Monday, September 30, 2019
An Analysis of LambÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream Children Or Charles Lamb as a Romanticist Charles Lamb was a famous English prose-writer and the best representative of the new form of English literature early in the nineteenth century. He did not adhere to the old rules and classic models but made the informal essay a pliable vehicle for expressing the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s own personality, thus bringing into English literature the personal or familiar essay. The style of Lamb is gentle, old-fashioned and irresistibly attractive, for which there is no better illustration than Dream Children: A Reverie. From the analysis of this essay we can find LambÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristic way of expression. Dream Children records the pathetic joys in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s unfortunate domestic life. We can see in this essay, primarily, a supreme expression of the increasing loneliness of his life. He constructed all that preliminary tableau of paternal pleasure in order to bring home to us in the most poignant way his feeling of the solitude of his existence, his sense of all that he had missed and lost in the world. The key meaning of the story shows the beauty that resides in sadness. There are remarkable writing techniques to achieve such an effect. Through the stylistic approach to Dream Children, we can see that Charles Lamb is a romanticist, seeking a free expression of his own personality and weaving romance into daily life. Without a trace of vanity of self-assertion, Lamb begins with himself, with some purely personal mood or experience, and from this he leads the reader to see life and literature as he saw it. It is this wonderful combination of personal and universal interests, together with LambÃ¢â¬â¢s rare old style, which make the essay remarkable. 1 Lexical Feature 1. Old-fashioned but elegant diction Lamb prefers to use archaic words in order to reach a certain distance between the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s real life and his whimsies, such as: (1) and how in her youth she was esteemed the best dancer (esteemed here means admired, respected) (2) here Alice's little right foot played an involuntary movement, till, upon my looking grave, it desisted (desisted here means topped doing) (3) and how the nectarines and peaches hung upon the walls, without my ever offering to pluck them (pluck, also a poetic word, here means pick) (4) he had meditated dividing with her, and both seemed willing to relinquish them for the present as irrelevant (meditated here means thought, and relinquish means give up) 2. Repetition of the word here When regarding for beautiful things and fine actions, Lamb does not f orget to show to the readers the pictures of the childrenÃ¢â¬âreal children until the moment when they fade away. He repeats the word here altogether eight times, to portray the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s response. For example: (5) Here Alice put out one of her dear mother's looks (6) Here John smiled, as much as to say, Ã¢â¬Å"that would be foolish indeed. Ã¢â¬ With this repeating word, we can see these children almost as clearly and as tenderly as Lamb saw them. If we take the essayÃ¢â¬â¢s main purpose into account, we will find the more real they seem, the more touching is the revelation of the fact that they do not exist, and never have existed. Sentence Feature 2. 1 Loose structure and post-modification Generally speaking, the tone of this essay is relaxed and comfortable, which can be attributed to LambÃ¢â¬â¢s use of loose structure and post-modification. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s study the sentence below: (7) Children love to listen to stories about their elders, when they were children; to stretch their imagination to the conception of a traditionary great-uncle, or grandame, whom they never saw. If ap plied to daily communication, the former part of this sentence seems tediously long. However, here it gives us a sense of comfort and enjoyment, for in the essay it causes our sympathy with the author of the fondness of innocent children. Therefore, we do not feel weary. 2. 2 Cohesion Sentences in Dream Children are long, sometimes containing more than eighty words in one. The author makes them cohesive with the help of coordination, conjunctions, as well as some adverbs. For instance: (8) Then I went on to say, how religious and how good their great-grandmother Field was, how beloved and respected by everybody (Adverb then and the coordination howÃ¢â¬ ¦howÃ¢â¬ ¦howÃ¢â¬ ¦ here function as cohesive devices. (9) but still she lived in it in a manner as if it had been her own, and kept up the dignity of the great house in a sort while she lived, which afterwards came to decay, and was nearly pulled down, and all its old ornaments stripped and carried away to the owner's other house, where they were set up, and looked as awkward as if some one were to carry away the o ld tombs they had seen lately at the Abbey, and stick them up in Lady C. Ã¢â¬Ës tawdry gilt drawing-room. (Conjunction and here functions as a cohesive device. 3 Article Feature 3. 1 Narration enlivened by depiction of the children. As is illustrated in sentence (5) and (6), the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s narration of the great-grandmother and his brother is enlivened by a certain depiction concerning the children. Incidentally, while preparing his ultimate solemn effect, Lamb has inspired us with a new, intensified vision of the wistful beauty of childrenÃ¢â¬âtheir imitativeness, their facile and generous emotions, their anxiety to be correct, their ingenuous haste to escape from grief into joy. This vision gives us an impression that they seem real, thus makes the revelation in the end touching and pathetic. 3. 2 Unexpected ending Dream Children begins quite simply, in a calm, narrative manner, representing Lamb as sitting by his fireside on a winter night telling stories to his own dear children, and delighting in their society, until he suddenly comes to his old, solitary, bachelor self, and finds that they were but dream-children. In the end of the essay, we read: (10) that I became in doubt which of them stood there before me, or whose that bright hair was; and while I stood gazing, both the children gradually grew fainter to my view, receding, and still receding till nothing at last but two mournful features were seen in the uttermost distance, which, without speech, strangely impressed upon me the effects of speech; Ã¢â¬Å"We are not of Alice, nor of thee, nor are we children at all. The children of Alice called Bartrum father. We are nothing, less than nothing, and dreams. We are only what might have been, and must wait upon the tedious shores of Lethe millions of ages before we have existence, and a name. Ã¢â¬ Reflecting upon the essay, we will surely be obsessed by the beauty of old houses and gardens and aged virtuous characters, the beauty of children, the beauty of companionships, the softening beauty of dreams in an arm-chairÃ¢â¬âall these are brought together and mingled with the grief and regret which were the origin of the mood. 4 Rhetorical devices Lamb introduces some rhetorical devices to make his essay vivid and profound, such as: (11) and how the nectarines and peaches hung upon the walls, without my ever offering to pluck them, because they were forbidden fruit, unless now and then (metaphor) (12) till I could almost fancy myself ripening too along with the oranges and the limes in that grateful warmth (empathy) LambÃ¢â¬â¢s use of Humor and Pathos in Dream Children/ Pathetic beauty presented by Lamb From 1820 through 1825 he contributed a series of essays to theÃ London MagazineÃ which were immensely popular. Though he wrote under the pseudonym Elia, these essays, like his letters, are intimate revelations of Lamb's own thoughts, emotions, and experiences of literature and life. He touches on few disturbing subjects. He prefers instead to look to the past for a sense of calm, stability, and changelessness. Yet beneath the wit, humor, and humanity of such essays as Ã¢â¬Å"A Dissertation upon Roast Pig,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Witches and Other Night-Fears,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Dream Children,Ã¢â¬ one finds a gentleÃ nostalgiaÃ andÃ melancholy. This bitter-sweetÃ tone remains theÃ hallmarkÃ of Lamb's style. Bunyan once said Ã¢â¬Å"Some things are of that nature as to make OneÃ¢â¬â¢s fancy chuckle while his heart doth acheÃ¢â¬ . The nature of things mostly appeared to Lamb in that way. Lamb does not frolic out of lightness of heart, but to escape from gloom that might otherwise crush. He laughed to save himself from weeping. In fact, LambÃ¢â¬â¢s personal life was of disappointments and frustrations. But instead of complaining, he looked at the tragedies of life, its miseries and worries as a humorist. Thus his essays become an admixture of beauty and pain as well as humour and pathos. Examples of his keen sense of humour and pathetic touches are scattered in all of his essays. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s focus our discussion on Dream Children: A Reverie. In LambÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ writingÃ wit, humour and fun are interwoven and it is humour which is most notable for its extreme sensitiveness to the true proportion of things. Lamb often brings out the two sides of a fact and causes laughter at our own previous misconceptions. Therefore it borders on the painful realization. Thus his humour is very nearly allied to pathos. They are different facets of the same gem. In his essay Dream Children: A Reverie Lamb talks of personal sorrows and joys. He gives expressions to his unfulfilled longings and desires. He readily enters into the world of fantasy and pops up stories in front of his dream children. He relates his childhood days, of Mrs. Field, his grandmother and John Lamb, his brother. He describes how fun he had at the great house and orchard in Norfolk. Of his relations he gives us full and living pictures Ã¢â¬â his brother John is James Elia of My Relations, but here is John L-, so handsome and spirited youth, and a Ã¢â¬ËkingÃ¢â¬â¢. John was brave, handsome and won admiration from everybody CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ grandmother Mrs. Field is the other living picture. She was a good natured and religions Ã¢â¬â minded lady of respectable personality. NarratorÃ¢â¬â¢s sweet heart Alice Winterton is the other shadowed reality. The dream children, Alice and John are mere bubbles of fancy. Thus LambÃ¢â¬â¢s nostalgic memory transportsÃ us back to those good old days of great grandmother Field. But even in those romantic nostalgia the hard realities of life does not miss our eyes. Death, separation and suffering inject us deep-rooted pathos in our heart. Whereas Mrs. Field died of cancer, John Lamb died in early age. Ann Simmons has been a tale of unrequited love story of Charles Lamb. Notably the children are millions of ages distant of oblivion and Charles is not a married man but aÃ bachelorÃ having a reverie. In his actual life Lamb courted Ann Simmons but could not marry her, he wanted to have children but could not ha ve any. Thus he strikes a very pathetic note towards the end of his essay when he puts the following word into the mouths of his imaginary children, Ã¢â¬Å"we are not of Alice, nor of thee, nor are we children at all Ã¢â¬ ¦ We are nothing, less than nothing, dreams. We are only what might have beenÃ¢â¬ . Alice is here no other that Ann Simmons the girl Lamb wanted to marry, but failed to marry her. In fact, the subtitle of the essay Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËA ReverieÃ¢â¬â¢ which literally means a daydream or a fantasy Ã¢â¬â prepares us for the pathos of the return to reality although the essay begins on a deceptively realistic note. Although Dream Children begins on a cheerful note, the dark side of life soon forces itself upon LambÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and the comic attitude gives way to melancholy at the end of the essay. Throughout the essay Lamb presents his children in such a way that we never guess that they are merely figments of his imagination Ã¢â¬â their movements, their reactions, their expressions are all realistic. It is only at the end of the essay that we realize that the entire episode with his children is a daydream. We are awakening by a painful realization of the facts. LambÃ¢â¬â¢s humour was no surface play. In fact, LambÃ¢â¬â¢s humour and pathos take different shapes in different essays. Sometimes it is due to his own unfulfilled desires, sometimes it is due to the ill-fortunes of his relatives and friends and on some other occasions it is due to his frustration in love etc. If his Ã¢â¬ËPoor RelationsÃ¢â¬â¢ begins humorously of a male and female poor relation, he later gives us a few pathetic examples of poor relations who had to suffer on account of poverty. Again in his Ã¢â¬ËThe Praise of Chimney SweepersÃ¢â¬â¢ Lamb sways between humour and pathos while describing the chimney sweepers. Similarly the essay Ã¢â¬ËDream ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢Ã is a beautiful projection of LambÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and desire to have a wife and children of his own. It is humorous that in his dream he is married and has two children of his own while he had a disheartening frustration in love. Thus Lamb has painted both the lights and shades of life in full circle. His is the criticism of life in pathos and humours Why is the essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Dream ChildrenÃ¢â¬ ? Ans: Charles Lamb entitled the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Dream ChildrenÃ¢â¬ because he never married and naturally never became the father of any children. The children he speaks of in the essay were actually the creations of his imagination or fancy. 2. Who was Field? How does Lamb present her before his dream children? Ans: Field, pseudonym for the actual person, was LambÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother. Lamb presents her as an ideal grandmother in an imaginary and inflated way before his Ã¢â¬Å"dream childrenÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âshe was extremely pious, fearless and compassionate person besides being the best dancer of the area in her youth. 3. Why is the essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"A ReverieÃ¢â¬ ? Ans: The essay is subtitled as a Ã¢â¬ËreverieÃ¢â¬â¢ because LambÃ never married and so he never had children. In the essay he created an imaginary picture of a happy conjugal lifeÃ¢â¬âa picture which finally dissolves into nothing as he comes back to reality. 4. How does Lamb present his brother John LÃ¢â¬â? Ans: LambÃ¢â¬â¢s elder brother, John LÃ¢â¬âin his youth was a handsome, high-spirited, strong and fearless person. He loved Lamb very much. But subsequently in his old age he became lame-footed and spent the rest of his life in utter hopelessness, irritation and pain. . Whom does Lamb refer to as Ã¢â¬Å"faithful BridgetÃ¢â¬ by side? Ans: Lamb had a sister, Mary Lamb, who did not marry since she had attacks of insanity. She has been referred to here as Ã¢â¬Å"faithful BridgetÃ¢â¬ because she never married and was LambÃ¢â¬â¢s only companion in his life. At the sudden breakdown of his reverie, he finds her s eated by his side. 6. What, according to you, is the most striking feature of the essay and why? Ans: The chief characteristic feature of the essay is the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s mingling of pathos and humour. Lamb begins the essay in somewhat deceptive fashion, describing the incidents, full of humour. But gradually he reduces the tone towards the end describing the tragedies of his personal life. 7. How does Lamb present the autobiographical elements in the essay? Or, Why is the essay called a personal essay? Or, What type of essay is Dream Children? Ans: Dream Children is a personal essay. Lamb presents the characters and incidents from his own lifeÃ¢â¬âthe sketches of his grandmother, Field, his brotherÃ¢â¬âJohn Lamb, his sisterÃ¢â¬âMary Lamb, his tragic love-affairs with Ann Simmons. But Lamb is always playing with facts and fictions and transforms the real into the literary. 8. How does Lamb show his knowledge of child psychology? Ans: It is surprising that without ever having children Lamb had acute sense of how children react to the happenings in the world of the adults. By deceptively referring to the meticulous reactions of his dream children, he succeeds in catching the reader immediately. The aesthetic impact of the essay becomes more effective for this reason. 9. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ till the old marble heads would seem to be live againÃ¢â¬ ¦ o be turned into marble with themÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âWhere does the expression occur? Explain the context. Ans: Lamb told his Ã¢â¬Å"dream childrenÃ¢â¬ that in his boyhood he would enjoy rambling in and around the great country house in Norfolk. He would gaze at the twelve marble busts of Caesars in such an intensely meditative way that it seemed to him after some time that those were coming back to life again, or that he w ould be himself transformed into marble with them. 10. Where does the expression Ã¢â¬Å"busy-idle diversionÃ¢â¬ occur? What does the author mean by this? Ans: Lamb told his Ã¢â¬Å"dream childrenÃ¢â¬ that in his boyhood he would enjoy rambling in and around the great country house in Norfolk more than the sweet fruits of the orchard. He would remain busy with this though he had no work to do. 11. Ã¢â¬Å"When he died though he had not beenÃ¢â¬ ¦ died great while agoÃ¢â¬ . Who is referred to as Ã¢â¬ËheÃ¢â¬â¢? Why is he spoken of? Ans: Lamb loved his brother John LÃ¢â¬â very much. But very shortly after his death it seemed to him that death had created such an immeasurable vacuum in his life that it made impossible for him to comprehend the significance of the difference between life and death. 2. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ such a distance there is betwixt life and deathÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âExplain the significance of the line in light of the context. Ans: the immediate absence of his brother John Lamb created by his death forced Lamb to feel the gulf the difference between life and death. He understood that death created a permanent absence a s the dead cannot be restored to life. Again, death is unknowable and Lamb was forced to reflect on his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s absence in this way. 13. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the soul of first Alice looked out at her eyes with such reality of re-presentment that I came in doubtÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âWho was Alice? What does the word Ã¢â¬Ëre-presentmentÃ¢â¬â¢ mean here? Ans: In the course of his day-dreaming when Lamb looked at his dream-daughter, her physical resemblance reminded him of his dream-girl Alice WÃ¢â¬ân, a fictitious name for Ann Simmons who did reciprocate his love. 14. Ã¢â¬Å"But John LÃ¢â¬â(or James Elia) was gone foreverÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âWho was James Elia? Why does the author say this? Ans: At the end of his day-dreaming Lamb coming back to reality finds his sister (Bridget) Mary Lamb by his side; but he realises and remembers that his brother James Elia or John Lamb had died and would no more be with them. So he laments his loss thus. 5. Ã¢â¬Å"Here Alice put out one of her dear motherÃ¢â¬â¢s looks, too tender to be called upbraidingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âWhat does the word Ã¢â¬ËbraidingÃ¢â¬â¢ mean here? What makes Alice react thus? Ans: While describing the great country house in Norfolk, lamb tells his Ã¢â¬Å"dream childrenÃ¢â¬ that the chimney piece of the great ha ll was decorated by the curving of the story of Robin Redbreasts. At the informationÃ that a foolish person pulled it down, AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s countenance changed, which suggested that it should not have been done. The word Ã¢â¬ËbraidingÃ¢â¬â¢ here means castigation or censure. 16. How does Lamb record AliceÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions to his story-telling? Ans: While listening to LambÃ¢â¬â¢s personal tale, Alice reacts firs by spreading her hands when Lamb says how good, religious and graceful person Field had been. Alice reacts to it either in great astonishment or putting up some pious gesture. She also cries out When Lamb talks about his elder brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s pain and death. 17. How does Lamb record JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions to his story-telling? Ans: At the information of the great house being stripped off its ornaments John smiled, which suggested the foolishness of the work. He was trying to look brave and impress upon his father that he would not have been afraid of the ghosts like his father. At the end of the story, when Lamb was talking of his elder brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s pain and death, John, like Alice, began to cry. Exercises 1. Give a pen-picture of Field. 2. How would you comment on the style of the essay? 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ We are only what might have been, and must wait upon the tedious shores of Lethe millions of ages before we have existence and a name. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âExplain the context. Or, What is the significance of the river Lethe here? Or, Why are the shores of Lethe called Ã¢â¬ËtediousÃ¢â¬â¢ Or, Why should the Ã¢â¬ËdreamÃ¢â¬â¢ children wait for million years for their existence and name?
Sunday, September 29, 2019
1. Cite at least three objectives of the 1992 EDCOM, 1998 PESS and 1998 PCER. The three innovations to the Philippine education system had these common objectives: * To introduce curricular reform curricular reforms in the school organization * To investigate the modes of delivery, policy structures, and pedagogical philosophies and recommend enrichment thereof * To align educationÃ¢â¬â¢s modalities to the needs of the times 2. What are the common findings and recommendations of the three studies conducted in relation to the Philippine education system? A. Common Findings i. High dropout rates especially in rural areas ii. Mastery of students in important competencies as shown in achievement levels iii. High levels of simple literacy among 15-24 year-olds and 15+ year-olds iv. Highest repetition rate in Grade I v. Children were generally handicapped by serious deficiencies in their personal constitution and in the skills they needed to successfully go through the absorption of learning B. Recommendations i. Tri-focalization in the management of supervision of basic education, technical-vocational education, and tertiary education ii. Ensure adequate financing and improve the quality of basic education iii. Slow and reverse the haphazard expansion of low-quality tertiary education iv. Provide equitable access to education at all levels so deserving households and communities can benefit from the provision of public education v. Improve overall sector management through greater local participation and accountability 3. Identify the actions taken by the concerned agencies to respond to the recommendations of the studies conducted? Actions taken are the following: * Congress enacted Republic Act 7722 that created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) that is responsible for higher education * Congress enacted Republic Act 7796 that created the Technical Skills Development Authority (TESDA) which is duty-bound to supervise and manage post-secondary and middle-level manpower training and development * Congress enacted Republic Act 9155 that created the Department of Education (DepEd) that handles basic education (elementary and secondary levels) * For a time, there was moratorium on the establishment of State Colleges and Universities (SCUs) * Tertiary education has been given reduced allocation for Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE) * Surveys on applied assessment methodologies and processes were conducted * Republic Act 10029 (Philippine Psychology Act of 2009) was enacted into law that aims to maintain the development of assessment which is part of the services offered by psychologists * Executive Order No. 46 established the Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER) that is a multi-sectoral body that defined a comprehensive and budget-feasible program of reform in the education system 4. Do the actions taken have an impact on the ailing Philippine educational system? Yes. In many ways the actions taken by the respective agencies of the government have created impact to the Philippine education system. For instance, DepEd has now concentrated in strengthening the knowledge and skills of elementary and secondary level learners in order to prepare them to the more rigorous life in tertiary education. In addition, CHED has introduced the emphasis of research in support to new teaching methodologies and has identified Ã¢â¬Å"Centers of ExcellenceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Centers of DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ among colleges and universities nationwide. Then TESDA hones the skills of middle-level manpower that is needed in the country and overseas. Although much has to be done yet to create an atmosphere of genuine excellent Philippine education system, more and more actions have been undertaken by the government to address the pressing problems on deteriorating quality of education. Aside from enhancing the competencies of learner.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Charles Murray Essay The New Right came from the work of the American Sociologist Charles Murray who viewed welfare payments has causing lone parenthood which in turn created an underclass. Charles Murray visited the UK in 1989 and said it has a developing underclass. Murray said: Ã¢â¬Å"the underclass are defined by their behaviour. Their homes are littered and unkempt. The men in the family are unable to hold down a job. Drunkenness is common. The children grew up ill-schooled and ill-behaved and contribute to a disproportionate share of juvenile delinquentsÃ¢â¬ Murray saw underclass as behaviour a lifestyle choice, a disease which infects certain groups of people. Ã¢â¬ËWhen I use the term Ã¢â¬ËunderclassÃ¢â¬â¢ I am indeed focusing on a certain type of poor person defined not by his condition, for example, long-term unemployment, but by his deplorable behaviour in response to that condition, for example, unwilling to take jobs that are available to him.Ã¢â¬â¢ This shows how members of the underclass define themselves as different by their own behaviour. Murray singles out three forms of behaviour that define underclass status: * Parenting behaviour * Criminal behaviour * Labour market behaviour Specifically, it is illegitimate births to young women, habitual crime and particularly violent crime, and the refusal of young working class men to enter employment that determines the existence of an underclass. Ã¢â¬ËIf illegitimate births are the leading indicator of an underclass and violent crime a proxy measure of its development, the definitive proof that an underclass has arrived is that large numbers of young, healthy, low-income males choose not to take jobs. (The young idle rich are a separate problem).Ã¢â¬â¢ (Murray, 1990) Since, in his analysis, it is the poor themselves that are to blame for their poverty, because they either choose to act in a certain way, or are conditioned to do so by over-generous government welfare, the policy solutions that flow from this analysis are, not surprisingly, aimed at changing the behaviour of the poor. The alternative, improving the effectiveness of the welfare programmes, is not considered. Indeed for New Right theorists, the welf are state is a major part of the problem. What such theorists would seek is the dismantling of the welfare state, and a situation set up that would make it dysfunctional for individuals to act in deviant ways. David Marsland Sociologist David Marsland has adopted the new right approach and does not believe that poverty is as bad as others are making out. He claims that groups such as the Joseph Rowntree Foundation purposely confuse poverty with inequality and completely exaggerates the extent of poverty. He argues that there is only absolute poverty and that relative does not exist. Marsland is very critical about universal benefits and services such as health care, education and child benefits. He believes that people who are on low income are results of the state being too generous in their benefits and services rather than the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s inadequacy to work (Haralambos & Holborn, 2008). A quote from Marsland : Ã¢â¬Å"the expectation that society, the state, the government, Ã¢â¬Å"theyÃ¢â¬ , will look after our problems tricks us into abdicating from self-reliance and social responsiblyÃ¢â¬ (Marsland 1989). However, Marsland has been criticised by Bill Jordan who says that he is wrong to b lame the culture of dependency to universal welfare provision. He argues that selectively means testing benefits can trap people in a life of poverty. It often turns out that people are better off on benefits than they would be in work. It also can exclude the individual from the rest of society and make them feel ashamed and embarrassed that they receive benefits. Also, if education and health care are private then people with disability and unskilled workers may not be able to afford or find work. Jordan also claims that societies that rely upon means-tested benefits and private health care, tend to develop a large underclass, who have little chance of escaping from poverty; this is the case in countries such as America. Jordan states that poverty is a result of societies being too harsh. He argues that the only way to break the cycle of poverty is by universal benefits that are at a high enough standard so people can afford to work and get back up on their feet (Haralambos & Holborn, 2008). Despite this, the New Right approach has been influential across Western countries, and the Conservative party is in power in Britain today. Charles Murray. (2016, Mar 23). We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you
Friday, September 27, 2019
Faith Inetration Paper - business ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Faith Inetration Paper - business ethics - Essay Example Organizational goals may relate to official goals or operative goals and understanding the basis of the values is important in judging the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s level of commitment to its value. Official goals of an organization are for example embedded in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s system and are the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s priority. Consequently, an organization can sacrifice its interest or secondary objectives in order to achieve its official goal. This strategic approach means that a value that is secondary to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s official objective can be compromised as the organization seeks to meet its official objective. Such a decision would communicate the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to its primary objective and identify a general level of commitment. Similarly, operative goals relates to guidance and motivation to employees, decision making framework, and establishing and implementing framework standards under which an organization can operate to achieve its officia l objective (Daft and Marcic, 2012; Daft, Murphy and Willmott, 2010). The aim of the operative goals is therefore to ensure desired overall objectives and not to ensure strict implementation of the operative objectives. The values for respecting employees and rewarding top performance identifies with operative goals with the aim of ensuring effective and efficient human resource for such primary goals like output targets or profitability. Consequently, identifying viability of outsourcing in meeting such primary objectives as higher human resource output or profitability would suggest the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to bringing the best out of its employees. Similarly, and the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s values being operative goals, means that their strict performance does not define the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment but achievement of objectives for which the values were set. If the values were set to ensure that, a
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Project Management - Case Study Example Hillary has the identical resources as many other personal qualities from his staff. However, what distinguishes Hillary is its special capability to manage its assets in a highly creative way. For demonstration, Hillary sophisticated cross-docking scheme presents the mass-merchandise with significant cost benefits by advancing its ability to production as well as profits, but he states that the ideal way is to ensure personal qualities and attained. Most recently, Hillary case study examined the function characteristic competencies play in attaining comparable benefit to organizations established in some country, Midwestern groups. Two features of this study are worth noting since personal qualities have rendered people useless after attaining the impossible. More significantly, Hillary study specifically addressed the direct relationship between personal characteristic competencies and competitive benefit. Here, component analysis of one-by-one distinctive competency items discovered an underlying structure office discrete components or areas of distinctive competence. These five components were value likeness, productive. Differentiation, effectiveness of key productive practices, civic engagement of individuals and a command of attaining possible results. Hillary also measured the influence of these components on a number of presentation variables using regression investigation. Significantly, the component comprising the pr oficiency to control and assess individuals retail programs were positively affiliated with all three presentations assesses used. In addition, these outcomes hold the planned substantive linkage between the resources based potentials of an individual and competitive advantage in order to get possible results. This presentation of little unaligned individuals appears to be positively correlated with high-quality service likeness and command of retailing programs. In other phrases, more highly accomplishing localized retailers are
Ethical Principles Paper - Essay Example In many cases, the values that we as individuals hold include the morals adopted by our society over time. Some of these morals, for better or for worse, shape our behavior. Perhaps it is important to describe some of those moral ideals held by contemporary societies so that we can understand behavior and individual decision-making from an objective perspective. What are the most important morals in our society? It seems the ideal that we lessen the amount of harm suffered by others is one of the most important values of contemporary society, and thus many of us as individuals. This kind of perspective, however, is ancient. The Greek philosopher Aristotle described a system of virtue ethics that tells individuals to do good, not to do harm, to others. This includes corollaries like respecting individual rights, telling the truth, being faithful, and so on. All of these prescriptions are directly related to healthcare, where virtue ethics is an important ethical perspective. Beneficen ce, which is the duty to do good, is an important principle in healthcare work, especially when the healthcare provider has good intentions. Non-maleficence, which is the duty to not do harm, suggests that the healthcare worker should attempt to avoid the worst-case scenario when serving a patient. Autonomy, which is respect for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to make decisions, is important when healthcare workers are delivering a service to someone who might have cognitive or behavioral deficiencies. Truthfulness, which is tied to autonomy, tells us that we should always give others all of the information in order to make an informed judgment. Fidelity, which is the virtue of being loyal to a patient in terms of establishing trust, is fundamental to the provider-patient relationship. The Aristotelian system of virtues is best practiced in healthcare because it provides a basis for how a healthcare provider should act in all situations. How does one determine worth and what does one c onsider worth to be? Worth seems to be something that is desirable, useful, or valuable to many people. We might measure somethingÃ¢â¬â¢s desirability in terms of the pain or pleasure that it causes for others. If, for example, a medicine gives a patient a great deal of pleasure (which includes long-term pleasure knowing that his disease has been cured), then we might judge it to be of worth to someone. We might also measure somethingÃ¢â¬â¢s desirability in terms of how it aligns with someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s values. If, for example, someone values close relationships with others, then the worth of a hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s program to connect volunteers with terminally ill patients for one hour each week might be judged in terms of whether the patients might value that experience. What virtuous qualities are most important? Virtues enable people to pursue moral ideals of disposition or character as a means of developing their own potential as human beings. Any given society has many virtues. Some examples include honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, and fidelity. From such a list, individuals or societies can pick and prioritize based on their perceptions of which virtues are most important. One might say that, from this list, generosity is important. In health care in particular, generosity is essential. Generosity leads healthcare providers to give their best service to the community. In healthcare, when we are dealing with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, commitment to generosity and service is very important because only the very
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Musicals in the West End - Essay Example Before presenting any logical argument, it is inherent to carry out a practical check on the shows currently running in the West End theatres and those lined up for production later in the year. According to the London Theatre Online by Darren Daglish, there are 23 musicals, 13 comedies, and 11 dramas (or straight plays if you like) currently running. Mathematically, this translates to 48% musicals, 28% comedies, and 24% drama. At this point, one might conclude that there many musicals shows than the other two classes. However, there is a list of shows lined up for production this year, including 9 musicals, 11 comedies, and 37 plays: or 16% musicals, 20% comedies, and 64% dramas . Clearly, plays still dominate the theatre time if these statistics are anything to go by. While there may be repetition of some musicals such as Billy Eliot, Blood Brothers, and Jersey Boys, there is a relatively few number of repetition of plays. Actually, there are fifteen musicals repetitions with on ly six repeated plays. Thus, it would be inaccurate to say that the West End harbours more musicals than other subsidised theatres. However, one must bear in mind that musicals have relatively long runs than plays. Thus, there may not necessarily be a 64% increase in the number of plays. Dominance of musicals Another interesting statistic is that about two-thirds of the straight plays currently showing or planned for production show in subsidized theatres, with only seven and two musicals. Therefore, there will be around 30 musicals, 17 comedies, and 16 straight plays in the commercial theatres. Certainly, this is not a show of unhealthy competition and dominance by musicals! Essentially, the dominant nature of musicals in the West End theatres is a perception rather than a matter of fact. To prove this practically, try asking any average person about any showing musicals in the West End theatres and majority will mention Billy Elliot, Jersey Boys, and The Lion King . The person may also mention Cats and Les Mis, and probably Beauty and the Beast. Similarly, ask the people to mention a few straight plays in the same theatres would probably respond by naming just a single play and add the typical Ã¢â¬Å"some Shakespeare.Ã¢â¬ This highlights the enormous interest that the public has for musicals as compared to straight plays at all levels, with the exception of real theatrical devotee
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Biology science of duty - Essay Example The most important feature of this system is the basic rule of adherence to the duty no matter what the consequences are following the duty. The system stays irrelevant from the end result of following the principles for the justification that the duty has to be performed by any means. When any theory is presented criticism comes along and has a few important features also. The basic feature of this system is following the duty in any circumstances but the harmful fact of the duty has to be over looked. The consequences have to be chosen over the least possible one and the duty which is less harmful after the duty is enacted. The use of utilitarian system simply distinct form the above mentioned one in a simple manner where the consequences are known and cannot be chosen and a series of data should be available. The rules of this system make it available for short term use where no importance is given to length examinations. It poses environmental problems and causes an impact to human life due to different way of approach towards life. The draw back of this system is that it fails to define prohibitions and find the importance of species. Both the species of humans are put into account and considered similar in any context but when put under large consideration animals are compared to humans and their well being also. Considering everyone the same and all given the same importance the species which need more attention come under scrutiny where they are similar to other species which do not need much of importance which makes this rule another draw back of this system 2. Explain three major differences between mitosis and meiosis. How does each difference contribute to the outcome of the process 2. Every living cell is composed of genetic material called DNA which carries chromosomal structure of an individual. The changes that take place in an individual and growth of the tissues are attributed to the changes that DNA undergoes during mitosis and meiosis. The main differentiating features among the two are as follows: Mitosis can be generally defined as formation of two daughter cells from one; it can be simply explained as differentiation of the genetic material into two cells. The example that can be given to explain mitosis is the growth of tissues in skin, multiplication of blood cells. Meiosis on the other hand can be differentiated from its meaning; reduction in the number of chromosomes into half and also involves the changes in DNA structure. The example that can be given here is the formation of foetus that is the end result of the above mentioned process. The other main differentiating feature that can be mentioned here is after the process of mitosis the number of cells that are formed are two in number and have genetically same features and chromosomes as that of the mother cell whereas after Meiosis the number of cells that are formed are four in number and have different set of chromosomes and their genetic structure varies. Mitosis is the process which generally occurs in somatic cells whereas Meiosis is the process
Monday, September 23, 2019
WHY WE ABUSE OUR CHILDREN - Essay Example In many instances, public outrage draws attention to the social system's lack of power to prevent and protect children, and the knock on effect that carries into adulthood. There are numberless domestic and international, institutional and social organizations that work toward the prevention of child abuse. Child abuse occurs as a result of broken homes, irresponsible parenting and stress due to financial circumstances. (thesis) Broken home is a social phenomenon which directly can lead to child abuse. This usually occurs, because the couple separates and the signle parent has to take all the responsibility for upbrining the kids. When parents split, this results in decreasing of the income and the single parent is forced to work longer hours, has two jobs and do not spend enough time with his offspring. The lack of parent's presence, control, love and care makes the children to feel unwanted. Thus, they seek reassurance from external sources - such as gangs or street fights. When the single parent faces the fact that she /he can not handle the behavior of his kid in his emotional distress he uses aggression. In most of the cases the aggression has a physical form, transformed into child abuse. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2004) reported that parents dependent on or abusing alcohol a
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Binomial and Black and Scholes Pricing models Essay The binomial and the Black and Schole models are option valuing models, the Binomial model involves determining the value of options using a tree like format whereby the value of the option is determined by the expiration time period of the option and volatility, for the Black and Schole model the value of options is determined by simply getting a derivative that helps get the discount rates of options. Binomial pricing model: The binomial pricing model was introduced by Ross, Cox and Rubinstein in 1979; it provides a numerical method, in which valuation of options can be undertaken. Application: This model breaks down the option into many potential outcomes during the time period of the option, this steps form a tree like format where by the model assumes that the value of the option will rise or go down, this value is calculated and it is determined by the expiration time and volatility. Finally at the end of the tree of the option the final possible value is determined because the value is equal to the intrinsic value. Assumptions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The model also assumes that the market is efficient in that people cannot predict the direction of change in the stock prices. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The interest rates are constant and known and therefore they do not change in the time we consider an option. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The model assumes that there are no dividends paid during the period in which one considers the option. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The model assumes that the returns on the stocks are normally distributed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ It also assumes that no commission is paid when buying or selling stock.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The pervasive influences that drive change Change is defined as pervasive influence, where all aspects are subject to continual change of one form or another (Mullins, 2005 , p.909). Also, change is an inescapable part of both social and organizational life. The concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change, as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person, modifying a program. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission, restructuring operations, new technologies, mergers, major collaborations, and rightsizing. Change in organizational strategy is an attempt to alter the organization`s alignment with its environment. Organization change might also focus on any of the basic components of organization structure or on the organization whole design. The Nature and Causes of Resistance to change Employees resist change because they have to learn something new. In many cases there is not a disagreement with the benefits of the new process, but rather a fear of the unknown future and about their ability to adapt to it. Forces of Change The general environment is parted in to different dimensions: the international, the economic, te technological, the socio-cultural and the political-legal dimension. External Forces External forces for change originate outside the organization. Because these forces have global effects, they may cause an organization to question the essence of what business it is in and the process by which products and services are produced. There are four key external forces for change: demographic characteristics, technological advancements, social and political pressures. Each component is discussed below: Demographic Characteristics The workforce is more diverse and there is a business imperative to effectively manage diversity. So, organizations need to effectively manage diversity if they are to receive maximum contribution and commitment from employees. Technological Advancements Technological changes are becoming increasingly important to many organizations, because of the rapid rate of all technological innovation. One major area of change involves equipment, thus a change in work processes or work activities may be necessary. Social factor Nearly all of the issues in change efforts revolve around people. You can change technologies, but unless people support the new systems, problems are bound to crop up. No matter how good a change seems on paper, if nobody will support it, it`s probably not good idea. Political Pressures Political events can create substantial change. Although it is difficult for organizations to predict changes in political forces, many organizations hire lobbyists and consultants to help them detect and respond to social and political changes. Internal Forces These forces for change come from inside the organization and may be subtle, such as low morale, or can manifest in outward signs, such as low productivity and conflict. Internal forces for change come from human resource problems and managerial behaviour (decisions). Levels of Change Mullins, (2005) argues that, change can be studied in terms of its effects at individual, society, group, organization, national and international level. However, because of this, change at any one level is interrelated with changes at other level, and it is hard to study one area of change in isolation. For example, when HSBC decided to embark on using new modern banking technology, it also embarked on training its staff on how to use that technology and its importance in their day to day activities, otherwise that technology could not help if employees could not support it or if that technology could not be friendly trough the costumers. In addition, Hersey, (2006) discussed levels of change by identifying four levels: knowledge change, attitude change, individual behaviour change and organizational or group performance change. Hersey ,Robbins, (1990) commented on group and individual change, he argued that, at individual level, the change attempts is to affect an employee behaviour, through either training , socialization and counselling as strategies the management can use when they target at individual change. In that case of group change, he argued that, interventions such as sensitivity training, survey feedback and process consultation are some of strategies the management can use if it targets to group change. TYPES OF CHANGE There are two kinds of change according to Robbins, (1990), are unplanned change and planned change. Unplanned Change This change, is that change which can just happen, for instance, when managing director of certain company decides to resign immediately, is a type of unplanned change to the board of directors, as they are force to find another managing director as early as possible to run their company. Planned Change Planned change otherwise, is those changes which organization knows about: where are objective is to keep the organization viable and current. Mullins, (2005) argues that, most planned change is triggered by the need to respond to new challenges or opportunities presented by the in anticipation of the need to cope with potential future problems or external environment. It represents an intentional attempt to improve, in some way, the operational effectiveness of the organization. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Resistance is any conduct that serves to maintain the status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo. According to Goldberg (1999), individuals are not really resisting the change, but rather that may be resisting the loss of status, loss of pay, or comfort. They believe that it is time that we dispense with the phrase resistance to change and find a more useful and appropriate types for describing what the phrase has come to mean that employees are not wholeheartedly embracing a change that management wants to implement In present economy, change is all-pervasive in organizations. It happens continuously, and often at rapid speed. Because change has become an everyday part of organizational dynamics, employees who resist change can actually cripple an organization. (Mullins, 2005) Folgers Skarlicki (1999) claim that organizational change can generate scepticism and resistance in employees, making it sometimes difficult or impossible to implement organizational improvements. Resistance is an inevitable response to any major change. Individuals naturally rush to defend the status quo if they feel their security or status is threatened. Why People Resist change in the workplace In recent days, companies, government department and institutions, whether public or private, are no longer have a choice, they must change to survive. Unfortunately, people tend to resist change. It is hard to change an organization, let alone an individual. This puts increased pressure on management to learn the subtleties of change. Employees and managers view change differently; top level management sees change as an opportunity to strengthen the business and to advance in their career, but for many employees, including middle managers, change is never sought after or welcomed: it is intrusive and disruptive. The below 10 reasons are the best describe why some people resist change. Fear of failure Resistance to change can be rooted in fear. Some employees may feel the need to cling to the past because it was a more secure, predictable time, during periods of change. If what they did in the past worked well for them, they can resist changing their behaviour out of fear that they will not achieve as much in the future. Creatures of habit Doing things in the same routine, predictable manner is comfortable. Asking people to change the way they operate or think is asking them to move outside their comfort zone. We have always done it this way, so why do we need to change? becomes the rallying cry for people who have difficulty changing their routines. In some cases, employees may deny or ignore the change simply because it requires them to experience something beyond their normal method of operation. No obvious need Some employees may see a change only from the perspective of the impact it has on them and their particular jobs. They may fail to recognize the positive impact of the change on the organization as a whole, not seeing the big picture. Thus they may find the change disruptive and totally unnecessary. Their attitude may be, if it is not broke, why fix it? Loss of control Familiar routines help employees develop a sense of control over their work environment. Being asked to change the way they operate may make employees feel powerless and confused. Concern about support system Changing the organizational structures may shake their confidence in their support system. They may worry about working for a new supervisor, with new employees or on familiar projects because they fear that if they try and fail, there will be no one there to support them. Closed mind Some employees seem to have the attitude , please do not confuse me with any facts or supporting documentation about this change: I have already made up my mind! employees with this attitude approach the change process with their minds firmly made up, muttering , no way! during discussions and explanations of the future. Unwillingness to learn Some employees, hesitant to try new routines, express unwillingness to learn anything new. They may say, I already know all that I need to know. Like resistant employees who have already made up their minds that the change will not be productive, employees reluctant to learn something new impede the organization`s growth and adaptation to change. They also hinder their own personal growth and development. Fear that the new way may not be better If things have been going wall, some employees may resist change because they fear that the change will not result in improvement. Focusing only on their part of the operation, they fail to realize that change is needed in order for the organization to stay competitive. Their current status is quite sufficient, and they wish to maintain business as usual. Fear of the unknown Employees can resist change simply because it is something unfamiliar. Not knowing much about the specifics of the change, they may imagine a worst case scenario, which might be very scary. They let fear of the unknown become their rationale for not giving the change a change. These employees may acknowledge that a problem exists and agree that a change might improve it. However, they worry that the proposed change might actually make things worse. Their fear causes them to place roadblocks in the movement toward change. Fear of personal impact Uncertainty is the biggest of employee resistance to change. In the face of impending change, employees may become anxious and nervous. They may worry about their ability to meet new job demands, they may think that their job security is threatened, or they may simply dislike ambiguity. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING REDUCE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE It is important for managers to learn to manage resistance because failed change efforts are costly. Costs include decreased employee loyalty, lowered probability of achieving corporate goals, a waste of money and resources, and difficulty in fixing the failed change effort. Involving people from the beginning, clearly explaining the reasons for the change, having a clear strategy, direction, and vision, and respecting the viewpoints of other people are all parts of the process. Using strategic measurement can also be way of building support. Starting out with a problem, and working other people to come up with a solution, can be far more effective than proposing a specific solution and trying to rationalize it. People often do not like change they cannot control. However, if they lead or have a substantial influence on change, they are more likely to embrace it. As the leader, you must take the time to understand resistance and you may have to come at it from several different angles before it is conquered. You must understand what your employees are feeling, as well as thinking. Ways to reduce resistance to change: Involve interested parties in the planning of change by asking them for suggestions and incorporating their ideas. Clearly define the need for the change by communicating the strategic decision personally and in written form. Address the people needs of those involved. Disrupt only what needs to be changed. Help people retain friendships, comfortable settings and group norms wherever possible. Design flexibility into change by phasing it in wherever possible. This will allow people to complete current efforts and assimilate new behaviours along the way. Allow employees to redefine their roles during the course of implementing change. Be open and honest. Do not leave openings for people to return to the status quo. If you and your organization are not ready to commit yourselves to the change, dont announce the strategy. Focus continually on the positive aspects of the change. Be specific where you can. Deliver training programs that develop basic skills as opposed to processes such as: conducting meetings, communication, teambuilding, self-esteem, and coaching. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Employee resistance to change is a complex issue facing management in the complex and ever-evolving organization of today. The process of change is ubiquitous, and employee resistance has been identified as a critically important contributor to the failure of many well-intend and well-conceived efforts to initiate change within the organization. To close those gaps, managers should know how to face and overcome resistance to change. Although there are no certain solutions, several techniques at least have the potential to decrease or eliminate this resistance. There are three key conclusions that should be kept in mind before recommending specific approaches to overcome resistance. Firstly, an organization must be ready for change. Just as a table must be set before you can eat, so must an organization be ready for change before it can be effective. It is better to use survey to evaluate if a company is ready to undertake a change effort. Secondly, organizational change is less successful when top management fails to keep employees informed about the process of change. Thirdly, employees perceptions or interpretations of a change significantly affect resistance. Employees are less likely to resist when they perceive that the benefits as a change overshadow the personal costs. At a minimum then, managers are advised to provide as much information as possible to employees about the change, inform employees about the reasons rationale for the change, and provide employees the opportunity to discuss how the proposed change might affect them. CONCLUDING REMARKS In many cases, vast amounts of resources are expended by organizations to adjust employees to a new way of achieving desired goals. The natural propensity for individuals to defend the status quo presents a set of challenges that management must overcome in order to bring about desired change. Management must also seriously take into account and consider the myriad of problems that may result if they are not responsive to issues of resistance in workplace. Generally, whatever the changes inside an organization might be, and whatever the reasons that made these changes necessary, a good way of implementing the changes successfully is for a manager to treat the participation and communication with his employees as integral parts of the change process.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Inclusive Spirituality in Song of Solomon Ã When slaves were brought to America they were taken from all they had known and forced to live in a land of dark irony that, while promising life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, provided them with only misery. In a situation such as the one in which the slaves found themselves, many people would rely on their religion to help them survive. But would slaves be able to find spiritual comfort within the parameters of a religion that had been passed on to them from the slaveholders? In Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon, African-Americans struggle to find a spirituality that is responsive to their needs and that encompasses their experiences in a way that the religion of the dominant culture does not. Song of Solomon deals with the African-American struggle to find a spirituality not defined by a religion of the dominant culture. From the beginning of the novel, Morrison alludes to Christianity with the names she chooses-Hagar, First Corinthians, Magdalene, and Ruth for example. However, the two main allusions Morrison draws on are the name "Pilate" and the name of the biblical book Song of Solomon. In the narrative in which Pilate is named, Pilate's father, who can't read, lets the Bible fall open and points to a set of lines that look agreeable to him. It just so happens that the word spelled out by those lines is "Pilate," the name of the Roman who turns Jesus over to be crucified. The midwife attending at Pilate's birth asks the father if he really wants to name the child after the person who killed Jesus, and the father replies, "I asked Jesus to save me my wife," and he continues, "I asked him all night long" (19). Yet his wife wasn't saved, and Pilate's father feels... ...sition of meanings shows both majority and minority readers that African-American spiritual experience, while touched by majority experience, does not have to be formed by it. Song of Solomon deals with the struggle of African-Americans to find a spiritual avenue that is responsive to their needs and reflective of their experience. The text helps people to examine differing ideas, learn about different experiences, and become sensitive to various needs. If we are able to learn something from Song of Solomon, really learn something, perhaps life, liberty and happiness will finally find us. Works Cited Bloom, Harold, ed. Modern Critical Views: Toni Morrison. New York: Chelsea House Publishing, 1990. Middleton, David. Toni Morrison's Fiction: Contemporary Criticism. New York: Garland, 1997. Morrison, Toni. Song of Solomon. New York: Plume, 1987.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Law and Order in the First Part of the Nineteenth Century In the first part of the nineteenth century crime was one of the biggest social problems. Crime was made worse by widespread poverty, many people wanted proper law enforcement. May crimes were punishable by death, so the criminals adopted the phase Ã¢â¬Å"better to be hung for a sheep than a lambÃ¢â¬ . When Sir Robert Peel became Home Secretary in 1825, he made a properly organised police system his propriety. Up to now towns had only their caped night watchmen, with warning bells and rattles. PeelÃ¢â¬â¢s major concern was preventing crime rather than punishing it. For this reason, in 1829 he established the first regular police force. Large towns such as London were often particularly lawless, and authorities often used troops to keep the peace, which was a much-hated practice. In 1829 Peel established a regular police force in London and the suburbs. At first there were 300 Ã¢â¬ËBobbiesÃ¢â¬â¢ recruited and controlled by the Home Office. Their presence soon forced many criminals of the capital. Finally in 1856 every county and borough had to maintain a police force. The Metropolitan police force had many different duties. The man on the beat was there to stop disorderly behaviour. So this meant the Metropolitan Police Force were to deal with beggars, drunkenness, vagrants and prostitutes. In the second half of the nineteenth centuary LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s streets became more orderly, but as a consequence of this the number of burglaries went up. Another of the Metropolitan Police Forces duties was to deal with major disturbances. Police constables received very little training in the late nineteenth century and often learnt their trade Ã¢â¬Å" on the jobÃ¢â¬ . Police constables worked seven days a week and up to fourteen hours a day. In London in the 1870Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s, a beat during daytime was seven and a half miles long whilst at night it was two miles. Pick pocketing was rife in London in the late nineteenth century. Pickpockets were generally around the age of 6-10 years old and had
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Learning the Writing Business from Book Agents and Editors So, you just wrote your first science fiction novel. Your friend read it and told you that you were the next Ray Bradbury or Gene Roddenberry. Your fertile mind fantasizes your name up there on a BordersÃ¢â¬â¢ wall poster right next to images of Isaac Azimov and Jules Verne. Before going off the deep end and equating yourself with Hemingway and Steinbeck, give your ego a stiff reality check. Few of us mortals are literary Mozarts that can plop down in front of a computer screen and author a perfect manuscript the first time around.. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get one thing straight right now. You wrote a manuscript and not a book. After an author takes the time and care to read, edit and rewrite the manuscript at least five times, the work has finally evolved into a publishable bookÃ¢â¬â¢ manuscript. Literary agents have represented my books. Truthfully, I never learned too much from literary agents except that they will show a strong interest in you and your work only if publishers and film producers do. If the power brokers in the literary world think your work is marketable, then you are a viable commodity. If you have no track record in the publishing industry, then forget all about your friendÃ¢â¬â¢s praise and about your inflated ego. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re going to have to accept criticism from your agencyÃ¢â¬â¢s editors, compromise ideas and plots in your artistic masterpiece, rewrite paragraphs, sentences and pages to conform to editorial evaluations, admit making errors, learn from these Ã¢â¬Å"mistakesÃ¢â¬ and avoid them when constructing future Ã¢â¬Å"manuscripts.Ã¢â¬ Although I never learned too much from my literary agents, I absorbed plenty from editors I had worked with. It took me three years to finally master what the editors considered the Ã¢â¬Å"mechanics of the writing craft.Ã¢â¬ I reluctantly learned that good writing involves much more than the demonstration of grammar, spelling and punctuation skills. I picked up a hundred or so suggestions from my Ã¢â¬Å"literary editors,Ã¢â¬ and I will share some of them now. To facilitate good transitions and chapterÃ¢â¬â¢ integrity, donÃ¢â¬â¢t begin sentences and/or paragraphs with pronouns (when writing in the third person). Stay away from Ã¢â¬Å"lazy sentence patternsÃ¢â¬ such as starting out with Ã¢â¬Å"There areÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"There is.Ã¢â¬ And above all else, if you plan to be original and creative, stay away from using stereotypicalÃ¢â¬â¢ cliches and hackneyed idioms. A good sci-fiÃ¢â¬â¢ novel or any other genreÃ¢â¬â¢ novel should first be a Ã¢â¬Å"love storyÃ¢â¬ at its coreÃ¢â¬â¢ construction with the genreÃ¢â¬â¢ decoration adroitly wrapped around that core.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In the light of the teachings of the Qur’an discuss the moral and ethical norms that Muslims are expected to uphold in their social affairs
Prior to start the answer of my question, I would like to explain what we mean by morals and ethics. To define ethics would be relatively simple. According to dictionary Ã¢â¬Å"ethicsÃ¢â¬ may be defined as a set of principles of right conduct or a system of moral values. But moral is something within our self i. e. something innate. According to Abul Ã¢â¬ËAla Al-Mawdudi Ã¢â¬Å"Man has been blessed with an innate sense of morality, which has served to guide him through the age, enabling him to distinguish between right and wrong and good and evil. Now, the problem is that the degree according to which a person thinks a certain act as good or bad varies from person to person. Therefore to ease us from this problem, God through Quran told us certain moral & ethical norms which we are supposed to follow. This can be explained through certain principles: First of all, we need to see that according to Quran, who is a good Muslim? The answer to this question is given beautifully in Quran when Allah tells us the description of a righteous and religiously committed Muslim. According to this verse, a good Muslim is who, ho obeys all the regulations mentioned in Quran and whose focus in life is love of Allah. And after that the focus is love of humanity. He is the person who believes on Day of Judgment and therefore is afraid of that. We can be a good person if we do good deeds e. g. giving charity to poor and needy people, looking after the orphans, offer prayers and give zakat. Finally his individual faith must remain firm and unshaken in all circumstances. 1. ATTITUDE TOWARDS PARENTS: After Allah & the Prophet the Quran tells us to give maximum respect to our parents. In Quran its written at 17 : 23-24 Ã¢â¬Å"Your Sustainer has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life-time, do not say to them a word of contempt nor repel them, but address them in terms of honor and, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility and say: My Sustainer! Bestow on them your mercy, even as they cherished me in childhood. Ã¢â¬ From this we can see the amount of respect given to our parents. In Quran we have been told that we should not say a word of contempt to our parents and should always give them respect. This is because when we were small and were unable to look after our self, they were the one who looked after us. Therefore when its our turn to look after them we should not feel bad rather should try to keep them as happy as we can because one should never forget that if today we are young, tomorrow we will be old and if we won't look after our parents, our children won't look after us because our children will learn from us. Thus when we will be kind to our parents, our children would be kind to us. 2. GOODNESS TO NEIGHBOUR AND GUESTS. The importance of neighbors is emphasized a lot in Quran. Its importance can be well understood by the statement by the prophet that Ã¢â¬Å"He is not a believer who eats his fill while his neighbor beside him is hungryÃ¢â¬ . Islam is so caring about the rights of neighbors that even it doesn't requires that we should only be good to our neighbors provided that he is a Muslim. Our neighbors can belong to any religion A Muslim must treat his neighbor and guests kindly whether they are Muslims or non-Muslims. 3. ATTITUDE TOWARDS WIVES AND CHILDREN We should never ever forget that Islam was the first religion which gave women equal rights as men. Before Islam wives were miss treated and new born female babies were killed. But Islam condemned this. In Quran at (2:22) its written that Ã¢â¬ And they (the women) have rights similar to those (men have) over them in a just mannerÃ¢â¬ . Islam also gives lot of importance to children especially if they are orphans. We can find numerous times in Quran the importance it gives to children. In Quran at (4:127) its written that Ã¢â¬Å"You should deal justly with orphansÃ¢â¬ . 4. ATTITUDE TOWARDS FELLOW MUSLIMS: Islam is a religion which tells us about brotherhood. It's a religion which emphasizes a lot on helping each other in difficult times. According to Islam, all Muslims are brothers and sisters. There is a special term used in Arabic as Ã¢â¬ UKHUWWAH ISLAAMIYAHÃ¢â¬ meaning Islamic brotherhood. In Quran Allah tells us (49:10) Ã¢â¬Å"The Believers are but a single Brotherhood: So make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah, that ye may receive Mercy. Ã¢â¬ Islam tells us to live in peace and harmony. The Prophet (p. b. u. h) said:Ã¢â¬ A man does not accuse another of being a transgressor nor does he accuse him of being a Ã¢â¬ KAAFIRÃ¢â¬ . But it (the epithet) comes back to him, if his companion is not such. Ã¢â¬Ë In Quran (25:63) Ã¢â¬Å"And the servants of the Beneficent Allah are they who walk on the earth in humbleness, and when the ignorant address them, they say: Peace. Ã¢â¬ 5. ISLAMÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ A POLITE & PEACEFUL RELIGION: Throughout Quran we find teachings of Peace, teachings about doing well to others and to talk politely with others. According to Abul Ã¢â¬ËAla Al-Mawdudi in his work on Ã¢â¬Å"The Moral System Of IslamÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"People who are polite, sincere, upright, dependable, who are prompt in discharging their obligations to others, who live in peace and allow others to do likewise have always formed the core of any healthy society. And this is what Islam teaches us. Allah in Quran has told us that Ã¢â¬Å"And the servants of the beneficent are they who walk on the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say, PEACE! And they who pass the night prostrating themselves before their lord and standing. Ã¢â¬ (25:63&64) 6. PATIENCE IN ISLAM: Over the course of time, Allah sent many Prophets to mankind to guide and instruct them in their daily as well as religious matters. All the Prophets guided us. But among all the Prophets, the Prophet who had most patience was Hazrat Muhammad (p. b. u. h). Since our Prophet was a symbol of patience, therefore we the Muslims are supposed to show patience in our daily lives as well. Allah through Quran tells us Ã¢â¬ O you believe, seek assistance through patience and prayer, surely Allah is with the patientÃ¢â¬ . In another place in Quran, Allah talking about His blessings and His mercy says Ã¢â¬Å"And none are made to receive it but those who are patient and none are made to receive it but those who have a mighty good fortune. Ã¢â¬ 7. FORGIVENESS IN ISLAM: Throughout Quran, we have been given instructions for forgiveness. If we forgive our fellow human being, Allah will forgive us. Allah in Quran tells us that Ã¢â¬Å"Praised are they who restrain their anger and pardon the faults of others; and god loves those who do good to others. Ã¢â¬ (3;133). If we start forgiving each other there will be many disputes which will end and most of us would be able to live a peaceful life. PART II (a): These days we are living in a strange world, where nations are in conflict with each other, a world where strong dominates the week. If we look around us, we will see that everywhere there is anarchy. It is very unfortunate of us that most of moral & ethical norms which are told to us by our religion are missing from our society. We have lost patience, we have forgotten the meanings of forgiveness, we are least concerned about the rights of fellow society members, we are unjust in our daily dealings, there is no one to look after the orphans and our minds have transformed into totally profit oriented and self centered minds. We are Muslims. The name of religion which we practice is Ã¢â¬Å"ISLAMÃ¢â¬ meaning Ã¢â¬Å"PEACEÃ¢â¬ , but unfortunately this is one thing which is in a serious lack in our society , rather if I say that this is one thing which is lacked in almost every society of the world, I don't think that I would be wrong in saying that. The times through which we are passing are disturbed and distressing and in order to live in a perfect society, we need peace. Ã¢â¬Å"PEACEÃ¢â¬ is basically a very broad term and if I start writing on that then this would require many pages. But while I will talk about Peace, I will concentrate more on a sub category i. e. Relations with other people living in our society. Let's start from our homes and discuss peace. In past years, families especially in our part of world used to live together in peace and harmony. But with time our traditions and culture has changed. Now people don't prefer living in joint families. And if in some circumstances the Parents of married people live with them, mostly they are not respected. Parents are considered as a burden. Although in western societies, the concept of old homes is not a new one but in our society even now, this is not considered good. But there are many parents in our society, who would prefer living in Old homes than with their children because they are not at-all respected in there homes. They are treated like an extra family member and sometimes are even treated worse than the servants. This practice is totally against the very basic teachings of Islam. Then in order to get a closer look at PEACE in our society we put a glance at peace inside our society i. e. relations with other society members. Many people living in metropolitan cities even don't know the names of their neighbors while our religion tells us that those people are not true believers who eat by them self while their neighbors sleep hungry. But on the other hand, due to various economic pressures every person wants to get better and better than other. And in this pursuit they many time do certain acts which are not at all good for the society as a whole. And it is due to these practices that the gap between the rich and poor is widening at a drastic rate. The rich people are becoming richer while the poor people are getting poorer. The jealously among the poor for rich is increasing. If we look around us, we will see many children who don't even get bread two times a day while on the other hand we have people whose dogs eat better than many poor people. There are people who are sending their children abroad to get higher education by paying hudge amounts while we have children who when learn to walk are sent to workshops to earn money to support their families. And due to this we find the daily newspapers filled with news of terror, people getting robbed, women are unsafe alone at their home, people prefer not to go outside during nights, and the economic depressions are increasing day by day. Even at times we get to hear news like brother killing his brother just for the sake of money or land. To implement peace properly, we need justice. But if we look around us, we will find that hardly in our society. Justice for any ordinary person is simply out of reach. While on the other hand our religions talks about justice available at the door step of every citizen. These days' people buy justice. Our society has been divided unfortunately in different casts. Many people are so cast oriented that according to them Justice and other rights are only for their own people (casts). This all injustice has caused a serious lack of peace and harmony amongst us. Quran always talks about merit but we see that there are many well educated people who are unemployed because of the fact that they don't have references to get the jobs. They have got degrees, they deserve but the less deserving candidate gets the job because he has got reference of a strong and well known person. So peace is something missing from our society and when I talk about peace I mean peace in general while concentrating more on relations with other fellows of our society. P. S: While I am writing this I don't mean that every person living in our society has forgotten the true meanings of Islam but while I talk, I talk about the majority and unfortunately the majority has forgotten the true meanings of Islam. PART II (b): Identify and discuss three solutions (in order of priority) that we, as a society, can work on to overcome this problem. For each of these three solutions, clearly sketch out a plan that could be used to eradicate the problem. In order to overcome the problem of peace we can act on the following three steps. They are: Minimun wage level and opportunities of jobs for every person. * An efficient system of taxation and its re-allocation: If we look around, we will find out that most of the lack in peace is caused due to the hudge gap between the poor and the rich. What we need is such a system other than the Ã¢â¬Å"zakatÃ¢â¬ that should make sure that the gap between the rich and the poor is reduced. What our society needs is basically an efficient system of taxation and very well system of its re-allocation. The system should be such that the Government gets enough amount to spend on the over all growth of society as well as maintaining a decent living standard for every person of our society. There are many people in our society who can't afford to eat even two times in a day. With an efficient system of taxation the Government should make sure that every liable person who is supposed to pay tax, pays tax and can't do tax stealing. This can be a progressive tax system in which the rich people pay more while the poor pay less. In this way the hudge gap between the poor and the rich will be reduced and this reduction will cause a reduction in jealously amongst poor for rich. Then with an efficient system of tax re-allocation the Government should make sure that those people who can't find jobs are given enough amounts on monthly basis for the time they are unemployed that they can at least feed themselves and their children. Then with the proper re-allocation of tax amount the Government can open Orphan homes in which it should be the responsibility of the government to look after orphans as they are also a part of our society. Normally what the Governments of our society do is that they spend the tax revenue on their own perquisites e. g. increasing the pays of member of parliaments, buying new cars, making foreign trips and sponsoring the Government officials and their families to get the medical treatment from abroad. On such type of expenses the Government pays a hudge amount. Our society is not a society which can afford this all stuff. What our Governments need is to spend on the reconstruction and growth of our society and economy. Only by doing so we can create a peaceful society. This is because of the fact that when people will see that the Government is doing for their betterment they will feel good for the society as a whole and would try to contribute to the society positively. By doing so, people will feel better about each other. When the economic depression on people will reduce their daily lives will be better and society as a whole will improve. Most people in our society have adopted an attitude of indifference to the practical problems of life so what we need is that we should realize those people that they are a part of the society and the society is a home for us and we cant adopt the attitude of indifference towards our home. So when we can't do that for our home then why to adopt that for our society. Therefore we should try to solve the problems that our society faces everyday and should not give impression to Government that whatever it does, we are indifferent. Rather we should give the impression that whatever the Government does has a direct impact on us. * Proper enforcement of Justice Justice is no doubt a very important foundation of every successful society. Societies have become successful on the basis of a good system of justice and the availability of justice to every citizen without the fact that the person who seeks justice is poor or rich. Islam gives a lot of importance to Justice. Justice is not just restricted to courts. Rather along with courts justice should also be utilized while giving jobs and in Police Stations. Unfortunately a parasite which is destroying our society is a new trend that job is only given to people with strong references. Due to this practice the deserving people for jobs are not given the jobs while the people who don't deserve the job are given the jobs. Due to this people who don't have any references get a feeling that since the society has done injustice with them therefore they need to take revenge from the society and in that pursuit they often walk on the path of crime which is a serious threat to peace. This fact can be seen from the various newspaper news that when the robbers and thieves have been caught they were very well educated people rather some were even gold-medalist in their respective fields. So if only we can control the justice at the time of giving jobs, we can see a major change in the over all peace of the society. And this can be done by properly enforcing the merit procedure. Then comes Ã¢â¬Å"justice in Police StationsÃ¢â¬ . Unfortunately Police Stations in our society are considered as nightmares for respectable and ordinary people. In many circumstances Police officials have been caught working with thieves and robbers. In our society, Police is used as a weapon of people with money against the poor people. Usually Police even don't write the complaints of poor people against people who have got strong positions in our society. In order to correct this, the government needs to start a very strong accountability process in Police department, so that whenever a Police official even thinks of doing some wrong work, he should reject that idea due to the fear of accountability. Then we need to give Police jobs to well educated people not people with strong references who don't even deserve the job. Then while giving the job as police officer, we should see the past record of the person that whether the person has any criminal record or not. Then we need to increase the number of Police officials so that police can work more efficiently towards maintaining the peace and law & order in the society. Then another problem which we face while giving justice to people is that we have a very limited amount of courts and judges. The trials even go for generations. Hence if we increase the number of judges and courts, the process of trial will also increase its speed and the criminals moving freely in our society (on bails of months & months) can be caught. * POVERTY CONTROL AND MINIMUM WAGE: A famous Greek philosopher once said that Ã¢â¬Å"poverty is the root of all evilsÃ¢â¬ . It is poverty which makes ordinary poor people to do evil works. Unfortunately the poverty level of our country is horrifying. If we look around us we will find people extremely poor who don't have any thing to eat, people who want to do work but are unable to do anything because of lack of opportunities. And there are many people who are working but the wage they get is so low that it is extremely difficult for them to support their family with that wage. It is due to this that we often see news like a man killing his family and himself due to extreme poverty. If we can control the poverty in our society, we will be able to create a lot of peace in our society. Therefore to do that what we need is that Government should establish a minimum wage level for labor class so that they could enjoy at least a normal living standard. This method has been adopted by many developed societies & communities e. . American Society etc. The Labor and the Social Welfare Departments should make sure that the labor class can at least get a decent standard of living. Then the Government can start different poverty control programs whose aim should be to provide the unemployed people with different opportunities so that they could contribute for the society as a whole. In many western societies, the Gove rnments have started Poverty Control Programs which give small loans to people who want to start their own business. With the help of that the people get self employed and are no more burdens on the society. They with the help of loans establish their businesses and earn sufficient amount to have a decent standard of living. Then the Government can also open different technical institutes from where the students can get some technical education and can work on their own. Therefore if the Government controls the poverty level then the young generation will have no excuse to opt the way of crime in order to survive. And when the young generation will stop opting the way of crime then all in all our society will be one of the most peaceful societies in the world. A society, whose idea has been told to us in Quran.
Monday, September 16, 2019
2.1 IntroductionMalaysia is a tropical state which consists of three parts: Peninsular Malaysia and the two Borneo provinces of Sabah and Sarawak. Harmonizing to Forest Statistic Information for the Year 2009 from Official Website Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, the forested country in Peninsular Malaysia is 5.89 million hectares from overall Peninsular Malaysia Area which is 13.18 million hectares. McMorrow & A ; Talip ( 2001: 217, mentioning Wood 1990 ) have pointed out that, based on its public presentation up till the terminal of the 1980s ; Malaysia is one of the 14 major states with over 250,000 hectares deforested yearly. They added that by the late 1980s half of the forest country in Peninsular Malaysia and a fifth in Borneo had gone. A assortment of factors contribute to this province of personal businesss. When deforestation and forest debasement became critical issues, switching cultivation was singled out by the authoritiess, and peculiarly by the Sarawak authorities, as the chief cause of forest loss. Yet, it has since been established that forest debasement due to switching agriculturists is Ã¢â¬Ëminor Ã¢â¬Ë ( Cramb 1989 ; Jomo et.al. 2004 ; Nicholas 2003 ) . The major causes of the diminution in forest country and quality include commercial logging, agricultural development, dikes and relocation. To look profoundly into the affair of the function of authorization from land office and forest section to forestall illegal business in the wood, the writer will give some definitions about forest, illegal wood activities which include illegal business of forestlands, illegal logging, etc. The Torahs such as National Land Code1965 and National Forestry Act 1984 that involve illegal business in wood have to be defined. Forest direction or sustainable forest direction besides has to be defined to happen out overview of forest jurisprudence enforcement and system monitoring in Malaysia. Since the respondents of survey are governments from land office and forestry section, therefore the maps, functions or duties besides need to be defined.2.2 Definition2.2.1 ForestHarmonizing to Oxford Advanced Learner Ã¢â¬Ës Dictionary, wood is a big country of land that is thickly covered with trees. While in Cambridge Advance Learner Ã¢â¬Ës Dictionary, wood is defined as a big country of land cov ered with trees and workss, normally larger than a wood, or the trees and workss themselves. Forest is a debatable and intercrossed class. As defined in FRA2000, it is a combination of a land-cover category and a land-use category: it relates non merely to the presence of trees of over 5m and 10 % canopy screen, but besides to the absence of other land utilizations such as agribusiness. It includes Ã¢â¬ areas usually forming portion of the forest country which are temporarily unstocked but which are expected to return to forest Ã¢â¬ ( FAO Forestry Department, 1998, p. 3 ) . Further complications stem from alterations in minimal size of country included ( 0.5 hour angle in FRA2000, compared with 100 hour angles in FRA1990 ) . Rubber plantations were included as plantations in FRA2000 but non in FRA1990. And while a unvarying definition was employed in FRA2000, it has non become a planetary criterion: treatment continued thenceforth ( FAO, 2002 ) , and a different 1 has been agreed for describing on the Kyoto Protocol ( UNFCCC, 2002 ) . Even if a individual definition is agreed, as in FRA2000, jobs remain and so may go even more insidious because they are less obvious. At the state degree, informations are collected harmonizing to national definitions, and have to be adjusted to the international one Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO ) , Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 showed that woods cover 31 per centum of entire land country. Degree centigrades: Documents and SettingsTHAMDesktopuntitled.JPG The universe Ã¢â¬Ës entire forest country is merely over 4 billion hectares, which corresponds to an norm of 0.6 hour angles per capita. The five most forest-rich states ( the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China ) history for more than half of the entire forest country. Ten states or countries have no wood at all and an extra 54 have forest on less than 10 per centum of their entire land country. Carol Yong ( 2006 ) revealed that the official definition of a wood used in Malaysia differs from the Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) definition, which excludes countries under agricultural harvests ( e.g. oil thenar ) . In Malaysia, nevertheless, the countries under oil thenar, gum elastic and tree harvests are often regarded as wood. The inquiry of the definition of woods is peculiarly important in the Malayan context where the Malayan woods are quickly vanishing and, conversely, Ã¢â¬Å" forest Ã¢â¬ plantations countries are spread outing. Malayan Timber Council ( 2008 ) draws our attending that in the twelvemonth 2006, Malaysia has 32.95 million hectares of land country, of which 24.60 million hectares or 74.7 per centum of entire land country are classified as entire country under tree screen. Of these, 18.5 million hectares are forested country and 6.25 million hectares are other tree bulls. Of the entire country under tree screen, 8.96 million hectares ( 36.42 per cent ) are found in Sarawak, 11.23 million hectares ( 45.65 per cent ) are found in Peninsular Malaysia and 4.41 million hectares ( 17.93 per cent ) in Sabah. Sabah claims it has the least country under tree screen. S. Mather ( 1990 ) in Zalinda Binti Muhammad ( 2003 ) and Norisah Binti Kasim ( 2006 ) stated that wood is one spectrum which has natural elements like merchandise of the forest, vegetations and zoologies, etc. Area of all the forest that has been identified at the center of decennary 1980 is more than 4000 million hectare or 31 per centum of surface of the Earth. Harmonizing to S.M. Mohd Idris who is the manager of Sahabat Alam Malaysia ( SAM ) or Friends of the Earth Malaysia ( 1987 ) in Norisah Binti Kasim ( 2006 ) , he stated that Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦ forests offer protective functions against environmental alterations. The complex function played by wood in the heat and H2O balance of the Earth is undeniable. At the local degree, the forest screen breaks the impact of heavy rainstorms on the dirt, reduces and slows down surface run off, and minimizes dirt eroding every bit good as state of affairs of the drainage systems. Flash inundations and drawn-out inundations in many countries of the topical universe are progressively attributable to extended clearance of forested countries. Ã¢â¬ 2.2.2 Improper OccupationHarmonizing to Oxford Advanced Learner Ã¢â¬Ës Dictionary, the significance of business is the act of life in or utilizing a edifice, room, piece of land, etc. Meanwhile the significance of improper is non allowed by the jurisprudence or equivalent word with illegal. Therefore improper business can be defined as the act of life in or utilizing a edifice, room, piece of land, etc which is against the jurisprudence.2.2.3 Illegal Forest ActivitiesÃ¢â¬Å" Illegal wood activities Ã¢â¬ is a wide term that includes illegal logging ; it is used to mention to activities broader than merely harvest home, which is, conveyance, processing and trade ( Smith, 2002 ) . Brack and Hayman ( 2001 ) besides reference that illegalities may besides happen Ã¢â¬Å" during conveyance, including illegal processing and export, misdeclaration to imposts, and turning away of revenue enhancements and other monies. Ã¢â¬ Illegal forest activities include all illegal Acts of the Apostless related to forest ecosystems, forest industries, and lumber and non-timber wood merchandises. They include Acts of the Apostless related to the constitution of rights to the land and corrupt activities used to get forest grants. Illegal Acts of the Apostless include unauthorised business of public and private forestlands, logging in protected or environmentally sensitive countries, reaping protected species of trees, forest incendiarism, wildlife poaching, improper conveyance of wood and other wood merchandises, smuggling, reassign pricing and other deceitful accounting patterns, unauthorised processing of wood merchandises, misdemeanor of environmental ordinances, and bribing authorities functionaries ( Contreras-Hermosilla 2002a ) Ã¢â¬Å" There are many types of illegal forest patterns like public retainers may O.K. illegal contracts with private endeavor. Private commercial corporations may reap trees of species that are protected by jurisprudence from timber development. Persons and communities may come in public wood and illicitly take merchandises that are public belongings. Illegal activities do non halt at the forest. They travel down the line to operations in transit, processing and trade of wood merchandises. Persons or corporations may smuggle wood merchandises across international boundary lines or procedure natural wood stuffs without a licence. Corporations with strong international links may unnaturally blow up the monetary value of imported inputs or deflate the volume and monetary values of their exports to cut down their revenue enhancement liability and to ease the illegal transportation of capital abroad Ã¢â¬ ( FAO 2001 ) . Contreras-Hermosilla nowadayss illustrations of illegal activities in the forestry sector, grouped into six classs: illegal business of forestlands ; illegal logging ; incendiarism ; illegal lumber trade and conveyance, and timber smuggling ; transfer pricing and other illegal accounting patterns ; and illegal wood processing that shown in Table 1 below.[ 1 ]Illegal business of forestlandsaÃâ ?Invasion of public forested lands by either rural households, communities or private corporations to change over them to agriculture or cowss ranching aÃâ ? Practice of slash-and-burn agribusiness on invaded lands aÃâ ?Landless provincials illicitly busying forested countries to coerce authoritiess to allow land ownership rights to them and these authoritiess purchasing lands from provincials.Illegal loggingaÃâ ? Logging protected species aÃâ ? Duplication of droping licences aÃâ ? Girdling or ring-barking, to kill trees so that they can be lawfully logged aÃâ ? Contracting with local enterprisers to purchase logs from protected countries aÃâ ? Loging in protected countries aÃâ ? Logging outside grant boundaries aÃâ ? Loging in prohibited countries such as steep inclines, riversides and H2O catchments aÃâ ? Removing under-/over-sized trees from public woods aÃâ ? Extracting more timber than authorised aÃâ ? Reporting high volume extracted in forest grants to dissemble the fact that portion of the volume declared is extracted from non-authorized boundaries aÃâ ? Loging without mandate aÃâ ? Obtaining logging grants through payoffs.Forests incendiarismaÃâ ?Setting forests on fire to change over them to commercial utilizations.Illegal timber conveyance, trade and lumber smugglingaÃâ ? Transporting logs without mandate aÃâ ? Transporting illicitly harvested lumber aÃâ ? Smuggling lumber aÃâ ? Exporting and importing tree species banned under international jurisprudence, such as Citations aÃâ ? Exporting and importing lumber in dispute of national prohibitions.Transportation pricing and other illegal accounting patternsaÃâ ? Declaring lower values and volumes exported aÃâ ? Declaring purchase monetary values higher than the predominating market monetary values as equipment or services from related companies aÃâ ? Manipulating debt hard currency flows to reassign money to a subordinate or parent company, such as blow uping debt refund to avoid revenue enhancements on net incomes aÃâ ?Under-grading, under-valuing, under-measuring and misclassification of species exported or for the local market.Illegal forest processingaÃâ ? Operating without a processing licence aÃâ ? Ignoring environmental and societal and labour Torahs and ordinances aÃâ ? Using illicitly obtained wood in industrial processing.Table 3: Examples of illegal patterns in the forestry sectorThe World Bank estimates that loss of gross caused by illegal wood activities throughout the universe is deserving US $ 5 billion yearly. Illegal wood activities occur in tropical, temperate and boreal woods.[ 2 ] Illegal forest activities abound in many states, for illustration: * In Indonesia, every bit much as 50 million three-dimensional metres of lumber are estimated to be illicitly cut-down each twelvemonth. * At least one-fifth of Russia Ã¢â¬Ës one-year lumber crop is taken illicitly, and illegal harvest home may account for every bit much as 50 per centum of the sum in East Asia. * In Cambodia in 1997, the volume of illicitly harvested logs was ten times that of the legal crop. * In Cameroon and Mozambique about half of the entire one-year lumber crop is illegal. * In Brazil, an estimated 80 per centum of lumber extracted each twelvemonth in the Amazon is removed illicitly.2.2.4 Illegal LoggingIllegal logging has no individual definition. It is non a legal term derived from pacts, legislative acts, or tribunal sentiments. Neither is it a proficient term that professionals use in a consistent manner. In a general sense, Ã¢â¬Å" illegal logging takes topographic point when lumber is harvested, transported, bought or sold in misdemeanor of national Torahs Ã¢â¬ ( Black and Hayman 2001 ) . This wide definition includes about any illegal act that may happen between the turning of the tree and the reaching of the forest-based merchandise in the custodies of the consumer Ã¢â¬ ( Rosenbaum 2003 ) There are normally no expressed definitions for illegal logging. In pattern, the definition can be derived from the legal misdemeanors that are reported on in the national statistics refering illegal logging. This does non needfully intend that other types of misdemeanors would be ignored ; they may merely be recorded under different headers. In wide footings, the assorted legal misdemeanors associated with illegal logging can be divided into eight groups: ( I ) larceny, ( two ) unauthorized harvest home, ( three ) non-compliance with ordinances related to timber harvest home, ( four ) non-compliance with the process of timber sales/concession award, ( V ) use of timber informations, ( six ) equivocation of revenue enhancements and fees, ( seven ) non-compliance with ordinances refering conveyance or export of lumber, and ( seven ) disobedience with labour Torahs Typically, the statistics on illegal logging in the states involved in the survey refer to misdemeanors which involve phys ical remotion of trees i.e. larceny, unauthorised harvest home and disobedience with cutting ordinances. Corruptness in connexion with lumber harvest home is non recorded under illegal logging unless it involves physical remotion of trees. All types of misdemeanors in the above list except larceny could affect corruptness. Based on interviews with assorted stakeholders in the states involved in the survey, disobedience with labour Torahs is perceived to be merely weakly linked to illegal logging. Sector-specific records are non maintained and forest disposal is non involved in enforcement activities. The illegal logging phenomenon is neither new nor uncontested by the authorities. It started in the old ages prior to the societal economic reform ; it reached the extremum in 1997 and continues to day of the month. From this point of position, the Ã¢â¬Å" unwellness Ã¢â¬ has non infected merely one sector but has extended its roots into other sectors of the economic system, and the Ã¢â¬Å" remedy Ã¢â¬ for this Ã¢â¬Å" unwellness Ã¢â¬ requires the intersectoral cooperation of public disposal, non denying here the interested community and the work of the economic and environmental NGOs.2.3 Forest ManagementForest direction is the subdivision of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal, and societal facets and with the basically scientific and proficient facets, particularly silviculture, protection, and forest ordinance. This includes direction for aesthetics, fish, diversion, urban values, H2O, wilderness, wildlife, wood merchandises, forest famili al resources and other forest resource values. Management can be based on preservation, economic sciences, or a mixture of the two. Techniques include timber extraction, seting and replanting of assorted species, cutting roads and tracts through woods, and forestalling fire. Formal forest direction in Malaysia was introduced in 1901 by the British colonial disposal with the creative activity of a wood section. The section was involved in forestry vegetation, silvicultural pattern, policy preparation and forest saving. Forestry policies formulated by the British in the 1920s and 1930s were consolidated as the National Forestry Policy ( NFP ) in 1978 to guarantee orderly execution of forest direction, preservation and development across all provinces. This is because land and forest in Malaysia are purely province affairs. The ad hoc forest direction policy practiced by each province makes monitoring and control of forest resources at the federal degree hard. The National Forestry Act ( NFA ) of 1984 provides for orderly harvest home, reclamation and preservation of trees at the sustainable output degree.2.3.1 Significance of Forest Management2.3.2 Sustainable Forest ManagementSustainable Forest Management ( SFM ) is the manner of direction in which growin g exceeds timber crop, now besides encompasses economic sciences, environmental and societal qualities that contribute to the sustainability of forest dependent communities and ecosystems every bit good as the forest itself. Malaysia has a program more environmentally-friendly and responsible concern patterns. This will assist cut down runing costs in the long-term and is a wise investing in the hereafter, safeguarding the natural resources depending on corporations and communities. For illustration, local corporations in wood industries are fall ining WWF Ã¢â¬Ës Global Forest and Trade Network. They are aiming European and US markets, where consumers are progressively demanding wood merchandises from sustainably managed woods ( WWF-Malaysia, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to International Tropical Timber Organization ( ITTO, 1992 ) , sustainable wood direction is the procedure of pull offing woods to accomplish one or more clearly specified aims of direction with respect to the production of a uninterrupted flow of coveted wood merchandises and services, without undue decrease of its built-in value and future productiveness, and without undue unwanted effects on the physical and societal environments. FAO ( 1993 ) defines it as one which ensures that the values derived from forest meet present twenty-four hours demands while at the same clip guaranting their continued handiness and use to long-run development demands. Sustainable Forest Management ( SFM ) is impossible to accomplish if a state does non hold a direction system. In this respect, the usage of more systematic attack in pull offing the woods in Peninsular Malaysia began in 1901 when the first forest officer was appointed ( Ismail, 1996 ) . Since so, forest direction patterns in Peninsular Malaysia had been subjected to constant reappraisal and polish so as to guarantee their suitableness in accomplishing forest reclamation and sustained output. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 study has provides a comprehensive overview of the consequences of FRA 2010 grouped harmonizing to seven subjects, covering cardinal facets of sustainable forest direction: aÃâ ? Extent of forest resources aÃâ ? Forest biological diverseness aÃâ ? Forest wellness and verve aÃâ ? Protective maps of forest resources aÃâ ? Productive maps of forest resources aÃâ ? Socio-economic maps of woods aÃâ ? Legal, policy and institutional model2.4 Legal FrameworkThe forestry policies are implemented chiefly through the commissariats in the forest Torahs enacted for the three parts: National Forestry Act 1984 for Peninsular Malaysia, Forest Regulation 1958 for Sarawak and Forest Enactment 1968 for Sabah, and the assorted amendments by the States. The other related ordinances that affect forestry for Peninsular Malaysia include the Land Conservation Act 1960, Environmental Quality Act 1974, National Parks Act 1980, Protection of Wildlife Act 1972, National Land Code 1965, Aboriginal Peoples Act 1954, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and Forest Rules 1985. For Sabah, the relevant ordinances include Forest Rules 1969, Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1977, Land Ordinance 1930, Cultural Heritage ( Conservation ) 1997, Sabah Parks Enactment 1984, Biodiversity Enactment 2000, Conservation of Environment Enactment 1996, Water Resource Enactment 1998, and Environmental Quality Act 1974. Sarawak has the Natural Resources and Environment Ordinance 1997, Forest Rules 1962, Wildlife Protection Ordinance and Rules 1998, The Forests ( Planted Forest ) Rules 1997, Sarawak Biodiversity Centre Ordinance 1997, Sarawak Biodiversity ( Access, Collection & A ; Research Regulations ) 1998, Land Code 1958, Natural Resource and Environmental Ordinance, Water Ordinance 1994, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, Land Ordinance 1952, Native Code 1992, Native Code Rules 1996, and Native Custom Declaration 1918.104.22.168 The Torahs22.214.171.124 Malayan Fundamental lawForests are under the duty of the provinces as enshrined in the Malayan Federal Constitution. Under Article 74 ( 12 ) of the Federal Constitution, land and forest ownership and direction is the duty of the State authoritiess. Each province has control over how they use and protect their forest resources so come up with their ain policies. For illustration, Sarawak governs under the Sarawak Forest Regulation of 1954 while S abah operates under the Sabah Forest Enactment of 1968. The executive authorization of the Federal Government merely extends to the proviso of advice and proficient aid to the States includes aid with forest direction, preparation of forces, behavior of research and presentation or experimental Stationss unless the State agrees to depute some of their authorization to the Federal Government. However, the Federal Government is responsible for trade policies, import and export controls and international cooperation among others. Under the proviso of Article 74 Clause ( 2 ) of the Malayan Constitution, land and forest are defined as province affairs and are therefore within the legal power of the several State Governments. Clause ( 3 ) of Article 76 of the Malayan Constitution ensures that all Acts related to land and forest shall non come into force in a State unless it has been adopted by a jurisprudence made by the legislative assembly of the State. As such each State is empowered to ordain Torahs on forestry and to explicate wood policy independently. The executive authorization of the Federal Government merely extends to the proviso of advice and proficient aid to the States, preparation and the behavior of research, and in the care of experimental and presentation Stationss.126.96.36.199 National Forest PolicyUpon independency from the British in 1957, the Colonial Office returned the woods to Malaysia. In 1958, with commissariats under the Federal Constitution, the National Land Council ( NLC ) was formed Ã¢ â¬Ëfor organizing State and Federal policies and aims covering land usage, excavation, forestry and agribusiness to explicate from clip to clip in audience with the Federal Government, the State Governments and the National Finance Council a national policy for the publicity and control of the use of land throughout the Federation the development of natural resources was hence sensed piecemeal, instead than holistically Ã¢â¬Ë ( Kathirithamby-Wells 2005: 267 ) . The first measure to protecting the forest resources in Malaysia was the formation of the National Forestry Council ( NFC ) in December 1971. The end of the NFC was to make co-ordinated programs and efficaciously pull off Malaysians woods. The NFC is made up of the Chief Curates from all 13 provinces. Subsequently, this organic structure created the basis for the formation of the National Forestry Policy ( NFP ) . This policy was officially adopted by the Malayan authorities in 1978. This policy recognizes the importance of woods for the public assistance of both single communities and that state itself. Malaysia has dedicated itself to sustainable timber output patterns. The National Forest Policy for Peninsular Malaysia of 1978 was revised in 1992 to integrate several new elements, one of which is on the importance of forest jurisprudence enforcement. In this revised policy statements, it was emphasized that the State Governments through their several State Director Forestry must judicially implement the National Forest Act 1984 ( Revised 1993 ) to guarantee sustainable forest resource direction and preservation.188.8.131.52 National Forestry Act 1984An Act to supply for the disposal, direction and preservation of woods and forestry development within the States of Malaysia and for affiliated intents. There is the amendment to National Forestry Act 1984 in 1993 to supply for stiffer punishments for illegal logging and enlisting the Police and Armed Forces to help the Forestry Departments in transporting out enforcement to control illegal logging, lumber larceny and invasions. The cardinal step taken by the Government to forestall forest offense was by amending the National Forestry Act, 1984 to integrate new commissariats to discourage the happening of wood discourtesies. The Act was enacted to update and harmonise forest jurisprudence in the Peninsula. Prior to the Act, the assorted State authoritiess depend on the State Forest Enactment Ã¢â¬Ës, which were formulated in 1930 Ã¢â¬Ës, for legal guidelines on forest direction and preservation. The Act besides enables the effectual execution of the National Forestry Policy passed in 1978. It was amended in 1993 to further beef up its commissariats to control illegal invasion of woods and larceny of lumber. The Act has been adopted by all the provinces in Peninsular Malaysia. The chief aims of amending the Act are as follows: I ) To increase the punishments and fasten the processs in intensifying forest offenses two ) To reassign load of cogent evidence from the prosecuting officer to the defence in the tribunal three ) To depute power in authorship by State Director of Forestry under subdivision 88, 89, 90, 92 or 93 to any member of the armed forces non below the rank of Lance Corporal as empowered to the constabulary but shall non include the power of probe four ) To add new subdivisions 100A and 100B for wagess and protection of betrayers severally, subdivision 101A for power of tribunal to order annulment and disqualification, subdivision 110A for discourtesies committed by licensee or holder of license, and New Sixth Schedule for list of machines, equipment and conveyance Ã¢â¬ . V ) To do general amendments in the national linguistic communication text, alteration of name in the national linguistic communication text and replacement subdivisions 5, 69, 101 and 1042.4.1.4 National Land CodeHarmonizing to subdivision 425 improper business, etc. , of province Land, reserved land or excavation land National Land Code ( Act 56 of 1965 ) and ordinances, Section 425 ( 1 ) stated that any individual who, without lawful authorization Ã¢â¬â Occupies, or erects any edifice on, any State land, reserved land or excavation land or Clears, Big Dippers, digs, encloses or cultivates any such land or portion thereof ; or Cuts or removes any lumber or bring forth on or from such land, shall be guilty of an offense, and apt on strong belief to a all right non transcending ten thousand Ringgit, or imprisonment for a term non transcending one twelvemonth. ( 1A ) Any individual who abets the committee of an offense under sub-section ( 1 ) shall be guilty of an offense, and apt on strong belief to a all right non transcending ten thousand ringgit, or imprisonment for a term non transcending one twelvemonth, or to both. ( 2 ) For the intent of this subdivision, State Land shall include all land held by or on behalf of Federal or State Government a local authorization or a statutory authorization exerting power vested in it by Federal or State jurisprudence. Section 426 besides stated that improper extraction or remotion of stone stuff besides show that any individual who without lawful authorization, extracts removes, or, conveyances or permits the extraction, remotion or transit of stone stuff from any land shall be guilty of an offense, and apt on strong belief to a all right non transcending 50 thousand ringgit, or imprisonment for a term non transcending five old ages, or to both.[ 3 ] Section 426A show that any constabularies officer non below the rank of Inspector, Registrar, Land Administrator, Settlement Officer or other officer duly authorized by the State Authority ( afterlife in this portion referred to as Ã¢â¬Å" authorised officer Ã¢â¬ may without warrant- Arrest any individual found perpetrating or trying to perpetrate or abetting the committee of an offense under subdivision 425 or 426 Seize any vehicle, tractor, agricultural implement or other thing whatsoever which he has ground to believe was used or is being used in the committee of an offense under that subdivision Demolish, destroy or take any edifice, or take ownership in the name of the State Authority of any harvest, erected or cultivated on any land land in dispute thereof.184.108.40.206 List of improper activities under each LawMisdemeanors of the protective commissariats ( harm of wood modesty through fire, prohibited Acts of the Apostless in a wood modesty, illegal logging and remotion from other countries, cutting of undersized trees ) are punished by mulct and imprisonment in the instance of unauthorised entry for intervention with fencings or notice boards, by a all right entirely [ Idaho. Section 20 ( 1 ) ( C ) and 33 ( 1 ) ] . Assorted offenses of fraud, privacy of grounds and having forest green goods are besides punished by mulct and imprisonment ( Section 30 ) . In add-on to mulcts and imprisonment, the Forest Enactment authorizes the tribunal to order the cancellation of licenses, the payment of any fees that would hold been collectible in the instance of unaccredited Acts of the Apostless that could hold been licensed, and compensation of 10 times the value of forest green goods removed or damaged ( Enactment No. 2 of 1968, Section 34 ) . There is besides proviso for combination of certain offenses [ come ining closed country, rehearsing switching cultivation ( Section 20 ( C ) ] , capable to the payment of an sum based on the mulct provided for the offense ( Section 35 ) . The Forest Enactment contains a figure of givens that shift the load of cogent evidence to the suspect charged with a forest offense. In prosecutions against licensees, if there is an extraction path from an country of alleged illegal remotion to the accredited country, or if the volume of lumber claimed to be covered by a license exceeds the production of the accredited country, the elements of illegal remotion or of ownership of green goods in regard of which an offense has been committed are presumed. In any instance in which the being of a license, payment of any royalty, ownership of farm animal or forest green goods, or the birthplace of wood green goods is in issue, the load of cogent evidence prevarications on the accused ( id. Section 38 ) .2.4.2 The Agencies Involved220.127.116.11 Forestry Department Peninsular MalaysiaForestry Department Peninsular Malaysia ( JPSM ) is one of the sections under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia and consists of Peninsular Malaysia Forestry Headquarters, 11 State Forestry Department and 33 District Forest Office in all of the Peninsular Malaysia. The section is headed by Director General of Forestry and assisted by two Deputy Director of Forestry. At the terminal of 2009, the figure of employees is about 5.432 people. Forestry Department is responsible for the direction, planning, protection and development of the Permanent Forest Reserve ( HSK ) in conformity with the National Forestry Policy ( NDP ) 1992 and National Forestry Act ( APN ) 1984. Peninsular Malaysia Forestry Headquarters responsible for the preparation of forestry policies, supplying advice and proficient services to State Forestry Department in the planning, direction and development of woods, forest harvest home and wood-based industries, forest operations research, and preparation and human resource development. At the Head Office of Forestry, there are two Deputy Director General who are Deputy Director ( Policy and Planning ) and Deputy Director ( Operations and Technical ) is responsible for each of the six divisions. Meanwhile, there is one Unit of measurement and another one division is straight responsible to the Director General of Forestry. Sector Policy and Planning Deputy Director General of Forestry ( Policy and Planning ) in charge of planning and economic wood, forest resource direction, silviculture and preservation of forest biological science, wood development and forest eco-park, province Parkss, international personal businesss and forestry plantation and forest protection. Sector Operations and Technical Deputy Director General of Forestry ( Operations and Technical ) is responsible for the personal businesss of disposal and finance, technology, forestry, lumber industry, proficient and enforcement of the forest, forestry preparation and human capital development and information engineering systems development.18.104.22.168 State Forestry Department Negeri SembilanState Forestry Department is responsible for the disposal and control of forest development, forest gross aggregation and development of province forest resources. The section besides plans and coordinates the development of wood-based industries. State F orestry Department is divided into Forest Operations Division and Forest Development and supported by the Office of the Forest District. Forest Operations Division is responsible for disposal, forest jurisprudence enforcement, gross aggregation, and co-ordinates and liaises with the Head Office of Forestry, other province sections, statutory organic structures and bureaus. Meanwhile Forestry Development Division is responsible for planning, implementing and supervising the activities of direction and development of woods, including biodiversity preservation, ecotourism development and rehabilitation of forest countries and the readying and execution of the State Forest Management Plan. Forest Office District is responsible for disposal, control of forest development, forest gross aggregation and enforcement of forest Torahs. This office is besides responsible for implementing the activities of direction and development of woods, including forest direction of forest eco-park and province Parkss. The operation in the wood of State Forestry Department can split into two parts which are jurisprudence enforcement and forest harvest home. In jurisprudence enforcement portion, enforcement activities undertaken in all countries affecting the Permanent Forest Reserve, the State Land Reserve and alienated land. In peculiar, this activity is to implement the National Forestry Act 1984 and amendments, the Rules of the Forest Enactment of the Wood Industry and the Rules of the Wood Industry. Forestry Department is besides taking a precautional attack to learning from clip to clip through Development Program and Publicity through seminars, classs and official accounts and besides in the field, particularly to operators / lumbermans to follow with ordinances and Torahs in force. The consequences of the National Forestry Council-19 in 2005 had decided that all forest discourtesies affecting Section 15 and Section 40 of the APN 1984 ( Amendment 1993 ) ( instances of illegal logging ) are no longer allowed to be compounded, but proceed with prosecution in tribunal proceedings. In add-on, Section 86 and Section 107 is besides the subdivisions contained in the bing APN 1984 ( Rev. 1993 ) for instances of mistakes that can non be compounded even though it is the first clip. All of these discourtesies shall be referred to the State Legal Advisor for more sentiments and execution of appropriate direction. Reaping of woods in was conducted in conformity with demands of the standard standards, indexs and activities set by the ITTO Year 2000 Objective and the MS ISO 9000 for the development of Forest Land in the Permanent Reserved Forests are capable to an one-year allowable cut an country of 2.460 hectares. Forest Harvesting is the chief standards to pull off and keep woods in line with the rules of Sustainable Forest Management for the benefit of societal, economic, cultural and environmental. The harvest home of woods is taking activity and forest green goods that contributes to the development and socio-economic development. Reaping the Permanent Forest Reserve is an activity that must be implemented harmonizing to the best forest direction systems to cut and take plenty wood to size and adulthood of the demands of wood-based industries. Harvesting is carried out selective cutting system with adequate left base at the following unit of ammunition in line with the economic development of forest resources to guarantee sustainability and environmental stableness.22.214.171.124 Land Office and DistrictAmong the maps, functions and duties of Land Office and District are supplying services in direction, finance, services, licensing, records direction and security functionaries with the purpose of easing travel and fiscal disposal and program, manage, co-ordinate and implement policies for socio-economic development of local communities particularly in rural countries to accomplish th e NEP by supplying basic installations needed. Land office and District responsible to make an efficient land disposal system to guarantee efficient and effectual mode all affairs ( traffics ) are concerned with the land and guarantee that all studies made by members of the populace are investigated and action taken quickly. They besides need to maximise gross aggregation and better aggregation of arrears of gross and update history records the consequences of the Land Office from clip to clip with the right and subject the returns within the specified clip. Land Office and District can be divided to three chief divisions which are Management Services Division, Land Management Division, and Development Division. Under the Land Management Division, there are Land Development Unit, Land Disposal Unit, Land Registration Unit & A ; Heritage, Revenue Unit, and Enforcement Unit. The maps of Enforcement Unit are place the location of jobs and ailments, monitoring and carry oning probes, behavior patrols every hebdomad two times and guarantee that all activities that performed has valid license. Among the functions and duties of Enforcement Unit are look into the land in relation to the application of province land, permits for prospecting, transition, impermanent housing licence applications, subdivision, subdivision, consolidation, reserve, land acquisition, implement enforcement on illegal land geographic expedition, breach of status of land, the transportation of stone stuff, carry out enforcement responsibilities, the detainment, arrogation, devastation, in line power supplied under the Section 426A National Land Code ( NLC ) , investigate studies of instances associating to set down jurisprudence ( NLC ) , regulate affairs associating to the merchandises of stone stuffs and responsible for capturing, destruction, and provide basic coverage breaches and illegal business and misdemeanor types of status harmonizing to Section 426A NLC.2.4.3 The Power or Duties of Agencies126.96.36.199 Monitoring188.8.131.52 EnforcementThe Forest Enactment empowers forest and constabularies officers to carry on hunts without warrant ( except in homes ) , seize forest green goods, and equipment and apprehension suspected wrongdoers where they are improbable to look on biddings or decline to place themselves right ( Section 36 ) . Forest officers do non hold the powers of ranking constabulary officers to attest to statements made by an accused ( californium. Malaysia Crim. Pro. Code, F, M, S. Cap. 6 ) , although some ictuss might hold the same consequence.2.4.4 The Punishments184.108.40.206 List of punishments for each improper activitySectionInformation ABOUT SectionPunishment15Take any forest green goods from a lasting reserved forest or a State land Fine non transcending[ 4 ]five hundred 1000 ringgit and to imprisonment for a term which shall non be less than one twelvemonth but shall non transcend twenty old ages.25 ( 2 )Fails to follow with a Form 2 notice Fine non transcending[ 5 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 6 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment and if the offense is a go oning one, to a farther mulct non transcending[ 7 ]one 1000 ringgit for every twenty-four hours.32 ( 1 )Occupy or transport out any activity upon any land within a lasting reserved forest without permission Fine non transcending[ 8 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 9 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment40 ( 1 )Remove any forest green goods without removal licence from any ( a ) anomic land ; ( B ) land held under a impermanent business licence ; ( degree Celsius ) excavation land ; or ( vitamin D ) reserved land, Fine non transcending[ 10 ]five hundred 1000 ringgit and to imprisonment for a term which shall non be less than one twelvemonth but shall non transcend twenty old ages.47 ( 1 ) & A ; ( 4 )Enter any closed wood without permission Fine non transcending[ 11 ]10s thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending three[ 12 ]old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment.50 ( 4 )Use of forest roads without route license 13Fine non transcending ten thousand ringgit81 ( 1 )Acts prohibited in lasting reserved woods ( a ) graze cowss or license cowss to graze ; ( B ) fell, cut, ring, grade, lop or tap any tree ; or injure by fire, or otherwise, or take any tree or lumber ; ( degree Celsius ) cause any harm in droping any tree or film editing or dragging any lumber ; ( vitamin D ) hunt for, collect, capable to any fabricating procedure or take any forest green goods or minerals ; ( vitamin E ) clear or interrupt up any land for cultivation or any other intent ; ( degree Fahrenheit ) use toxicant substance, or dynamite or other explosives on rivers or lakes for the intent of fishing ; or Hunt, shoot, fish or set traps or traps ; or ( g ) trespass in any mode non in this subdivision hereinbefore prohibited Fine non transcending[ 14 ]10s thousand ringgitA Fine non transcending[ 15 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 16 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonmentAFine non transcending ten thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending three old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment82 ( 1 )Carry any fire, or leave any fire combustion, within a lasting reserved forest Fine non transcending[ 17 ]50 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending[ 18 ]five old ages or to both such mulct and imprisonment.Table 5: Summary of illegal business in the wood and punishment harmonizing to Act 313 National Forestry Act 1984 and National Forestry ( Amendment ) Act 1993 [ Act A864 ]The tabular array above shows that the punishments that imposed to the illegal residents or any individual who are interrupt the jurisprudence is really high and can leap to twofold, trifold and even much more higher after the amendment of National Forestry Act in 1993. For illustration, the people who are take any forest green goods from a lasting reserved forest or a State land harmonizing to subdivision 15 is all right non transcending five 100 1000 ringgit and to imprisonment for a term which shall non be less than one twelvemonth but shall non transcend twenty old ages but antecedently was 10 thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term non transcending three old ages or to both before the National Forestry ( Amendment ) Act 1993 [ Act A864 ] implemented.2.5 Analysis of Legal Framework2.5.1 FailingYearNo. Of CasesNotes1987172BEFORE Amendment to National Forestry Act 1984198813619892331990172199151219921911993149AFTER Amendment to National Forestry Act 1984199441199534199614199722199823199926200037200115200213200321Table 4: Number of Illegal Logging Cases in Peninsular Malaysia Harmonizing To Year ( 1987 Ã¢â¬â 2003 )This has shown that authorities Ã¢â¬Ës attempt to forestall illegal forest activities in the forest particularly illegal logging in Peninsular Malaysia from acquiring worse nevertheless in fact the illegal business in the wood is still go on. Since there is stricter punishments for those illegal residents after amendment of National Forestry Act in 1993 but why illegal business still can go on even in the reserved land. This has revealed that is the failing of system monitoring and enforcement from relevant governments li ke land office and forestry section who have the power to supervise and implement against illegal residents.2.5.2 ProposalHarmonizing to newspaper Ã¢â¬Å" Utusan Malaysia Ã¢â¬ dated ( 15-10-2009 ) , Y.B. Tan Sri Joseph Kurup who is Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Environment ( NRE ) said that his ministry likes to amend and streamline the commissariats of the National Forestry Act 1984 to turn to the issue of illegal logging. He besides added that they want to set up enforcement squads in the wood territory and province degrees and Ã¢â¬Å" winging squad Ã¢â¬ in the Forestry Department for battling illegal logging instances in add-on to placing countries with high happening of such events. That has showed that authorities wants to beef up their system of monitoring and enforcement particularly illegal logging instances. However there are still holding other illegal forestry activities happen such as illegal business of forestland, fire combustion, and so on which will give a great impact to the environment and single. Therefore there is a survey or research to supervise other illegal forestry activities and better the enforcement against the illegal residents.2.6 DrumheadFrom the survey that have been done, illegal wood activities which include illegal business, illegal logging, etc need look earnestly by the relevant governments, organisation or non-governmental organisation ( NGO ) and even the populace who are concern about the illegal business in the wood. Since these activities can do harm or destruct the habitation of biodiversity of vegetations and zoologies in the wood, therefore indispensable stairss need to transport out to protect them from being destroy or extinct. Government or related governments have done their attempt to forestall the illegal business in the wood by enforcing heavier punishments to the illegal residents by the amendment of National Forestry Act 1984 in 1993 and National Land Code ( Amendment ) act 2008. The consequence after the amendment is figure of illegal logging instances in Peninsular Malaysia bead dramatically in that period but illegal businesss in the wood still go on and seems similar addition late. Hence there is of import to analyze or reassess system monitoring and enforcement of the governments from land office and forestry section because of the impact of illegal business in the wood. In the undermentioned chapter, the instance survey will concentrate on the wood of Negeri Sembilan where illegal businesss take topographic point to happen out the causes and betterment of system monitoring if demand.