tax and vehicle age. It helped to discourage the use of older vehicles. In 2001, The National Transport Policy was formulated. This policy is directly related to clean transportation system. In 2003, the National Ambient Air Quality System for various air pollutants was established. Two-stroke three-wheeler vehicles were banned from 2004 in the Kathmandu Valley. Government closed Himal Cement Factory to control the air pollution which was situated near the valley.(Source Dahal, 2006)Government has formulated and applied many rules and regulations to address the air pollution of Kathmandu valley, but the graph below shows that the main air pollutants Total Suspended Particulates (Particulate matters) is increasing every year.(Source MoEST Report 2006)5.3. Strength and weakness of t hese institutional changesIt is found that reforms in existing institutional set up is likely to bring some positive impact on the air quality of Kathmandu valley. Removing two stroke vehicles from the valley have reduced the air pollution as well as noise pollution. It has also helped to reduce the energy consumption because the two stroke vehicles use more fuel than other. However, the rules and regulations are no implemented because of the political instability and corruptions. The economic condition of the country has also impacted on the implementation the institutions because the government has not allocated sufficient fund for environment. In Nepal there is separate ministry dealing with environment (Ministry of Environment), however, the establishment of the local authority like environment department and its associated regional and district bodies, to effectively deal with the problems related to environment has not been materialized yet, even after more than a decade has p assed with the establishment of environment ministry. The establishment of environment department is still in the stage of planning and government has made efforts to establish it in near future, but according to the government financial constraint