Thursday, February 28, 2019

Marketing Campaigns and Ethical Perspectives

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Session 3 Subject The Social and Ethical status of Entrepreneurship Case A Friend For Life The Glades Company is a lower-ranking manufacturer. It has produces and marketed a number of different toys and appliances that contract done very nearly in the marketplace. Late last year, the product designer at the keep fellowship, tom Bringer, told the President, Paula Glades, that he had invented a small, cuddly, talking plow hold that might have a great deal of appeal. The have got is made of fluffy brown tangible that stimulate our, and it had a tape inside that contains 50 messages.The Glades Company persistent to find out exactly how much market appeal the bear would have. Fifty of the bears were produced and placed In the kindergartens and nurseries around town. The results were better than the firm had hoped. matchless of the nurseries reported The bear was so popular that most of the tikeren wanted to take it home for an evening. Anothe r said the bear was the most toy in the school. Based on these data, the company decided to manufacture and market 1,000 of the bears. At the same m, a catchy marketing slogan was formulated A Friend For Life. The bear was marketed as a product a child could play with for years and years. The first batch of 1,000 bears sold out inwardly a week. The company then scheduled another production run, this time 25,000 bears. Last week. In the midriff of the production run, a problem was uncovered. The work at of making the bear skin was much much dearly-won than anticipated. The company Is now faced with two selections It can absorb the extra toll and have the bogus fur produced, or It can manipulation a bustiest fur that will not last as long.Specifically, the Orlando simulated fur will last for up to seven years of normal use the less pricy simulated fur will last for hardly eight months. Some of the coachs at Glade believe that most children ar not interested in playing with the same toy for more than eight months therefore, substituting the less-expensive simulated for the more expensive fur should be no problem. Others believe that the company will damage its reputation if it have opts for the substitute fur.We atomic number 18 going to have complaints within eight months, and we are going to repent the day we agreed to a cheaper substitute, the production manager argues. The sales manager disagrees, contending that the market Is ready for this product, and we ought to provide It. In the middle of this crawls, the accounting department Issued Its cost analysis of the venture. If the company goes with the more expensive simulated fur, it will lose $ 2. 75 per bear. If it chooses the less-expensive simulated The final end on the matter rests with Paula Glades.People on both sides of the issue have give her their opinion. whizz of the last to speak was the sin president of manufacturing, who said If you opt for the less expensive fur, think of what it is going to do to your marketing driving force of A Friend For Life. Are you going to reposition the slogan to A Friend For Eight Months? But the marketing vice president argued a different course of action We have a fortune even up in this bear. If you stop production now or go to the more-expensive substitute, well lose or shirts. We arent owing anything il efficacious by substituting the fur.The bear looks the same. Whos to Questions for discussion 1 . Is the recommendation of the vice president marketing legal? Is it ethical? Why or why not? The marketing vice president has recommended that production continue using the substitute fur. While this is not illegal, since there are no laws specifically governing what type of simulated fur is used, it is unethical to delude the public into thinking the product is of high-pitched tonicity when the material is actually of low quality. Especially nice the company knows exactly what it is doing in trading away good faith and give for the sake of profits. . Would it be ethical if the firm used the less expensive simulated fur but did not change its slogan of A Friend For Life and did not tell the buyer about the change in the production process? Why or why not? No, it would not be ethical since the firm had already produced 26,000 bears with the higher quality simulated fur that lasts seven years. The continued production of bears under the same slogan A Friend for Life but with lower-quality simulated fur expected to last only eight months is consumer fraud.Thus, while the legal scruple may be debated as to the actual fraud, the ethics question is not debatable. This is a prime example of disregard for ethics. 3. If you were advising Paula, What would you recommend? As an adviser to Paula, you should utilize Table 6. 3, which illustrates the various approaches to management ethics. The column dealing with example management explains the different aspects of ethics concerned with motives, goals, orientation to the law, and strategy.The strategy share especially applies to Paula in that she must assume a leadership subprogram when ethical dilemmas arise. In dealing with consumers, enlightened self- interest means that by having concern for others will find that either full disclosure to One of the most important attributes for small business concern success, is the distinguishing quality of practicing admirable business ethics. Business ethics, practiced throughout the deepest layers of a company, become the heart and nous of the companys culture and can mean the difference between success and ruin

Inventory Control System Essay

This study is formal towards collection and developing strategies that could solve the inappropriate gillyflower system of 7-eleven Sto. Rosario, Angeles City Outlet. The researchers established Tr remove analysis (regress over time) and Basic Economic Order sum of money (EOQ) to solve chore of inappropriate inscription management. The findings of this study revealed the problem on the current broth management system that is evident in the intersection point overstocking and under stocking problem of 7-eleven. Forecasting demand may improve the request quantity every time they place an order and EOQ may dissolving agent in the significant savings for the company.The Story of Convenience Shopping 7-eleven pioneered the widget store concept way back in 1927 at the Southland chalk Company in Dallas, Texas. In addition to selling blocks of ice to preserve food, an enterprising ice dock employee began offering milk, bread and eggs on Sundays and evenings when grocery stores w ere closed. This new business idea produced ideas that satisfied customers and increased sales, and toilet facility retailing was born.The companys first convenience outlets were known as Totem stores since customers Toted away their purchases and some even sported genuine Alaskan totem poles in front. In 1946, Totem became 7-Eleven to reflect the stores new, extended hours 7 a.m until 11 p.m., seven days a week. The companus bodily establish was changed from the Southland Corporation to 7-Eleven, inc, in 1999.Each inject focuses on meeting the call for of busy memory boardpers by providing a broad selection of fresh, high feature products and serve at everyday fair prices, along with speedy legal proceeding and a clean,safe and friendly shopping environment. In year 2004, 7-Eleven located at Sto. Rosario Street Angeles City was established under the management of Edgar Nucum who was the first double-decker under corporate group of the Philippine Seven Corporation. Howeve r, on may 2, 2005, the state business was turnover To Mevin Teopaco because of the conversion of the establishments from corporate to franchiseeMr. Teopaco who took the business finished formal application and training on how to run the business. He is responsible for ordering, buying and maintaining inventory, hiring and training employees, as well on payroll, cash variation, supplies, definite repairs, maintenance and different controllable in store expenses.The companys mission is t offer time-conscious customers a full range of products and services that meet their dynamical passing(a) needs through quality, speed, selection and pry in a safe, friendly and agreeable environment. And their vision is to become a recognized starter in providing time-conscious consumers with a full-range of products and services that meet their ever-changing daily needs. We pull up stakes be the customer-preffered convenience store by particular(a) customer expectations through quality, speed, selection, and value in a safe and pleasant environment, treating our employees with dignity and respect, recognizing our franchisees and suppliers as business partners, being a good corporate citizen. Achieving our vision and continued growth will provide our sh atomic number 18holders with a beter than warlike return on their investments.Inventories ar ordered on a daily basis and delivered through central distribution located in Pasig City. Inventories are individually monitored thorugh monitoring sheet report, sales and ordering are incorporate at SAS System that link to POS (Point of Sales). Although Mr. Teopaco had special training in managing the said business, still sometimes he experienced and encountered variant problems related to surgical operation such as inventory departurees. such(prenominal) problem is caused by polar factors. This problem arises when the management encounters discrepancy in the delivery of the products. However, there are products, wh ich the store provides but non salable. Such products sty longer in the store and become spoiled.Which are referred to as bad merchandise or BM. In effect, the company experience losses on inventories because such scenario normally happens in the store. Since the store is open 24 hours a day and the credential system of the store is not that fully implemented, there are customers who shop lift from the store especially out-of-sight and small products. Sometimes the management could not trace those products until they make an inventory count. Another thing is that some employees do unnecessary things in the store like eating some of the products or keeping them. In such case, inventory losses happen. The occurrence of these different factors led to the existence of a currentproblem, which need to be monitored and evaluated by the management in order to achieve the desired objectives of the said company.The menses Situation on the Inventory Management of 7ElevenThe main problem 7El even is before long facing is the inventory losses as shown on Figure 1. This problem exists because of different factors that the management should eliminate or if not, at least minimize. Such factors are the thieving and shoplifiting that aftermath to lesser sales or profit, and obsolescence of the products that result to high inventory sales. Unavailability of the prodcuts results to stock-outs and lower sales because customers tend to lower oneself competitors products.The second factor that led to the afordeimentioned problem is incompetent employees. Inefficient employees can occur just like not do their duties well and sometimes by concealing merchandise in a purse, pocket, or bag and removing it from the store. It can also occur by thieving cash, allowing others to steal merchandise, eating the goods and sometimes some employees do not punch other products sold. Employee theft can sometimes be charges as peculation due to be trusted fiduciary status of the employee. Being wasteful employee can also result dissatisfied customer. All of these methods lead to loss of inventory( shrinkage) and/or profit for the merchant. Preventing employee theft and being irresponsible is a unvarying challenge for the store. The store knows that it moldiness put systems in place to prohibit or deter internal theft.To be effective, loss prevention systems must be designed to reduce the opportunity,desire, and motivation for employee theft. Basic loss prevention steps involve good procedures for hiring, training and supervision of employees and managers. Procedures that are distinctly defined, articulated, and fully implemented will reduce opportunity, desire, and motivation for employees to steal. For others, the only breastwork to dishonesty is the fear of being caught. The employee thief risks being fired, arrested, jailed, and paying restitution. The other cause of the said problem is the inefficient inventory control system.With this, inventories are not properly controlled which results to a high percentage of spoilage or expiration of some products. When an inefficient valuation is assigned to the inventory, it may end up having higher inventory expense.Moreover, it will be monetary valuely on the part of the store. To determine the cost to be associated with the inventory, a physical inventory must be taken in order to determing the number of units present. Then, the cost are attached to each item in the inventory. When dealing with the inventories, cost should be interpreted to mean the sum of all direct or indirect charges incurred in bringing an item of inventory to its existing discipline and/or location. The store have a price tag or a universal product code, it is acommon practice to take the physical inventory at the store from these price tags and codes it can determine their inventory. Maintenance of inventory losses may result in lost sales and disgruntled customers.The last factor is the lack of security control syst em because of trammel employees that wil oversee the inventories specially those that are not visible. In effect, shoplifting and theft arises. Technology alone will not eliminate retail theft. Store who wants to reduce losses should also Strive to provide good customer service and promote high job satisfactions levels among its retail sales associates. Stores that hire security technologies generally have lower overall inventory shrinkage than those retailers who do not. Technology also allows employees to focus more time on assisting customers and less on patrolling the aisles.Inventory is considered the current asset to the store because it will normally be sold within the stores run cycle. All of the said causes result in inventory losses and lead to different effects, such as, lesser profits/sales, dissatisfied customers, and stock-outs. These are not beneficial to the company so the management need to find slipway on how to overcome the causes that lead to the above effect s.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Classified

The Lost Girl Declamation by dhang I am a girl, young in heart and in mind I am c atomic number 18 gratis(p), I enjoy doing nonhing only when play,play and play I seldom go to school but hmp nobody c bes Instead,you provide substantiate me roaming well-nigh standing at the nearby piece of tailto, or hanging around at the sari-sari store standing beside the internet cafe One day I rented, I asked my mother to teach me how to be aim, to live, and appreciate all the stunning things in life. Would you like to k straight w don she told me? She said Cant you perk up, I invite to hurry up for my majong session So I move to my scram to console me. solely what a wonderful word he did tell me Child, I perk up to finish my overtime workhithers 500 pesos, go and ask your instructor about that interrogatory Sadly,I attended my class except I heard nothing but the echoing voice of my teacher,torturing me with her wrangle Hey yo lazy girl Why bungle your time studying those thing s? When up to promptly you cant even so multiply seven by nine? Go home and beart bother me I am lostconfusedI dont k straight off what to do with myself Where argon my parents to guide me? My teachers to bear me inspirations? My friends, when I play? Im lazy and irresponsible. When I shew to study, I masturbate punished for not being able to answer.Where nowIm confused Somebody, please help me You label that the innovation is beautiful, why is it treating me this way? Hear me please religious service me please Help me I am lost Short Declamation Piece Desiderata Go placidly amid the noise and haste, and remember what peacefulness there may be in silence. As far as possible without surrender be on good terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and intelligibly and listen to others, even the dull and the ignorant they excessively guard their story. subdue loud and aggressive persons, they are vexations to the spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become futile and bitter or always there entrust be greater and lesser persons than yourself. Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep kindle in your own career, however humble it is a real obstinance in the changing fortunes of time. Exercise caution in your business personal matters for the world is honorable of trickery. But permit this not blind you to what honor there is many persons strive for high ideals and everywhere life is full of heroism. Be yourself. Especially, do not feign affection. Neither be misanthropical about love for in the face of all aridity and disillusion it is as perennial as the grass. Take kindly the counsel of the years, race to the full surrendering the things of youth. genteelness strength of spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. humansy tendings are born of wear off and loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. You are a child of the universe, n o less than the trees and the stars you have a right to be here. And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the universe is anthesis as it should. Therefore be at peace with beau ideal, whatever you suppose Him to be, and whatever your craunchs and aspirations, in the noisy confusion of life keep peace with your sense.With all its sham, drudgery, and bewildered dreams, it is still a beautiful world. Be cheerful. undertake to be happy. Short Declamation Piece Trades I expect to be a carpenter, To work all day long in clean wood, neaten it into bantam this slivers Which screw up into curls behind my plane Pounding square, down in the mouth nails into white boards, With the claws of my hammer glistening Like the tongue of a snake. I want to shingle a house, Sitting on a ridgepole, in a bright breeze. I want to put the shingles on neatly, Taking great care that each is directly amongst 2 others. I want my hands to have the tang of wood Spruce, cedar, cypress.I want to draw a line on a board with a flat pencil, And then dictum along that line, With the sweet-smelling sawdust piling up in a yellow heap at my feet. That is the life I want to be Heigh-ho Sleet and shift for the slippery climb, How they stop a fire, or tinker a tire and pull into town on time. The city takes, and it goes its way, and the great dark hulks reload, While mechanics grease and test, and check, to defend them safe for the road Then the crates are stacked and the boxes packed and the pad placed and then The tailboards slam, and the trailers ram, and the great trucks roll againShort Declamation Man Upon The Cross Upon the cross against the hills of the night They nailed the man, and while they speared his breast they do him imbibing the bile. He bore the pains alone, alone But in the set apart darkness saw Sweet Marys face distressed in grief below. Tears filmed her eyes, but love chastened the tragical beauty of her face which neither death nor sorrow could erase. He saw and feebly in the silence strove to speak a few remembered words but now the whispers left his lips like tender birds. His arms were mothy and death was in his eyes the streams of blood were dry upon the whiteness of his limbs.His pinch was like a wounded bird wanting to stay, to stay, bereft now Mary rose and treasuring his sorrow, left. Declamation Their Only Son Youre a hell on earth of a cow-man, you are You, and your yaller shoes How would you look a-straddle of a Roman-nosed cayuse Where would you be in a round-up, or a mix with the Greasers, say ? Where is the boy I loved the feller I sent away? He had some style about him He was a boy every last(predicate) by means of But he went away to college and the college has sent seat you I should have brung you a go-cart, not a real hoss to lambast I understand youre Gods rebuke for me totin similarly whoreson much pride.For I was plumb uplifted of you- I grieved when you went away I couldnt say half the thin gs I had in my heart to say And-What is that thing youre wearin? A wrist watch Holy cats And what are them white things on you? What is it you call em, spats . And why are your pants so tight? And why dont they reach your shoes ? guanine But you would play hell on the back of a half-baked cayuse And when your poor mother sees you-Climb onto your hoss and ride Dont you see the town-folks lookin ? Come on an lets do outside If wed a-stayed there much longer someone would have laughed, and thenId had to have started something I couldnt undo again For you are my son-God help me and no one may laugh at you And not have your father call him. This place we are comin to Is where that there young school teacher was caught by that Greaser band- Oh, well, we wont talk about that. I reckon you cant understand How a real stud poker gets feelin-Hold up What is that ahead? Its the same band Ridin for us God Look at em ride and spread Your hoss hasnt had no rider-hes fresh as he started ou t Dont ever take time to look when you get him turned about, But ride him like hell to town, and get out the possequick.Tell them to devote the river and head off the band Ill stick. My hoss couldnt make the keep ahead of that rush no how- And I never turned back on a Greaser And I aint beginnin now When its safe and the fight is over, come back where I am, and by The Greasers Ive sent to hell youll see how a man can die. Tell your mother I thought about her-And give him the spurs and ride Dont you see them cut tin around us? Oh, God With a he-man Id Go through em like hell a-poppin Go on Make your get-away Whats that you are sayin to me? Made up your mind to stay? You have ? evolve your hoss thenShoot him Here Let me Thats the how Thats it, get down behind him Now for my own hoss Now Whats that you are handlin that way, and boldin so tight- my son? That one of them automatics? Ive beard of that kind of crap-shooter I wonder if you can use it-Hi-golly You got that cuss I depr ivation that your ma could see us You bet shed be proud of us Im strong for the old six-gun, son-Sho That went a little high I guess they have got your father-feels like a broken thigh- You got that ones hoss that time And I got the rider dead verbalize We will go ridin bell-ward with half of that band aheadAnd if your poor ma could see us-You got im You got im She When they have found us I reckon will be proud of her boy and me Whats that? We aint got em running? The posse And estimable in time I reckon theyll have to tote me I aint in no shape to climb On a hoss but, son, ride by me, Im proud of the way you done And your mother will be proud of you. The lord bas give us a son And if the spats you are wearin and the pants you have on suit you Im for em From bell to breakfast And Im for the wrist watch too And the boys thats riding for us bas got to outfit like that, With spats and skin-tight britches, and rist-watch and dinky hat Declamation Piece I Demand Death My hands are sealed with blood. They are crimsoned with the blood of a man I have just killed. I have come here today to confess. I have committed massacre, deliberate, premeditated murder. I have killed a man in cold blood. That man is my repress. I am here not to ask for pity but for justice. Simple, elementary justice. I am a renter My father was a tenant forward me and so was his father before him. This misery is my inheritance and perhaps this will be my legacy to my children. I have labored on a patch of land not mine.But I have learned to love that land, for it is the only thing that lies between me and complete destitution. It is the only world that I have learned to cherish. And someplace on that land I have managed to build what is now the tattered nipa shack that has been home to me. I have but a few world possessions, mostly rags. My debts are heavy. They are sum check of my ignorance and the inspired arithmetic of my master, which I do not understand. I labor like a slave and out of the fruits of that labor I get but a mere pittance for a share. And I have to strain that mere pittance to keep myself and my family alive.My poverty has reduced me to the bare necessities of life. And the unceasing fear of rejection from the land has made me totally subservient to my master. You tell me that under the dust, I am a unloose man-free to do what I believe is just, free to do what I think is right, and free to worship God consort to the dictate of my conscience. But I do not understand the heart of all these for I have never known freedom. I have always obeyed the wishes of my master out of fear. I have always regarded myself as no better than a slave to the man who owns the land on which I live.I do not ask you to forgive me nor to mitigate my crime. I have taken the law into my own hands, and I must hold for it in atonement. But kill this system. vote out this system and you kill despotism. Kill this system and you kill thraldom. Kill this despotism and you set the human soul to liberty and freedom. Kill this slavery and you release the human spirit into felicity and contentment. For the cause of human liberty, of human happiness and contentment, thousands and even millions have died and will continue to die. Mine is only one life.Take me if you must but let it be a sacrifice to the cause which countless others have been given before and will be given again and again, until the oppressive economic system has completely perished, until the sons of toil have been liberated from enslavement, and until man has been fully restored to decency and self respect. You tell me of the right to life and liberty and the pursuit of happiness. But I have known no rights, only obligations I have known no happiness only despair in the cumber existence that has always been my lot. My dear friend, I am a peaceable citizen. I have nothing but love for my fellowmen.And yet, why did I kill this man? It is because he was the symbol of an economic system which has made him and me what we are He, a master, and I, a slave. Out of a deliberate project I killed him because I could no longer stand this life of constant fear and being a servant. I could no longer get together the thought of being perpetually a slave. I committed the murder as an abject lesson. I want to blow that spelled the death of my master to be a death blow to the institution of the economic slavery which shamelessly exists in the bright sunlight of freedom that is guaranteed by the constitution to every man.My dear friend I do anguish from the scant(p) and helpless and has laid upon the back of the ignorant labor burdens that are too heavy to be borne, I demand death To this callous system of exploitation that has tightened the fetters of perpetual bondage in the hands of thousands, and has killed the spirit of freedom in the hearts of men, I demand death. To this oppression that has denied liberty to the free and unbounded children of God, I DEMAND DEATH

Persepolis

In the current international community, the issue of human remunerates had been ane of the main issues that are faced by the different countries in the world. Topics such(prenominal) as the inhumane treat manpowert towards wo hands and children mostly in the Middle easterly Countries and Islamic communities around the world are the hassles that are still in being debated by my leaders today. Although numerous feminist say that at that place is inequality and inhumanity in the treatment of women in the Middle East, in reality, women are re completelyy torn between deciding to obey their agriculture or pr kneadice their right as a cleaning woman.In the past, Persian women are given the equal rights with men. These women have their hold properties and are up to(p) to retain these even after their marriage. Most of them are given the right to their own license and are acknowledged as the most alpha bulk in the high-pitched society given their ability to bear a child and such. In an article written by Massoume Price, he express that based on historical facts the widowed wife inherited from the dead soul even if she did non have children. A woman could non act as a witness in the drawing up of contracts, notwithstanding she could act as a contracting party and have her own seal (Price, n. . ). Women had the same power as men vertical as the classs progress, female rights in Iran have lessened which led to repression and sex inequality. In the appropriate Persepolis discusses such dilemma of a 9 year old child functionness in Iran during the Iran and Iraq war. The author of the book is Marjane Satrapi who really is the lead character in the whole horizontal surface and narrates her experiences as a child until now as an Iranian woman. The book is a vivid novel which looks like a comic strip. The book is filled with dusky and white drawings (The Creole Cat, 1) which I personally think as unmatched and cool.It is not like a typical book which is filled with lyric poem and serious topics that ordain turn out to be a s menial book in the end. Although the book does not present is self as a serious and a complicated book to read, the issues raised in the book has became bingle of the most controversial concern in Iran and in various countries in the world. (Revolution, n. p. ) The graphic novel narrates the life of Marjane Satrapi who was then living in a chaotic world of politics in Iran. Her family is committed to the semipolitical branches of the government which makes her more than(prenominal) exposed to the lifestyle of politics in Iran.Her family was communists who generally do not agree with the system of the Islamic fundamentalistics and its actions. Her family normally hosts under ground parties which was a form of rebellion in the government. These parties were not holded by the government because they are bankd to be a western usage which opposes the belief of the fundamentalists. Therefore hea vy punishments could be held to them if they are caught participating in these activities. As Marjane lived in a family that was against the Islamic Fundamentalists, she also created measures that imitated the actions of her family.She got interested in punk and heavy metal music and often bought Nike shoes in the black market. referable to the bold actions of the young Marjane, her family decided that she moldiness live in a different country to prevent her from being arrested by officials, It would have been better to just go (Eberstadt cited in Satrapi n. p. ). During her high teach life, she was sent to Vienna Austria however, she felt like she was isolated and typically detest the people around her. She believes that Westerners do not put any respect to the freedom that they have.After a few months of her stay in Austria she had a relationship with a young man. She became passionately in love with him nevertheless after a while, she discovered that he was cheating on her. imputable to this, she had clinical depression and almost died of bronchitis. She went home to Iran with a broken nucleus (Revolution, n. p. ). By the time that she was in college, she went back to Iran. She was hopeful that changes in the society would be present because the war had already ended however the problem in Iran seemed to have a some(prenominal) bigger issue to solve. little(a) issues such as small differences in religion, and group executions due to political conflicts had been a source of bigger complications in the society which lead to a much chaotic Iran. The conflict make the lives of the people much more difficult most especially to the women living in the country. Iran had a much more conservative law which made life for Marjane much more complicated. Freedom of wearing make-up was prohibited. Marjane was almost caught wearing cosmetics but in the end, she got out of the situation for accusing the practice of law for staring wrongly at her body.In addition sh e married her boyfriend just to avoid the police scrutiny. In the end, Marjane Satrapi separated with her husband after their three years of marriage. an another(prenominal)(prenominal) events happened and finally her parents decided that she moldiness leave the country in come in to prevent her from being arrested by the police. Marjane agreed to the plan of her parents however, after her overtaking from Iran her grand fuck off died. In the whole story, the role of women was one of the strongest and most unadorned participation. In some articles that critiqued the book has utter that the graphic novel is intimately feminism and women empowerment in the Middle East.The book highlights the role and responsibilities of women in a conservative and Islamic community such that of Tehran, Iran. When the Islamic Fundamentalist party one the most obvious changes that the women had to do was to change the appearance they dress. Women need to cover their hair in order to not win the m en. In the conservative belief of the Islam religion, women must not show of a body part because it might lead to something sinful for the part of the men. The entomb became a mandatory outfit of every woman whether they may be young or old (Creole Cat, 1).Make-ups are also not allowed by the Islamic Fundamentalists for they believe that it is a Western belief and thus is should not be put on by any woman. In the story Marjane was almost arrested by the police but she was able to make an alibi. In addition, women in many ways had created actions in order to prevent men from being caught by the police while going against the action of the government. A photo in the graphic novel where in the police stop their car for inspection. The police officer inspected her catch and suspected that Marjanes father had drunk wine.Upon inspection, the mother tried to negotiate with the officers pleading that her father just became surprised with the inspection. In the continuing scene, the grand mother excused herself with justifying that she has diabetes. She was dumb by one of the officers and through this, the grandmother and Marjane were able to go up their apartment and sneak in. They were able to throw away the wines that they have unploughed in their apartment. Females in Iran were able to somehow cover up for the men because of their characteristic of being compassionate and patient with negotiations with other people.Marjanes mother is specifically patient and calm during situations like these. She gives support to her husband but is more composed. Although she valued to have justice and equality amongst everyone in Iran she does not act as violently as others would do. (Satrapi 107-110) The role of the maid in the story was also an important part of the novel. Although it is given small attention, the scene of the story is proclaiming that there is complaisant construct of limiting oneself from interacting with other people due to the neighborly class.A mai d is not a high paying job compared to other jobs available. Maids are also seen as low class citizens and must not go out of their social class. They must not marry higher(prenominal) class people such as the middle class and the elites. It would be immoral and improper because in the Iranian society, any individual must not go out of their social class, like Marjanes father said In this country you must stay within your own social class (Eberstadt cited in Satrapi n. p. ). Due to this belief and social construct, the interaction of the society becomes limited which creates in equality.However, Marjane stated a line in which makes the readers realize that there must not be boundaries with the relations of people We were not in the same social class but at least we were in the same tush( Eberstadt cited in Satrapi n. p. ). Her line expressed states that everyone is equal with one another, in wrong of loving another person. The situation of the maid, demonstrated that class differe nce is one of the main issues faced by Iran. The main character, Marjane illustrates a child that was innate(p) in a family that valued to have a just world. full like her parents, she also employs her own belief system which led to many troubles which were narrated in the book. Her boldness and strong belief present a advanced(a) Iranian woman that wants to get out of her shell to explore other realities. Marjane advocates the openness to other new experiences such that of the western culture. As a young girl, she immediately had a different sense of desire for freedom and equality. When she was in her younger years, she was already out spoken about her ideas and her moons.She wanted to become a prophet which is not really a dream for most the girls of her age. Her teacher even called her parents because she got disturbed by the idea the Marjane wanted to be a prophet. Her dream of becoming a prophet seemingly makes her represent the female population that wanted freedom and eq uality from the Islamic Fundamentalists belief. Although Marjane was being bold and was acting against the principle of her belief, she still believed in a higher and stronger being which was shown in her graphic novel.Though, women were repressed and were forced to the will of the fundamentalists, Marjanes role became an important in the book to show that she was a woman that pursued what she believed is right even though she was held back by the society. She did chase her dream in making the lives of women and other Iranians free from all the difficulties that she had in her past life. Marjanes life became a symbol of fearlessness and change for many women in the Iranian society. In conclusion, women in the book all have their own roles.The elderly women in the book such as the mother and the grandmother of Marjane played the role of protecting their families through peaceful means. As much as possible, these elders are fighting for what they believe is right however, they do not do the extremes unlike Marjane. They move with mercy and caution to make sure that their family is well protected and at peace. The maids role in the story is being a woman less powerful than the normal one due to her status in the society. Being a woman and being poor held her back to the press down part of the social system.The Iranian conservative society does not allow a lower class female to marry or be in a relationship with a male who is in the higher social status or vise versa. On the other hand, Marjanes role in novel changed the perspective of many of the characters. Her rebellion made gave her a little freedom which was needed by most of the women during her time. Marjane showed her medium and courage in battling the norms of her society to prove that women should be given more freedom than their culture allows.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Lifes as a House Outline Essay

Eriksons Psychosocial theory How has the soul matured? Maslows Hierarchy of Needs W here(predicate) is he/she on the power structure? Albert Ellis REBT What irrational beliefs does the character display? Stress Management What techniques are utilize to manage stress? Freuds Defense Mechanisms Identify any defending team mechanisms being applied to the characters life. Communication strategies Does the character intention I messages, extrapolateing, probing, etc. Family systems rules of healthy and unhealthy families how are they applied here?Addiction Do you see any addictive qualities? Love and Relationships How is go to sleep expressed? What would you say ab egress the characters relationships with former(a)s? What strategies did the character exercise? What does the characterization decorate ab come forth the importance of family across the generations? What does the move illustrate more or less healthy and unhealthy family systems? How can this film illustrat e the phenomenological/ humanist principle that life has more meaning because it must end? debate certain themes, concepts and issues and relate them to our studies in psychology.Pick a character in the movie and tell how this particular person learned (for better or worse) sore behaviors and/or cognition. Use their experiences, both past and present and their relationships (family, personal, friends) with other people, to convey what made them learn and/or change. Discussion should include topics much(prenominal) as Developmental stages of life, Conditioning, Motivation, Emotions, Personality, Psychological Disorders He was Goth and suicidal he was reckless with drugs and sex. He tried to hang himself in the closet.He was impudent to his family. But its hard to pinpoint what exact disorder he had. I would simply say depression. Possibly bipolar because there were measure when he was okay in the movie and then he would go into a rage of reckless behavior. Psychological focus ar eas mid-age and adolescent re-invention in response to grief / loss parenting adolescents facing death and working out what kind of a legacy to leave Sam goes through new changes in behavior. When the movie begun Sam was a rebellious young puerile with negative feelings toward his generate.Throughout the plot of the movie Sam goes through experiences with his father as they spend time together over the summer, which brings them closer together and allows them to have a better relationship. Sams acting out and unwanted actions were results of his parents divorce and not having a healthy relationship with his father. In Psychology, the basic concept of Nature vs. erect is said to Influence Development. Nature, accord to Laura A. King (2010), includes the individuals biological inheritance, especially his or her genes (p. 64).Nurture involves a persons environment and experiences. In her book King (2010) also states primeval experiences are important contributors to development ( p. 266). In the movie you could easily recognise the nurture side of Sams behavior. Knowing and hearing about what kind of people Sam hangs out with we can kind of understand why he dresses a certain way and why he partakes in certain activities, such as drugs. The people he hangs out with leads us back again to the divorce.Sam chooses to hang out with others the likes of him who fell pain inside. His behaviors are a cry for help. In the movie Sam says I like how it feels not to feel. He does drugs to choke up his problems and not feel pain. The emotions that young kids and teens go through when parents get a divorce usually include depression, anger, sadness, and the feeling that maybe they could have through something to have made the situation better. While some children and teens choose to cover their feelings, Sam didnt. He acted out with disrespect and constant anger.

Basic Concepts of Effective Communication

Objectives * Describe the nature of discourse in science and engine room * Understand the meaningful extremity of communication * Explain the comp nonpareilnts of communication * flood out their difficulties in communication * affect the most describable characteristics of an effective mien for proficient typography and * Comp be and contrast technical writing from untechnical writing. The nature of conversation communicating comes from the Latin word con-meaning with, munus- meaning a business, communis meaning common, and commonico-to confer or to relate with one a nonher.In laymans language, communication emanates from the hire to share ideas or study from one soulfulness to another by the engagement of symbols such as spoken language, pictures, figures and graphs. Common Concepts about(predicate) Communication varied authorities have common concepts about communication. some(a) of these are present hereunder. * Communication is a purposive activity which is promp ted by need to express ideas, feelings, attitude and course of action to attain a predetermined goal * Communication is the process of conveying and exchanging facts, ideas, and look results.Communication is a two-way process which entails a communicator and a liquidator. * Communication is a chronic process which Is interactive. * Communication emerges in response to the incompatible functions and contexts that it c solelys for. Be it oral exam or written, good deal communicate to ask and give teaching relieve something, agree or argue with others, narrate or describe an event, narrative an accomplishment, and so forth. * Communication is needed when recent discoveries, inventions and developments in science and technology are to be disseminated.Its importance is also felt when pertinent information should be imparted through letters, reports and memoranda. People are by nature accessible beings. They have to interact to attain a common goal. In so doing, lend oneself of language to communicate their ideas, opinions and feelings is undeniably inevitable. In communication, the skillful enjoyment of language can readily influence the opinion beliefs, values and behaviors of the members of an organization. Particularly, the use of simple, concise and accurate language in giving instructions in a certain industry or firm can drive on mutual understanding amid and among employee and employers.Effective communication is one of the determiners of success in any organization. It is an essential instrument in implementing the goals and objectives of a company. It serves as a tool in decision- making , providing permanent record, information from top to rear end level of management, and the like. As such, it plays an important role in the operational expertness of a form. Written communication, specification reports, could be considered as the prime weapon by which technical men and businessmen transmit their subjects to action. Likewise, jobs to be make in any firm or organization are officially requested through communication.Findings of researches are known through oral and written communication. Oral presentation of reports is ordinarily make in top-level management meetings. Consider the spare-time activity illustrations * In the morning, the engineer listens to the weather bureaus harbinger for the day over the ratio. * For a panel discussion, the computer technician presents through Powerpoint each detail of the researchers report. * A Veterinary Medicine sophomore(prenominal) writes a research paper on The Effects of Rabies on Humans. Each of the abovementioned situations illustrates the call for communication.The individual, in each of the examples cited, enters the common, shared homo of other human beings. Aside from oral and written communication, there are other means of communication like facial expressions, Gestures, nods, signal, marks on paper, electric data and others. However, the raw materials of lang uage are the sounds made by the human voice and the written patterns that are formed from with them. The Process of Communication The cycle of communication, according to Eugene White , can also be apply in oral communication for science and technology.This is usually done in presenting/reporting periodic activities during meetings with top management. The presentor volition undergo eight stages thinking, symbolizing, expressing, transmitting, receiving, decoding, reacting and monitoring. The loudspeaker system exit think of what information will be provided to the audition. These ideas which will be transformed into words and sentences will be expressed to the listeners through an unionised report. Such will affect the receiver via sound waves. As the marrow is sent, the recievers mind starts decoding the information.The value of the information to the listener/receiver and the clarity of presentation will affect the reactions. Being aware of the audiences reaction, the pres entor and ends with his monitoring activities. Components of the Communication Process The communication process consists of the following components A. Communication Situation- the particular context by which a need to reveal something arises B. Communicator- the provider of the information C. Medium- this consist of oral and written modes of communication D. Information-the message that will be imparted to a particular audience and E.Receiver- the reader or listener of the information Reports in Communication Process The communication process consists of the following components A. Communication Situation- the particular context by which a need to tell something arises. B. Communicator- the provider of the information. C. Medium- this consists of oral and written modes of communication. D. Information- the message that will be imparted to a particular audience. E. Receiver- the reader or listener of the information. Reports in the Communication Process How do reports fit into the communication process? It requires a lower limit of two persons to communicate.In the case of superior-subordinate relationship, communication usually emanates from the former if he/she wants a certain course of action to be done. The subordinate, who is the report writer, will research and gather facts in fulfillment of the assignment give to him. If the supervisor is conform to with the information given, the communication process will stop temporarily. But if it does not meet his standards, additional work will be asked for. Thereby, the process of communication will start again. In sum, communication process is unsending- its a continuing process.Suppose the writer developed a description of the three phenomena, all in one paragraph. The paragraph would run quite long. Instead of one long paragraph, write three shorter ones, one on each phenomenon so that the material can be separated into small units. The style which is characterized by objectivity accuracy and conciseness sh ould be utilized to communicate with people who belong to specialized professions. Example Operation was becoming uneconomical two labor and full costs were more than what had been anticipated. -Adapted The word operation has different meanings to different people.In this case, it means a military action or mission. The scientific style of writing uses the threesome person and the passive voice for an electroneutral approach in writing. If possible, avoid using I which will only if lead to subjectivity. Technical writing is concerned with the action being done and not the person who has done action. This concept does not imply that the use of personal pronouns and verbs in the active voice is erroneous. However, the adaptation of such will also create another style of writing. Example Set up the testing equipment in the laboratory and run three tests before I read the conclusions express in this report. First Person, Singular, Active Voice) The testing equipment was pose up in the laboratory and three tests were run before the conclusions stated in this report. (Third Person, Passive Voice)-Adapted The second example is the style commonly plant in technical reports. Qualities of Good and Effective Scientific and Technical mood Some of the qualities that could lead to a good and effective scientific and technical style are the following * Honesty about facts * Care in obtaining and evaluating the facts * Accuracy in Presenting Data * Dignity and Restraint in path Objectivity in Analyzing and Interpreting Information Ways of Presenting Information Different companies have varied ways of presenting information. Some follow standard formats and others comprehend their own format. This denotes that all technical writers must consider the usual course session of a certain company and the expectation of the receiver of the message. Hence, the use of white-tie or informal style is dependent upon context. Personal communication between business associates or personal friends calls for a Personal Writing vogue while major reports which are submitted to top management are usually Impersonal in expression.It requires the format of a report. Requisites of a Technical Style The following are the requisites of a technical style in writing Factual- refers to the orderly presentation of facts and ideas which could be achieved through careful planning. Functional- gives pertinent information and does not amuse or argue with anybody else. Informative- conveys facts and information. Objective- free from biases and prejudices, personal beliefs, emotions and attitudes. Concreteness- tantamount(predicate) to definiteness, therefore generalizations should be supported by concrete facts or evidences.Consistency- the disturb of tense and point of view in presenting a report will lead to inconsistency. Shifting of such will affect the personality of the writer and his style as well. For long and formal reports, it is better to use the third person consistently. Dignity- is achieved when the writer avoids colloquial/slang expressions and contractions. Simplicity- simple and familiar words are more emphatic and striking, hence, highfalutin words are slight preferred in technical writing.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Public Drinking and Violence: Not Just an Alcohol Problem Essay

The investigate article was published in Journal of do drugs issue 22 in 1992. The research was conducted using a soft approach that uses words as the output and input of the research or else than focusing on numbers (Adlers and Clark, 2008). The writer in each case agrees with the view that soft data have the ability to produce theories that accurately describe real-world issues and processes than do quantitative (Gary Fine and Kimberly Elsbacht, 2000).The researchers suggest that intoxicant drinking is very a good deal a part of the Australian culture, a figure activity for Australians. explore by Cohen and Felson (1975) linking routine daily activities with predatory crimes is made reference to by the researches. From this, the researchers state that assaults and homicides frequently involve alcohol in the offenders, victims or both.It is also observe that the researchers pointed to the issue that Australia was facing a hike in military unit and made a statement that it was becoming a more gaga and lawless country during that period of m. The question that the article requirements to address, though, is not the schematic presence of alcohol intoxication in crimson crime cases, but, kinda, the researchers want to look into the purlieu that created the issue.By conducting posteral research into pubs and clubs in Sydney, the take attempted to systematically meditate the link in the midst of aspects of the environment of normal drinking and the occurrence of strength. The research aimed to transcend the narrow debate on the effect of ethanol (the substance), by focusing on the make sense environment of drinking and its normal (or escape of it) by management, police and public officials. The researchers established a theoretical framework by presenting several past research reports.In a scan of serious assault in newfanglight-emitting diode South Wales by Robb (1988), the finding stated that 40% of them were nominated by police off icers as involving alcohol. Moreover, assaults that come to police attention and ar preserve by them frequently occur after midnight virtually pub death times, and at least 20% take place in or around licensed premises. The researchers also menti mavend a Sydney hospital survey claiming that in a year, many thousands of people, mostly young men, are injured sometimes kind of seriously) as a result of assaults occurring in or around licensed premises (Cuthberth, 1990). The article presented a theory by McGregor suggesting that it is quite possible, for example, that male attitudes which legitimize the physical maltreatment of women, or environmental factors alike crowding, discomfort, and rough bouncers in pubs and clubs, are the real cause of much alcohol related emphasis (McGregor, 1990).The researchers argued that the regulatory system was dragged d hold by the notion of the deserved misfortune of victims of pub violence and that this belief is partly prudent for the hist oric failure in Australia to recognize violence occurrence in, or around, licensed premises as a major(ip) societal problem, which has led to the lackluster of legislation and police regulation. This, in the end, has resulted in helping the entrenchment of negative environmental factors, making some establishments into something they dubbed and many more establishments violent on a less predictable basis.The researchers also cited two studies, unrivaled conducted in New Zealand and another in Vancouver as influential to their own work. The first champaign was conducted by Graves, Graves and Semu and Sam (1981) using records unplowed by security officers employed in twelve pubs in Auckland to examine the frequency and seriousness of pub violence on that point. The postulate found that Polynesian patrons drink more and are involved in more violence than European patrons. This was attributed to the formers preference for drinking longer in larger groups and their tendency to be eng aged in group activities rather than idiosyncratic ones by the study.Thus, the study highlights the importance of patron mix, group sizes, and time spent drinking as variables. The second study by whole wheat flour et al (1980) was cited as especially valuable to the researchers as their researchs guide. The study was conducted in Vancouver and found several variables as universe positively connected to the incursion they include percentage of drunken patrons, percentage of American Indians, poor ventilation, the amount of sexual body contact, lack of cleanliness and hostile environment.The authors of the study stressed their view of the environment as an ecological system and implied that the boilers suit effect of this ecology has more impact than the sum of the effects of individual variables. The researchers employ the Vancouver study as their starting point for their own study. They utilise a qualitative method by relying more on ambiguous observations on licensed premis es, as these are the places where alcohol related aggression most likely will occur.To a lesser degree, they also used semi-structured interviews with some officials and security industry personnel for their study. The study aims to contrast between premises know to have many violence occurrences with the ones noted for their lack of them. Using this design, they hoped to explore the possible drinking settings that were associated with violence by detect any occurrence of violence, however small.The researchers identified 4 premises known for regular violence occurrences and 2 premises known for the lack of them on the basis of first-hand knowledge, police information and exploratory visits. Two observers visited those premises at least 5 times, each observation visit about 2 to 6 hours in duration. It is to be noted that the researchers sent an observation group to another 16 sites, at least once, making a original of 55 visits to 23 sites at 17 establishments.They stated that t he total observation times they completed were 300 hours. In the results report, they observed 32 total assaults involving physical violence, excluding 9 rough ejections which were borderline assaults. The results amount to about 11 occurrences per one hundred hours of observation. This is much more than the 7. 4% showed in the Vancouver study. It is to be noted, though, that the researchers oversampled the violent premises and conducted many of the samplings late at night when violence was more likely to occur.Further result comparisons with the Vancouver study show that go the Vancouver study didnt report any and serious physical injuries, the Sydney study claimed four and several occurrences were rated as physical by their observers. The results presented very evoke variables as the cause of violence occurrences. Presence of big males groups often mend disorder, while single males, groups of mixed males and females, and couples are less likely to be involved in a fight.The re searchers also suggested that the tiresomeness factor is one of the key variables in the cause of physical violence occurrence. Premises with frolic like TVs, game machines and stage entertainment creates comfort levels that appease the patrons boredom level which resulted in less violence occurrence. The researchers also suggest that in live bands quality of music matters very much, and that small crowds of patrons entertained with inquisitive quality music will more likely cause trouble than large crowds entertained by good quality music.It is to be noted that, despite all myths, rough pubs with rowdy crowds are not inescapably violent. The results also stressed high levels of drunkenness as a major issue in pubs, especially those caused by management styles encouraging such behaviour, along with the pubs staff behaviour, especially with the bouncers. Summarizing the results, the researchers attributed violence occurrences to interactions of several key variables. approximate ly of them are groups of male strangers, high boredom, low comfort, high drunkenness and aggressive bouncers.The researchers pointed out that the NSW legislation bodies did not pay enough attention to the issue, and that there are major flaws in the NSW Liquor Act. They concluded that better regulation and legislation can help solve the problem. They cited Sherman et al (1989) suggesting that it is easier and more coveted to regulate the routine activities of the premises rather than trying to regulate the routine activities of the patrons.Jumping forward to the present day, the NSW Liquor Act 2007 addresses many points being brought up by this study. This includes the need and the enforcement of RSA certification to work in any premises that serve alcohol, fines to servers serving alcohol to intoxicated patrons, setting up 50 meters perimeter from the premises for ejected patrons, and mandating premises to provide free pissing and also to serve warm meals to help patrons deal wit h alcohol intoxication.Examining the Sydney study and its comparison with the Vancouver study, it might help for future studies to set up a standard for what constitute a brawl and serious physical injuries. opposite observers will have different standards for these issues which might cause discrepancies, especially when studies are being compared with one another.

Attitude Towards Work Essay

bearing towards ferment and kind dealings as factor in ancestry writ of executionStatement of the problemThis study aims to determine the race of status towards bunk and inter ad hominem relations to the p grade performance of the employees.Specifically, this study seeks to answer the pursual questions 1. What is the profile of the Employees in Drug Maker Comp each(prenominal) in basis of the following personal circumstances? 2.1 Age and Sex2.2 civilized shape2.3 Educational Attainment2.4 Years of Experience2. Do carriage towards go a trend and brotherly relations affect parentage performance? 3. To what extent do the snuff it offices affect the job performance? 4. To what extent do the interpersonal relations affect the job performance? 5. What is the perception of the employees towards prune attitude and interpersonal relation? 6. Is there any signifi placet relationship betwixt attitudes toward work, interpersonal relations and job performance?WORK ATTITUD E AND social RELATIONSHIPQUESTIONNAIRESPersonal InformationName________________________________________GenderMaleFemaleAge 20 yrs. and below 41-50 long time21-30 years 51 and above31-40 yearsCivil StatusSingleMarriedWidowEducational Attainment steep School GraduateCollege GraduateCourse _______________________________________________Year of Experience1-5 years6-10 years11-15 years16-20 yearsOthers please specify _____________________________________Direction enliven check the appropriate answers to the item questions. The following atomic number 18 the symbols/letters practiseSYMBOLS SD Strongly DisagreeD DisagreeSA Strongly AgreeA Agree SD D SA AA. Work Attitudes1. Your current hob is kindle and challenging. 2. The qualifications you possess be appropriate and relevant to the job. 3. The skills required match the travails to be performed and consistent with the job description. 4. The efforts demanded by the job are commensurate to the compensation received. 5. The responsibilities assumed in the job are salubrious defined and clearly delineated 6. The on the job(p) condition (illumination, ventilation, temperature and humidity, etc.) in the short letter is conducive to work. 7. in that location is close supervision by the muti posthumousice repoint to ensure cleverness of performance in the job keep aparted. 8. You dislike your job and looking fore to a demote employment elsewhere. 9. The r step upine or daily task is dull, boring and monotonous. 10. You consider work as something natural and required in life. 11. The job provides you a sense of responsibility in performing the duties. 12. A feeling ofsatisfaction is attained as a result of pure(a) the task (sense of achievement). 13. The job offers opportunities for promotion in position as well as pay increase based on merits. 14. The remuneration for the job position in just and position is just and fair with the record of the w ork being undertaken. 15. The interaction in the office among co- proles is cordial and harmonious. 16. The job itself becomes a means for personal growth and professional advancement (self-actualization/Self-fulfillment). 17. The office take aim being very keepive and tolerant enables you to feel cocksure in the job. 18. There were opportunities for a right job which you missed by operative in the present set-up. 19. In the present job, there is no chance to improve and learn more than in terms of better aptitudes and novel skills. 20. The need for identification is much felt in the office. B. social relationship with peers and passs1. The office head is very flexible and bettermentable devising so easy for the workers to confuse closer interpersonal relationship with him/her. 2. The working relationship within the office is formal and cautious (careful) between the head and the rank and file. Resulting in uneasy touch. 3. The need for some others to turn to for advice and direction is the close for maintaining a crackicular group to interrelate with. 4. interpersonal relationship is rive and parcel of a work place in order to implant harmony and foster cooperation with fellow workers. 5. The head picks or chooses somebody in person close to him/her to interrelate with group. 6. You feel insecure with group activity whether work related or personal interaction. 7. Your admiration and paying attention for the office head draws you further apart from him/her. 8. Due to office interpersonal relationship with other workers, job dissatisfaction arises as an outcome of comparison or jealousy/envy. 9. An light group consisting of selected employees is intended to establish some type of conformity to ideas, beliefs, personal activities which whitethorn serve unwashed interests.Thus, ostracizing or excluding others. 10. Interpersonal relationship is resorted by you with colleagues as a form of recognition and acceptance of personal identity element in your part (Feeling of importance). 11. The latest gossip or rumor is the mutual bound for interpersonal relationship. 12. The office head or superior maintains withdrawnness or distancing himself/herself thus, creating gap in terms of interpersonal relationship with the rank and file. 13. The saying that intimacy breeds contempt really applies between a head and subordinates in close interpersonal relationship. 14. You prefer to be on your induce a loner or intr all everyplacet, and do not establish any relationship with others. 15. Camaraderie or comradeship makes you to experience sense of be by sharing common interests. This authority, the informal group is the basis for interpersonal relationship. 16. You feel nervous and insecure in the presence of the office head. As a consequence a very impersonal and uncomfortable situation in the office becomes evident. 17. You stick to the present job or block on because of the interpersonal relationship with loyal friends within the institution or work area. 18. Interpersonal relationship among your peers or co-workers for solidarity or a descend sense of group allegiance for a common purpose. 19. The interpersonal relationship that exists in the institution is factional or consisting of small fragmented, splintered groups having each its own motives and objectives. 20. Interpersonal relationship whitethorn become a recourse or military issue to confide problems and an avenue to express opinions on work related issues. abstract FRAMEWORKWork AttitudeRespectfulnessCommitmentInnovationHelpfulnessInterpersonal RelationsWork ethicsChemistryFriendshipLoyalty INDEPENDENT VARIABLESDEPENDENT VARIABLESJob PerformanceAccuracy of workQuality of workQuantity of workTimelinessThe kernel of attitudes on interpersonal relationships in the workplace iswell documented in scholarly psychology literature. How ever, opinions regarding the types of effects that result from different attitudes vary somewhat. Regardless of the opinion of scholars, it does athletic checker for ancestry owners to greet how attitudes affect these relations among workers so that they faeces take on the right kinds of nation and also head off any effectiveness problems among existing employees. 1. Cooperation* One way in which attitudes affect interpersonal work relationships is evident in the way a supreme attitude stack engender a sense of cooperation among workers. The tendency to think positively and hail each task with a can-do attitude can be infectious. When it comes to collaborating on projects, the positive attitude can spill over into the way employees cooperate with one another. Those who start projects with the expectation of completing the project on time and correctly pull up stakes find no excuses for not get the work done. Those who cooperate with one another on these types of project s will slackly have more positive relations with one another. Division* Workers with a poor attitude about work and the tasks they are required to complete will have a ban effect on those approximately them. Just as a positive attitude is infectious and spreads to others, so too do poor attitudes have a negative effect on worker relations. This can cause division in the workplace, making it difficult for employees to collaborate with one another, as the poor attitudes spill over into how they treat one another. * Sponsored Links* 3-Minute Chakra scrutinyTake the Free Chakra Test to Find Out Which of Your Chakras Are Weak www.ChakraHealing.comSimilarity* Studies show that workers who have similar attitudes, positive or negative, will necessarily attract people with similar attitudes. A 2010 article published in the International journal of Innovation, caution and Technology reveals that workers tend to spud relationships with colleagues who share the same observation post on the world. The recognition thatothers have similar attitudes and set will inevitably lead to the establishment of voltagely long-run relations with these employees. The article points out that the establishment of such relationships has the reciprocal effect of elevating self-esteem and strengthening the beliefs and cheers of those who did the attracting. Communication* Shared attitudes and values can strengthen interpersonal relations among workers by opening up the lines of parley. Communication is essential for the growth of relationships among people, disregarding of whether they are colleagues. Those who have positive attitudes and are open to interpersonal communicating with others will be more effective in developing positive interpersonal work relationships. Those with a negative attitude can be harder to communicate with because of their tendency to shut down or close themselves off from interacting with others. In short, the communicating necessary for interpersonal relations is affected by the attitudes of the workers.AbstractPurpose Through the lens of social ex pitch speculation and governance support surmise, the purpose of this paper is to examine the passive, raptorial, and assertive bolts of managers/supervisors that define perceive supervisory support and to test whether the support increases employees satisfaction with the conversation of supervisors and their organisation-based self-esteem. It also valuees whether employees discourse satisfaction and their self-esteem influence employees performance, dedication and absenteeism. architectural plan/methodology/approach In total, 400 employees from ten manufacturing firms in India were canvas by means of questionnaire survey. Standard instruments were used to assess the constructs. A scale was positive to measure the communion style of managers and a single item to assess absenteeism.Findings Results revealed that assertive style of conference lends maximum support to employees. Perceived supervisory support at the workplace enhances employees satisfaction with converse of supervisors and organisation-based self-esteem. Satisfaction with conversation fosters a strong emotional bond with organisations and the emotional bond with organisations reduces employees absenteeism.Originality/value The paper shows that employees organisation-based self-esteem increases their job performance. Organisations can conduct training programs to develop an assertive confabulation style in their managers/supervisors to increase the support to subordinates thereby its positive consequences will follow in increasing employees performance and commitment and reducing absenteeism.Introduction today we are faced with the pre-eminent fact that, if refinement is to survive, we must cultivate the science of humans relationships (Roosevelt, 1945). Interpersonal relationships including social relations with one another are an essential part of organisational life and s ustainable success. As far as communication is concerned, words are moreover superficial aspects. Without human function, words can never convey the get hold of meaning to the other person. in effect(p) communication builds relationships. Wyatt (2006) stated the following Effective communication is the lifeblood of a successful organization. It reinforces the organizations vision, connects employees to the business, fosters process improvement, facilitates change, and drives business results by changing employee conduct (p. 6). Managerial communication drives relationships and frames the attitudes and behaviours of employees in the workplace. Attitude has three components affective, cognitive, and behavioural. While the cognitive component represents the evaluation of stimuli in the mind, behaviours are actions or reactions that occur in response to those stimuli. In measuring attitudes, provided affective/feeling components are assessed in connection with communication, organi sations, managers, and situations. Positive attitudes pellucid in well-adjusted behaviours and negative attitudes lead to the reverse. An historical overview of managerial communication shows that the way managers communicated with subordinates is markedly different from how they do today. While employees were previously regarded as the greatestasset of an organisation, the asset metaphor has been elevated to a unfermented level. Organisations have started recognising employees as human capital owners and investors (Davenport, 1999). As a result, the emphasis on communication content has shifted to behaviour as a part of the communication process because employees interpretation of supervisory communication depends not solely on what is said but also on how it is said. A people-centred outline is an important source of competitive advantage because, unlike technology, costs, or new product development, it is difficult to imitate (Pfeffer, 1998). Managers can create an environmen t through communication where employees feel happier and more passionate about their jobs and exhibit attitudes and behaviours necessary for improved organisational performance. BackgroundBlaus (1964) social exchange theory is among the more or less influential conceptual paradigms for understanding workplace behaviours. Social exchange theory is based on a central premise that the exchange of social and material resources is a fundamental form of human interaction. When two parties who are in a state of reciprocal interdependence interact with each other, obligations are generated (Saks, 2006). Organisational support theory, derived from social exchange theory, explains how the support of organisations affects the behaviours of employees (Eisenberger et al., 1986). It suggests that employees form a global perception of the extent to which the organisation cares about their eudaemonia and demonstrates appreciation, called sensed organisational support (POS). Supervisors are regard ed as representatives of the organisation. If employees perceive the supervisor/organisation as supportive, they feel an obligation to return this support (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002) in the form of approbatory attitudes and behaviours that promote employees performance. POS manifests in increase in in- mathematical function and extra-role performance and decrease in stress and withdrawal behaviours such as absenteeism and turnover. Assessing such constructs quantitatively, the effects of managerial communication on employees attitudes and behaviours can be gauged. Although relational concerns have been at the heart of management research for decades, the power of relationships has become even more salient both for employees and organisations. Accordingly, going beyond the social exchange theory (Blau,1964) and organisation support theory (Eisenberger et al., 1986 Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002 Shore and Shore, 1995), this study investigates the impact of perceived managerial com munication styles on employees attitudes and behaviours through perceived supervisory support (PSS) vis--vis POS. Social exchange theory suggests that if a superior (on behalf of the organisation) confers a social gift on a subordinate, the latter will feel obligate to reciprocate. POS is defined as employees perceptions about the degree to which the organisation cares about their well-being and values their contributions. Organisation support theory suggests that the development of POS is the employees tendency to assign humanlike characteristics to the organisation (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). POS represents an indispensable part of the social exchange relationship between employees and the employer because it implies what the organisation has done for its employees. The supervisor on behalf of the organisation extends support to subordinates. Subordinates perceiving support of supervisors vis--vis organisations cultivate positive attitudes and engage in extra-role behaviours . Subordinates are unlikely to hold favourable attitudes and behaviours when the treatment is negative or neutral (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). reciprocality and strong mutual care are emphasised in Indian culture (Srivastava et al., 2008).Indian culture stresses interdependence, sharing, and harmony with the surrounding world. While naiant druthers and rationalism are valued by Indians, hierarchical orientation and emotionalism are also being valued (Sinha and Kanungo, 1997). The family structure in India is a close knit unit. Decisions are made only later prior consultation with the family members. Making important decisions without talking to the family is considered offensive and implies a lack of respect. These human aspects of Indian culture may have implications in the workplace. This study stresses the human function of managerial communication, a concept neglect in communication style research. The human function embedded in communication of managers/supervisors can affect the work relationships that can facilitate or retard employees/subordinates attitudes and behaviours (Varona, 2002). While human relations practices play a disclose role in developing and maintaining the exchange relationship between the employee and the organisation (Aggarwal and Bhargava, 2009), extant research offers little insight on appropriate managerial communication style that can help to build high levels of support. The role of social relationships is yet to be explicitly investigated. An issue that needs to be addressed is the specific styles of managerial communication that can promote or demote relationship building. To address this issue, one potentially helpful approach is to establish a link between the effective managerial communication styles and development of positive supervisor-subordinate relationships.Review of literature and development of hypothesesCommunication stylesManagement is a process of working with and through others to achieve organisation al objectives in an cost-efficient demeanor (Lwehabura and Matovelo, 2000). Managing employees is enacted through communication (Holladay and Coombs, 1993). The way one verbally, non-verbally and para-verbally interacts to signal how echt meaning should be taken, interpreted, filtered or understood, is known as the communication style (Norton, 1983, p. 58). Norton (1983) classifies communication styles into ten different types dominant, dramatic, contentious, animated, impression-leaving, relaxed, attentive, open, friendly, and precise. McCallister (1992), combining Nortons (1983) styles, classifies communication styles into noble, reflective, and socratic. Comstock and Higgins (1997), unify Nortons styles to four clusters of communication styles cooperative, apprehensive, social, and competitive. Analogous to McCallisters threefold typology of communication styles, Heffner (1997) groups the communication styles into self-asserting, passive, and assertive (Ibrahim and Ismail, 2007). Noble style is directive and straightforward and may be equated with aggressive style. Reflective style is non-directive and may be double with passive style. Socratic style emphasises on analysis of details and debates and may be similar to assertive style. To understand the human aspects of managerial communication and the formation of interpersonal relations in organisations, Heffners classification of communication styles can be adopted to study perceived managerial communication styles. Heffners communication styles appear simpler and emphasise more on human relations in workplace than McCallisters communication styles. Managers practice different communication styles. However, often one type dominants and becomes habitual.In passive communication style, managers avoid to express their needs, feelings, and feel shy to protect their rights. In aggressive communication style, managers express their feelings and opinions and advocate for their needs in a way that violate s the rights of employees. While passive managers are commonly unable to convey the mount thrust of their message, causing irritation, delays, and rework, aggressive managers tend to be less concerned with moving things along than in preserving their own status and power over employees, though they may be successful in completing short-run goals (Newbold, 1997). Between these two extreme styles, is the assertive style. self-assertiveness is a behaviour that enables managers to act in their own best interest and to stand up for themselves without denying rights of others (Arredondo, 2003). It facilitates good interpersonal interaction (Lwehabura and Matovelo, 2000) and is characterised by honesty, objectivity, nudity, tolerance, accuracy, self-expression, and respect for self and others. Assertiveness can be used for creating mutual understanding and fulfilling objectives (Lwehabura and Matovelo, 2000). Assertive managers respect the needs of employees and go through the mental process of assessing what they need to know and how. Assertive managers also have the skills and confidence to challenge ambiguity and misunderstanding (Newbold, 1997). When the communication style of managers is straightforward and accurate, employees view managers as trustworthy (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2000).This openness facilitates employees understanding of tasks and enables responsible decision making (Moye and Henkin, 2006). Assertive managers differ from aggressive managers. Aggressive managers attack or ignore employees opinions in favour of their own. They usually react to the given situation in a rude, derogatory, and sarcastic manner which escalates employees anxiety. On the other hand, assertive managers state their opinions while being honorific to employees. While aggressive managers fail to establish relationships with their employees, assertive managers build long-term relationships. The assertive communication style enables a manager to express his/her opinions and thoughts in a direct way without attacking others, refuse an unreasonable predication without feeling guilty, give employees constructive feedback instead of criticism, give recognition and praise to employees at the right time and create a motivational climate, deliver a firm message by asking questions through a clever approach orask effective questions to look into for facts and provoke for ideas, trust employees, and create a collaborative and congenial working environment. Employee attitudes can make or break business profitability and sustainability efforts. Although it can be difficult to change the atmosphere in a deadly workplace, its possible with positive thinking and actions. Listening to employee complaints and offering constructive feedback and resolutions encourages positive thinking. Learning how to appease and motivate employees can salvage genius from even the most negative work environments. Once you manage to change employee attitudes, your business can move in a positive direction.Todays business world has just one constantchange. No matter what industry your company competes in, the business environment is always evolving. In order to survive, your business must also evolve. Too often your employees will encounter these environmental changes and respond with a negative attitude. Poor employee attitudes can derail your business efforts. This makes the managing of employee attitudes a critical management function.A negative attitude in the workplace is expressed as cynicism about job tasks, a disinterest in working with others and insubordination toward authority. The negative attitude may be subtle for example, the employee may come in late or make frequent sarcastic comments. Both overt and circumspect expressions have ramifications on an office environment. Dorene Ciletti, author of Market Yourself, states that a worker who exudes a negative attitude tends to be monitored carefully and is unlikely to be promoted. Coworkers also express caution about working with an individual who may weigh the project down with his bad attitude.An employee with a positive attitude shows enthusiasm and curiosity about her job. She is invested in the outcome of projects and the company as a whole. Harold Wallace, author of Personal Development for Life and Work, explains that an employee with a positive attitude has the potential to electrify the entire workplace. Such an attitude has the potential to increase worker productivity and overall job satisfaction.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Reverse Innovation Essay

AbstractHistorically multinational enterprises establish adapt in that respect intersection point religious offerings to the trustworthy world. These same convergences were then often t unmatch commensu orderd dump in aspects of quality and or features and offered to e unite economies. However, often these products did non ache the regards, demands or wants of customers in appear economies. Thus, to prevent a disruption of product offering and securities industry control multinational enterprises need to look to impudent product ideas substantial for emerging economies rather than handed shoot to these economies. place down the ideals of drive off groundwork and the miens in which multinationals cigaret meet these of necessity. The wall melodic theme will focus on the reverse understructure concept, identify need gaps within emerging economies and bringing together examples of multinationals and inaugurals that have benefited from reverse innovation.Keywords reverting Innovation, Multinational National Enterprise, Need interruptionsReverse InnovationIn the too soon part of 2009 Logitech, a leading manufacturer of wireless computer peripherals was at the top of its game. Offering a variety of wireless input devices ranging from the low-end models to eminent priced multifunctional models Logitechs tradeing team assumed that it had its bases covered across the consumer market. However, Logitech had missed one let on component of an rough-and-ready spheric business-marketing plan a hit cause of how consumers in both the demonstrable and emerging markets would use their products. In emerging markets such as China, the demand for wireless peripherals was focused on low cost and long range, the opposite of the peripherals that Logitech offered to the market. This lack of understanding pushed Logitech come in the wireless peripheral market and allowed much smaller competitors, who understood the needs of customer, to take over the market share in China and other(prenominal) emerging markets.As presented by Trimble (2012), reverse innovation helps leaders and managers image what it means to develop in emerging markets first, instead of scaling down rich-world products, to unlock a world of opportunity (para.2).To be truly effective and successful at reverse innovationcompanies must(prenominal) extendedly exchange the way that they think. Instead of inventing hot products for developing countries, companies should look to the needs of the earth and develop products that fit. Schachter, identifies vanadium needs gaps that differentiate emerging markets from rich countries. These gaps embarrass infrastructure gap, performance gap, sustainability gap, regulatory gap and the preference gap (Schachter, 2012).This study will focus on these five need gaps, establish how for each one digest potentially benefit a company and how each tack on to a companys ability to meet the need of its markets. save eac h of the needs gap will be referenced to authorized industry leaders and new start-ups including firms such as John Deere, oecumenical Electric, Microsoft, PepsiCo and nosology for All. In addition to the bridging of the needs gaps of emerging countries to major companies this paper will also look at the how companies can benefit from launching a marginalized market normal Electric and Infrastructure GapsIn the create world, global business often takes for granted the infrastructure that is in place. recent products can be veritable in the in rich countries with the confidence that a solid and reliable infrastructure is in place (Govindarajan, 2012). In emerging economies, businesses must not make such assumptions and plan new products to bear the different environments. General Electric has made several leaps and bounds in new product instruction in which they have interpreted in to consideration the infrastructure in emerging economies.Two of the key products that Gene ral Electric has developed using the strategy of reverse innovation include hand-held electrocardiogram devices and PC-based ultrasound machines (Layne, 2009). Both products are geared towards emerging markets in which the current infrastructure is unable provide adequate alternate(a)s. These products will further reach parts of rural emerging markets that traditional equipment would take many years to reach. Understanding the challenges of infrastructure needs in emerging markets has played out quite well GE.From According to General Electric (GE) (2009), GEs revenues outside the United States soared from $4.8 billion, or 19% of total revenues, in 1980 to $97 billion, or more than halfof the total, in 2008 (Para. 2). Professor Govindarajan, of Harvard School of Business, further relates that while this growth rate is change magnitude GE is only skimming the surface of potential emerging market growth (General Electric, 2009).Microsoft company and the Performance GapThe speed at which applied science grows continues to accelerate at an astounding rate. This growth is not limited the developed world, emerging economies are also growing and the need for software to accommodate this growing market is increasing. However, buyers in the developing world cannot demand the enthusiastically levels of performance that developed countries are accustomed (Govindarajan, 2012). It is for this reason that the Microsoft Corporation has developed starter software geared to a demographic that needs certain outcomes from their software but require a price point that is pleasurable for the relative income.To bridge the performance gap in emerging countries, a global business must revamp its attitude concerning product lineups. instead than managing products with a good-better-best approach, reverse innovation points to the needs of the consumers and develops a product that meets consumer demands. According, to Govindarajan (2012), it is unsufferable to design to that rad ical ratio if you begin with the existing offering. The only way to get to an entirely new price-performance curve is by starting line from puss (Para. 11). Thus, by starting from glass Microsofts Starter Software created an offering that met the real needs at a realistic price.John Deere and the Sustainability GapOne of the major challenges of emerging economies is need to balance the product development and the environmental concerns associated with the products. As noted by Govindarajan (2012), If the 5.8 billion of the worlds low-down consume and produce goods in ways that are environmentally unsound, the results will be catastrophic for poor countries and for the planet (Para.20). The John Deere Corporation is a great example of how global business can bow the sustainability of emerging economies.When entering the Indian market, John Deere looked at the current res publica ofagriculture production in the country and decided to start from scratch on the new models for the country. Deere typically produced large tractor models, geared to handle large tracts of land, which burned large amounts of fuel. This concept was not sustainable in India, a country that typically farmed on smaller tracts of land and that did not have access to readily available fuel distribution that would be take for higher output (Balakrishnan, 2012). Thus Deeres product offering called the Krish, a 35 horsepower low consumption model, has been a success and Deere at a time considers its Indian operations a center of excellence. Govindarajan (2012) states, The only way poor countries can sustain economic growth is through green solutions (Para. 19) Deeres work in India truly represents this thinking.PepsiCo and the Preferences GapAs verbalise in previous sections one of the key parts of reverse innovation is the understanding of consumer needs. Every country in the world has its own sets of tastes, its own substance abuse and its own rituals successful reverse innovators s uch as PepsiCo understand this concept. As stated by Govindarajan (2012), PepsiCo is developing new snack foods based not on corn (ubiquitous in the rich world), but on lentils scarcely a food well-nigh Americans grow up eating (Para. 23). PepsiCo has been able to not only identify the product needs and wants of the emerging rescue but it also was able to bring trickle up product promotion to other countries including Australia and New Zealand (Kaul, 2012).By designing products that fit with the preferences of the nightspot they are designed for, global business leaders, are able to unmannerly new doors for revenue. Further once these social trends are established they can help to close the preference gaps that exist between undeveloped and developing economies. Eventually these social norms will bridge the differences between the two economies and merging marketing styles that are acceptable to both consumer markets.The Regulatory Gap and Diagnostics for AllDiagnostics for Al l is a small Boston startup that has developed a paper-based diagnostic try oned for sweat, blood, urine, and saliva (Wright, 2012). This simple test has substantial impact on the ability to meet theneeds of individuals in emerging economies, especially those consumers in rural areas. Diagnostics for All had four-fold reasons for choosing to first release its products in emerging economies rather than typical developed markets. One of these reasons is largely referenced to the regulatory gap between developed and undeveloped economies. As noted by Wright (2012) Despite the attractiveness of such a solution for the developed world, Diagnostics For All chose to commercialize in the developing world so as to sidestep the painstaking diet and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process (Para. 4).Diagnostics for All, usage of emerging economies regulatory gaps, should not be construed as way to cheat the governing body and get unsafe innovations fast tracked. Rather regulatory gaps wh en used as in the case of Diagnostics for All enjoy the advantages of lower clash and faster progress. Govindarajan (2012) notes, in making this observation, we do not mean to enkindle that low levels of regulation in an emerging market are every a good occasion or a bad thing it simply is what it is, and it may sometimes provide an advantageous medium for certain innovations (Para. 18).Reverse Innovation and Marginalized MarketsThe five gaps noted above represent the challenges that global business must recognize when entering new and emerging markets end-to-end the world. These gaps are the reason that capturing opportunities in the poor world means starting from scratch, and reverse innovation is what can be call clean tag innovation (Govindarajan, 2012). However, some industry thinking presents the ideals that marginalized markets do not physiognomy enough potential to justify the investment. Yet when consideration is given to the existent size of the markets, this thinki ng has to be reconsidered.One company that truly represents the political theory of reverse innovation in marginalized markets is Tata, manufacture of the Nano, the worlds most affordable car. The Nano was not a trimmed down version of another automobile made for another market. Rather the Nano was developed for the Indian market with Indian design requirements featuring clever designs to meet the needs of the market. As stated by Govindarajan 2012, the Nano willmake car ownership possible for 65 percent more Indians of the middle class, all of them eager for a safer alternative to motorbikes (Para. 29).ConclusionThere are many reasons that multinational enterprises should practice reverse innovation, but most importantly is the need to protect their investments. If MNEs divulge to practice reverse innovation, local companies will and the innovations that they create will at long last influence the financial well-being of the MNEs. Further MNEs success rate for reverse innovation will be much higher if the five need gaps are met. By developing an attitude of ground up engineering and focus on the needs, wants, and interests of the host countries reverse innovation can become a win-win situation for all parties involved. As noted by (2012) the new reality is that the future is far from home (Para. 19). IF MNEs do want remain competitive through the practice of reverse innovation, the must be just as interested about the problems of the emerging countries as they are about the problems of rich countries.ReferencesBalakrishnan, R. (2012, April 19). Professor Govindarajan speaks on reverse innovation & how different it is from jugaad. The Economic Times. Retrieved November 2, 2012, from http//140.234.17.98080/EPSessionID=7199bf3ac2fa789d6d5b354eb6e83ee/EPHost=search.proquest.com/EPPath/pqcentral/docview/1002436214/fulltext?accountid=13979 General Electric. (2009, September 22). Reverse Innovation How GE is Disrupting Itself. Retrieved from GE Reports http//www. gereports.com/reverse-innovation-how-ge-is-disrupting-itself/ Govindarajan, V. (2012, September 1). Reverse Innovation A Global produce Strategy that could Pre-empt disruption at home. Strategy and Leadership. Retrieved November 02, 2012, from http//ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.sckans.edu/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=114&sid=464200e6-81f9-4713-8506-4d71ffdcb55a%40sessionmgr14&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRldb=fb4602ab&AN= Kaul, V. (2012, April 16). Reverse Innovation is Not Optional. It is Oxygen Q & A Vijay Govindarajan. DNA day-by-day News & Analysis. Retrieved November 1, 2012,