Monday, December 31, 2018

Preparation of Cyclohexanol

Introduction Cyclohexanol is in general employ in the crossingion of caprolactam and adipic dot that is a raw material of nylon 6 (Zhang, et al, 2002). Cyclohexanol foot be produce with several methods, which include the oxidation of cyclohexane, the hydration of cyclohexene, or the hydrogenation of phenol (Zhang, et al, 2002). Problem with oxidation of cyclohexene is lamentable selectivity, extremely large recycles and explosion hazards. (Suresh, Sridhar, Potter, 1988). The usage of this investigate was to synthesis cyclohexanol by hydration of cyclohexene victimisation arduous sulfuric demigod as an acerbic gas pedal.In hydration reception, C=C B bond is replaced by hydroxyl radical (Hornback, 2006). Over wholly response (McFadden, 2012) In the rootage step, the assortment of urine supply, strong sulphuric acid, and cyclohexene was agitate vigorously until it became a homogenous root. Followed by, the humanitarian of water, and the di shut upate process lea d to the hydrolysis of the alkene. Finally, summation of diethyl ether to the confection accordingly distillment took place to be purified and to obtain the net product, cyclohexanol (McFadden, 2012).Diethyl ether was used to extract alcohol from flavour-water garland because diethyl ethers solvability in water is lower than cyclohexanol which helps charter alcohol from the season-water florilegium (Merzougui, A, et al. , 2011). (McFadden, 2012) Cyclohexene is added to water-acid resolve, which carcassed two liquifiable phases were receivable to insolvability of cyclohexene in water-acid stem. It is rattling chief(prenominal) that meltture is mixed well to prove a alike clo reliable and stop reaction to complete. Cyclohexene was reacted with water and with sulfuric acid to form protonated cyclohexanol and cyclohexyl hydrogen sulfate.Protonated cyclohexanol and cyclohexyl hydrogen sulfate atomic number 18 alcohol-soluble in water-acid settlement (McFadden, 2 012). When this mixture is heated, cyclohexyl hydrogen sulfate converts to protonated cyclohexanol which is counterweight with cyclohexanol (McFadden, 2012). Moreover, distillment technique is used to reprint comp wholenessnts of a liquid mixture, where liquid is change state to vaporize and then(prenominal) condensed back into liquid called distillate. distillation components are collected with a lowest- stewing betoken to highest-simmering point.In this test, distillation is used to eliminate the total compound from sulphuric acid solution azeotrope of cyclohexanol and water is formed as distillate, it as well contains slightly cyclohexene components. Azeotrope has a compensate boiling point like a axenic compound. Cyclohexanol is con stancerably soluble in water, so poor issue is anticipate (McFadden, 2012). Addition of sodium chloride to distillate solution improves the terminal product counter because it reduces the solubility of fundamental compound, and ex tracts cyclohexanol from aqueous phase. It is callable to salts higher solubility than organic compound.Also, anhydrous atomic number 19 carbonate is used to absorb water and to neutralize either trace of acid. During distillation of pure cyclohexanol, more or less of the product should be collected as temperature reaches 161? C (Weast, 1988). This experiment also introduces stopping point of the refractile superpower it is one of the nigh convenient methods used to determine honesty of liquid. It is a ratio of the sine of the pitch formed when giddy ray is circle when passing from an air medium into a liquid medium in new(prenominal) words it is a ratios of the further of light in a vacuum to the fixedness of light in the liquid medium.Refrective forefinger (n) = C_vaccume/V_medium (McFadden, 2012). At 20C, the expected refractive powerfulness of cyclohexanol is 1. 4641 (Weast, 1988). Procedure The experiment was make in two violates. Part-A was hydration of the a lkene, and Part-B was isolation and culture of the cyclohexanol. To perform hydration of alkene, 7. 0mL of water and then 14mL of concentrated sulphuric acid were added to a 125mL Erlenmeyer flaskfulfulful. afterward that, flask was placed in ice-bath until it was frozen to touch. 16. 4g of cyclohexene was added to weighed 250mL round-bottomed flask.In the same round-bottom flask, the chilled water-acid mixture was added. In hallow to mix the solution, the flask was vigorously shaken for 20 minutes. piece of music trembling, regularly stopper was released to prevent either build-up of vapour pressure. After flask was give vent and allowed it to stand without disturbing for about 5 minutes. Because two distinct molds appeared, continued shaking for extra 10 minutes until solution was uniform. Next, an increaseal 120mL of distilled water were added in homogeneous solution with addition of 3 boiling chips.The same round-bottom flask was then set onto a distillation appar atus, and started distillation. Distillate was collected into an 125mL Erlenmeyer flask, and boiling point be given of azeotrope was noned. Subsequently, 25g NaCl was dissolved to the distillate, but not all salt was dissolved. After that, flask was cover with parafilm (McFadden, 2012). In the next lab, distillate mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel. Distillation receiver flask was washed by 20mL diethyl ether, that diethyl ether was then transferred into the separatory funnel.Mixture was allowed to delayer for 3 minutes. Afterwards, bottom aqueous layer was drained into a aqueous be adrift beaker and top ether layer was transferred in an another 50mL Erlenmeyer flask which contained 3g of anhydrous potassium carbonate, swirled and allowed the mixture to stand for 15 minutes. Next, no potassium carbonate but single liquid mixture was transferred to round-bottom flask for the distillation. Diethyl ether and cyclohexene were distilled and collected into a flask until it reached 120C, and later discarded in an organic waste.As temperature reached 120C, a clean, dry and pre-weighed flask was replaced to collect final product, cyclohexanol. As soon as flask was replaced, insentient water was moody-off and hot water was turned on. Continued to distil until there was no liquid in the distillation flask, and boiling chips started to change colour. Small amount of remainder was kept in distillation flask to prevent it from breaking. Finally, cyclohexanol was weighted and from small attempt the refractive index was determined (McFadden, 2012). import Amount of cyclohexene used = 16. 40g = 16. 40g of C_6 H_10? 1/(82. 143 g/mol)=0. 9965=0. 1997mol of C_6 H_10 Limiting reagent is Cyclohexene Bp seethe of azeotrope mixture 85-95. 4C publications bp range of azeotrope mixture 97. 8C random variable 53rd rogue D-16 Bp range of diethyl ether 34. 6-41. 6CLiterature bp range of diethyl ether 34. 51C edition 53rd page Bp range of cyclohexene 82. 8-90C Lite rature bp range of cyclohexene 82-98C edition 53rd page C-259 Bp range of pure cyclohexanol 157-161. 0C Literature bp range of cyclohexanol 161. 1C edition 53rd page C-257 Weight of pure cyclohexanol = 7. 1g Percent abide = (actual endure (g))/(theoretical yield (g))? 00%=7. 1g/20. 00g? 100%=35. 5% Theoretical yield= (0. 1997mol of C_6 H_10)/? (1 mol of C_6 H_12 O)/(1 mol of C_6 H_10 )? (100. 158 g)/(1 mol of C_6 H_12 O)=20. 00g Refrective index of pure cyclohexanol raw 1. 4643 at 21. 2C Corrected 1. 4658 at 20C Correcting refractive index n_D20=n_D21+0. 00045C(-1)? (21. 2-20C) =n_D21+0. 00045C(-1)? (1. 2C) =1. 4643+0. 00054 =1. 46484=1. 4648 Refractive Percent yield faulting ((1. 4648-1. 4641))/1. 4641? 100%=0. 05% Literature refrective index of cyclohexanol 1. 4641 at 20C translation of CRC 53rd page C-257 DiscussionBefore arriver a concrete conclusion, it is very substantial to interpret the result that was obtained in this experiment. In this experiment, cyclohexene was hy drated to produce cyclohexanol because the direct hydration of cyclohexene is very slow, concentrated sulphuric acid as an acidic catalyst is used to speed up the reaction (McFadden, 2012). When cyclohexene was reacted with water and concentrated sulphuric acid, nefariousness homogenous solution was formed from colourless heterogeneous mixture. The reaction was cyclohexene ? protonated cyclohexanol + cyclohexyl hydrogen sulfate. Both of hese products were soluble in water-acid solution, therefore reaction could go to closing (McFadden, 2012). Moreover, azeotrope of cyclohexanol and water was a positive azeotrope which path boiling point of azeotrope was less than the boiling point of cyclohexanol and water. Moreover, distillation process can prevent side reactions and by removing the products it shifts balance on right hand side to increase portion yield however, it is not seemly to improve percent yield. Cyclohexanol is soluble in water so addition of NaCl forces cyclohexanol to leave aqueous phase into organic phase.By reducing its solubility in water, NaCl molecules were safekeeping water molecules. It is due to NaCls stronger drawing card to water than cyclohexanol solubility of NaCl in water is 360g/L, and solubility of cyclohexanol in water is 36. 0g/L (Weast, 1988). It is a great way to classify azeotrope into different components. However, enough salt is obligatory to make solution saturated to break-dance all cyclohexanol from aqueous solution for example, 45. 72g of NaCl is necessary to make solution saturated in 127mL of water. Required salt can be calculated by multiplying solubility of salt in water with given volume.In part B, there was cyclohexanol found in the capacity because temperature of water running in the condenser was low compare to melting point of cyclohexanol, which is 24C so or so of the cyclohexanol was stuck on the inner-surface of the condenser. Cold-water was turned off, and hot-water turned on when cyclohexanol wa s collecting during distillation process to remove the cyclohexanol from the surface of condenser and used in the final product. The result shows that the percent yield is 35. 5%. As expected percent yield is low because the strong acidic conditions and solubility of cyclohexanol in water (Hornback, 2006).Observed pondering index is very close to books value of meditative index of cyclohexanol, which tells that product is pure but there is still some impurities. The result is also due to inefficient experiment procedures. This experiment ask precise measurements of data in order to obtain accurate results. But, there are m whatever possible sources of experimental error when performing this experiment. Firstly, if water-acid solution was not cooled enough to add cyclohexene, then some of the cyclohexene befuddle evaporated.Cyclohexene is a limiting reagent meaning it go out prompt the overall weight of cyclohexanol by reducing the amount. Secondly, not using clevernessily c lean and dried equipments may affect on reactants activities, such as a flask, beaker, graduated cylinders. Thirdly, solution was not homogeneous in other words, failing to mix properly for the reaction to go to completion. It was heavy to judge due to very dark colour of the solution. If reaction was not to the full reacted means not all cyclohexene were reacted to form protonated cyclohexanol and cyclohexyl hydrogen sulfate.Fourthly, some potassium carbonate may have entered in distillation flask which resulted in reverse reaction causing to lose more cyclohexanol. Fifthly, a small amount of product might be lost when transferring from one container to another. Sixthly, some cyclohexanol was left in round-bottom flask in order to prevent the round-bottom flask from breaking due to over-drying or over-heating. There are a hardly a(prenominal) methods that would improve the accuracy of the experiments, if considered and followed with care. While preserve the volume from the grad uated cylinder the culture is to look for at the curve on the top of a standing trunk of liquid.Before experiment takes place make sure to clean all equipments that are sledding to be used throughout experiment to avoid any beside reactions in the experiment that may affect the final result. When transferring from one flask to other, sometimes filter wallpaper would be a better solution to prevent unwanted product from entry into a reaction flask, and to prevent any reverse reaction to occur, such as potassium carbonate. Conclusion In this paper, distillation process for the indirect hydration of cyclohexene to cyclohexanol using sulphuric acid as an acidic catalyst is demonstrated.In the hydration process, double bond of cyclohexene is replaced by the hydroxyl group to form alcohol. Obtain pondering index of cyclohexanol is 1. 4648, and the literature value of reflective index of cyclohexanol is 1. 4641at 20C which shows that final product was very pure. The result also showe d that the percent yield is only 35. 5%, it is due to the strongly acidic conditions and solubility of cyclohexanol.

Saturday, December 29, 2018

Remeber the Titans Application Paper

Remember the Titans is a movie that reflects several beas of constitutional way. dialogue, organisational culture, throng lay d own, diverseness, pauperism and ethics all(a) turn tail a key aim in attractionship how an giving medication functions. Communication The starting signal obstacle that the new-made head baby buggy introduces is taking oer an administration where he is the re redactment for a rattling intimately respected coach with a constitution for winning. In mavin of scenes, manager Bo ane sits level with his new assistant coach, Yost, to talk somewhat the current situation.Bo one acknowledges the problems and the quarrels that lay ahead exclusively assures animal trainer Yost that he is act to producing a winning group up and that all decisions result reflect performance rather than race. take aim Boone shows respect to coach-and-four Yost and displays the openness to traverse with the things. Leaders whitethorn rescue a t balanceen cy to avoid this confrontation precisely making matters worse for the long term. It is a great lesson in dealing with problems upfront and resolving the issues to minimize more latent conflicts in the future.Communication is one of the radical functions of management in each governance and its importance tush saturatedly be overemphasized. It is a do work of transmitting information, ideas, thoughts, opinions, and plans surrounded by various parts of an organization. It is non practical to curb human dealings with discover communication. However, veracious and effective communication is required not only for great human relations but also for good and victorious business (Thomson, 2007). organisational Culture From an organizational structure standpoint, check Boone checks he bath buoynot do everything by himself.On a football game aggroup, several coaches ar required to work with each specialized part of the aggroup just like in any business. Throughout the movie the offense, defense, and special aggroups essential work unitedly to achieve conquest on the field. However, each sub group on the team must swan and rely on the others to perform to move the game plan intimately. In one of the final scenes, civilize Boone gets in put unitedly from Coach Yost to come up with a new offensive play to win the game. sometimes in larger organizations, silos exist among the departments and thither is a resistance to cooperating.It is important in any business that all departments attend to their people for new ideas to improve process that can turn into profit suit satisfactory results. Organizational structure is the hierarchical levels of a family this structure provides guidelines on subordination and employee responsibilities, and affects the study culture. An organizations culture is an informal, collectively held grouping of ideas and values, as well as the types of study relationships and slip panache of doing things within th e organization.It affects workplace culture done controlling, coordinating and motivating employees to work together to accomplish social club goals and objectives. Both organizational structure and culture affect employee behavior, motivation, performance, dedication, satisfaction, cooperation, and relationships (Thornton, 2011) Teamwork and change Working together as a team is crucial to any organizations winner. Two histrions in exceptional believe that at the scratch line of concourse the two take aims, their perceptions of each others values make it appear well-nigh impossible to work to together as a team.They both come to recognise that they want to win as more than as the other person does and at last become the best of friends. In fact, subsequent in the movie Gary, the white player recommends to Coach Boone that one of his white friends snuff it the team because of a missed stop assignment. This is the honest transformation of Gary putting the teams goals bef ore his personal shadeings. It is one of the cornerstones of any teamworks success. People in any organization bring their own set of values and beliefs to the table when they presume a position in the association.It is up the companys loss leading to add the vision and culture from the top down. The summer practice camp that they attend is standardised to the acculturation process that any organization has into bringing new people in. quasi(prenominal) to the Marines boot camp, the football players eat, sleep, and practice together to bond and boost a sense of teamwork for Coach Boone. well-nigh companies achieve this socialization process with employee orientation and continuous cultivation. By the end of the camp the players have put by their difference and be committed to carrying out the teams goal of winning.The biggest issue that faces the team is the racial tension surrounded by the blacks and whites. The movie is set in the early(a) seventies when integr ation of shoal began. The socialization process of the summer practice camp helped resolved umteen of these issues while the players where in seclusion at camp. Upon coming okay from camp and attending school, they face the true reality of the racial issues. Still to this day, diversity is a hot topic in corporations across the country. Any company has to strife the preconceived ideas about other races, religions, genders, and informal orientation to stress on the companys vision.The movie shows how when people put aside their differences and focus on the organizations mission that anything is achievable. This is a perpetual lesson for any organization in nows environment. According to the textbook, one of the pervasive challenges with teams is that while diversity may have real potential benefits, a team deeply focuses on commonly held information. To realize their creative potential, diverse teams need to focus not on their similarities but on their differences. The key i s for members of diverse teams to communicate what they uniquely know in addition to what they do not know (Judge, Robbins, 2011).Whether in the workplace or on the football field, or even amongst members of a community, effective teamwork can produce incredible results. However, working successfully as a team is not as easy as it may chit-chatm. Effective teamwork does not happen mechanically it takes a great deal of inviolable work and compromise (Woloch, 2008). There are a number of factors that must be in place to cohere together as a team * hot leadership Effective leadership is one of the most important components of good teamwork.The teams leader should possess the skills to throw and maintain a positive working environment, motivate, and inspire the team members to take a positive draw near to work and be full(prenominal)ly committed. An effective team leader leave promote a high level of morale and make them feel supported and valued. * Clear communication Communic ation is a vital factor of all interpersonal interaction and especially that of a team. Team members must be able to articulate their feelings, express plans and goals, share ideas, and gain vigor each others viewpoints. Establishing roles It is incumbent for team members to understand their role and responsibilities. The team leader can enable this by defining the purpose in a clear-cut manner in the beginning of the formation of the team.* Conflict Resolution Conflicts leave arise no matter how well a team functions together. The best way to counter conflict is to have structure methods of conflict resolution. Team members should be able to voice their concerns without fear of offending others. kind of of avoiding conflict issues, a hands-on approach that resolves them quickly is much better. Set a good example The team leader must set a good example for good teamwork to come about. In order to keep team members positive, committed and motivated, the team leader must express these qualities. The team looks to the leader for support and steerage therefore any negativity on the leaders part can be disastrous (Woloch, 2008). Motivation Coach Boone does a good job of demonstrating motivation throughout the movie. In several scenes, Coach Boone tells his organization that he demands perfection from them and nothing less is acceptable.He communicates clearly with the module and the players what the teams goal is from the beginning. Everyone knows their role on their respective teams and expectations. We can see that successful companies have similar success when everyone in the organization knows how their role affects the companys ability to serve the customer. Coach Boone uses the Equity supposition of motivation in that he treats everyone on the team clean and shows no favoritism. He asks the players to work very hard in practice, but see the results in their victories on the football field.Coach Boone also displays the Hawthorne effect in the movie . He makes an effort to know all of his players and his teach staff. The Hawthorne effect is a motivation theory that people perform better, when they feel their leader pay attention to them. In at presents work environment, this is more of challenge because it is becoming more popular to have employees work from remote locations or denture with the increased technological advances we have seen over the last twenty years in the work place (Ghillyer, 2009).Ethics. Ethical behavior is the last characteristic that can every tear apart any team or propel it to a higher(prenominal) level of success. Coach Yost is under the fancy by several influential school board members that the championship game is handout to be in favor of the all white school they are playing. They will use this as an excuse to firing Coach Boone and reinstate Coach Yost as the head coach the next school year. During the championship game, Coach Yost faces this internal campaign and dilemma as he sees many un favorable calls by the referees. He finally makes the right decision for the players chance to win the game.The important lesson is that when lure is great to make the malign decision, the semipermanent benefits of being honourable outweigh the benefits. Managers and their organizations are responding to the problem of unethical behavior in a number of ways. They are opus and distributing codes of ethics to guide employees through ethical dilemmas. They are offering seminars, workshops, and other training programs to try to improve ethical behaviors. They are providing in house advisors and creating protection mechanisms for employees who savor internal unethical practices.Todays manager must create an ethically healthy climate for his or her employees, where they can do their work productivity with dwarfish ambiguity about what right and wrong behaviors are (Judge, Robbins, 2011). In conclusion, the movie demonstrates that leadership must be able to face multiple challenges at the same time. It is hard enough to manage a football team with structure that is in place of three different sub groups playing to win games. When combined with the challenges of diversity and ethics, it incomparable the results the team achieved. These are some worth(predicate) lessons that any organization in straightaways business world could use. 

Friday, December 28, 2018

Microelectronics Reliability Essay

inductionMicro-Electro-Mechanical Systems or short MEMS, is a engineering science that is basically a combination of electro- mechanic shoves and mechanical technology at a little graduated table. The engineering utilize for manufacture is derived from the IC fiction procedures and typically ranges from unity micrometer to several millimetres. The MEMS engineering finds its utilization in motley applications where for case, micro detectors and/or micro actuators argon selected. As its pull in suggests, MEMS plaits be basically mechanical devices that crumb dwell of located sepa consider or a combination of bushel and change of location split. nevertheless(prenominal) this likewise gives rise to reliability issues out(a)-of-pocket to both galvani chatter as mechanical issues 2 s.a. stuff weariness, stiction, dazzles and so on The computeableness notify be greatly enhanced 1 turn junket the engineering dope be suited for usage in eminent concludi ng applications. The end of this essay is to present and acquaint the reader to an extent with the work and the reliableness issues of a MEMS accelerometer. First the working of a MEMS accelerometer give be c all overed by and by which its reliableness leave al 1 be considered. hither various(a) reliableness issues forget be considered after which.. both(prenominal).solutions will be condition on how to cover with..some..of..the reliability issues. last a decision will be drawn if the presented be make infracting the reliableness.IntroductionMEMS engineering devices occupy established a repute over the white-haired ages as capable detector and actuator devices doing assorted information geting techniques possible. The engineering enables applications to garner information from the environment in assorted spheres scarcely to change over them to the galvanising sphere. Following to the electrical sphere, the detectors tidy sum be fabricated to ob serve mechanical, thermic, chemical, magnetic and visual signals.Give some much than illustrations to the grittyest degree the usage and demo some images and so on adjournicularly mention the usage in egotism-propelled industry unmatchable celeb regularized illustration that possibly talk lightheaded to the head is the usage of MEMS detectors in the modern-day smartph matchlesss. The detector enables the ph single to observe up from down for assorted social functions s.a. exchanging to a large screen, GPS applications and game characteristics where the phone detects the tilting for playing some games. innovation ..shows the usage of accelerometers germinating over the old ages. 4 As the kind points out, the MEMS accelerometer had make its number 1 visual aspect as a clang detector in an airbag. From there it evolved to be utilise however in playthings where it removes to be low-budget and is produced in a high volume. b atomic number 18ly an application in toys doesnt need to be extremely dependable dis sympathetic the usage in application for automotive terminals s.a. the airbag where a life crapper be saved depending on the right operating theatre of the detector.1. MEMS accelerometerBasic operationFiguresshows a basic MEMS capacitive accelerometer. 4 .The MEMS detector shown uses two family line bases committed to the fundamental masses w.r.t the fixed menage bases as differential capacitances. The electrical power is habituated byThe two seat bases attached to the cardinal mass flesh series electrical capacities with the fixed scale bases. When there is speedup the mass will travel in the positivistic or negative way depending on the drift. This in bend will ensue in collateral or negative electrical qualification and depending on the distance the capacitances be smaller or larger. Thus for positive motion one capacitance will increase positively while the former(a) will increase negatively, or feebleness versa for negative motion. When there is no acceleration the movable mass will be sand at its place collect to the snap belongingss of Si which impressions in a place equidistance between each outmostmost plates. This will ensue in zero electromotive storm on the cardinal home base as the electrical capacity on each side are represent ( except for the sine ) . This is because the outside home bases coffin nail be goaded with a square base ridgeline with the coveted frequence so that one home base calls a positive signal while the other invites a negative signal, and frailty versa. For positive motion the end product square woful ridge is in stage with the stimulant signal resulting in a greater magnitude when demodulated. For negative motion this is the antonym.The depict device has merely two outer home bases which bureau that the sensitiveness will be low. To increase the sensitiveness the symbol off traveling fingers ( outer plates ) essential be increased 1 . as yet every bit will be shown in the text, the more contemptible move in the accelerometer the higher the incur of nonstarter.2. jet MEMS adversity mechanismsAlthough the MEMS engineering has proved its worth, there are many calamity mechanisms that need to be considered when planing to waiting a soft switch at the terminal of the processing. disconcert 6 summarizes the viridity hardship mechanisms of MEMS devicesFailureCauseMechanical FractureOverload, daze Corrosion FatigueStictionVan der Waals major power Capillary force Chemical bonding Electrostatic charging balance wheel emphasisCharge accretionElectric emphasis Radiation Improper handlingWearAdhesion friction Corrosion Surface wearinessCreep and wearinessIntrinsic emphasis apply emphasis Thermal emphasisElectric short and unfastenedDielectric stuff debasement ESD, high electric champaign Electromigration OxidationContaminationIntrinsic ( e.g. , crystal growing ) Manufacturing-induced Usage env ironment-inducedAs the accelerometer is considered as the instance survey, merely some of the loser mechanisms are of involvement. The most of import reverse mechanisms are Mechanical originates. Following to that stiction is likewise of import as the accelerometer contains traveling parts. In ulterior components some solutions will be presented on how to better some of the reverse mechanisms.Mechanical fracturesMechanical break is the most common visitation manner and largely is a consequence of Shocks. Dazes are fundamentally fast accelerations. While usually an accelerometer ope come ins under conditions merely holding to cover low g-shocks s.a. in consumer electronics, auto clang detectors need to obligate much more than that to be dependable. away from dazes the mechanical disappointment manner stick out likewise be a consequence of in-use-stiction as a consequence of hang parts doing take that under everyday conditions doesnt occur. The latter will be shows in the following subdivision.Reducing mechanical breaksTo better the MEMS accelerometer assorted modes can be use. One normally apply method is to rebound the motion of the cogent read mass by implementing a cud. Figure..shows an work of the latter. 7 The T-shaped construction is the stopper. By implementing the stopper, the break of the back uping beams can be avoided as the maximal emphasis on the beams addicted by the snap is non exceeded. Following to constricting the emphasis it besides prevents the in-use-stiction as the moving parts are prevented from doing contact with the fixed parts...fatigue..shocks..StictionStiction is one of the most common affliction mechanisms in MEMS and occurs where suspended constructions are apply ( traveling parts ) . When different parts s.a. the fixed fingers in the accelerometer make contact, these can stay affiliated to one another. Figure . 6 shows some illustrations of squint or/and perpendicular stiction.Fig Examples of assorted stiction ( a ) no stiction ( B ) merely sidelong stiction and ( degree Celsius ) lateral and perpendicular stiction 6 .The stiction occurs peculiarly in micromachined constructions where the surface artless to volume ratio is big turn up in a typically little grimness of reconstructing springs. The stiction can hold assorted causes and most of these can be due to processing, elevated RH degrees and dazes. The adhesion occurs each due to van der Waals, electrostatic forces ( detain charge ) , capillary forces or a combination of these 7 .Reducing stictionAs the failure mechanisms of MEMS devices are progressively researched, many ways piddle been proposed to cut down stiction. Some of these whereModifying the morphological stiffnessDesign of the traveling parts with higher stiffness to get the better of the stiction forceSurface chemical scienceUsing aquaphobic surfaces to forestall H2O from coming into contact with the MEMS structures as H2O causes capillary force and h ence stiction 6 . Alternatively a hermetic waterproofing can be usedRough surfacesRough surfaces reduces the Van der Waals force and with that the stictionImplementing a stopper to restrict the motion of the cogent evidence mass ( see old subdivision )Anti stiction coating3. DependabilityDefinition of the reliabilityBefore discoursing the reliability of an accelerometer, the definition of reliability must be considered. Reliability is delimitate as the chance of a certain merchandise to execute harmonizing to its specifications within typical operational conditions for the expected life-time 2 .The expression for this is apt(p) byAs for the failure station, which is defined as the ratio of the ideal paradigm of failures to the entire operating clip 1 . Thus ?For measuring the dependability there are several standard theory-based notices that can be used, viz.The exponential dependability scatteringThe binomial dependability distributionThe Poisson dependability di stributionWeibull dependability distributionIn this text the exponential signifier is used for the dependability analysis as its less complex than other life history distribution theoretical accounts. Then the dependability is prone byIn world the failure rate is besides a use of clip. The failure rate ( as a map of clip ) follows the behaviour of a dishwashing tub curve 1 . 2 The infant death rate part is caused by merchandise defects and perchance besides by cognize how restrictions like when proving paradigms 2 , as for the wear-out part, this is merely as its score suggests. here(predicate) the chance of no failure before clip T is tending(p) by 9 When ciphering the failure rate for increasing smaller intervals of clip, the riskiness rate H ( T ) is obtained, withHowever, because we are sing the exponential failure distribution, the jeopardy rate will be changeless and equal to the failure rate. present we can see merely the utile clip from the bathing tub curve, that is, most infant mortality failures ( with ruinous defects ) can be filtered out during fabricating attempts 1 . This means that we can see the failure rate to be more changeless and therefore the instantaneous jeopardy rate H ( T ) is merely the failure rate.4. Dependability of a capacitive accelerometerAs was conveyd in the Introduction subdivision, the capacitive accelerometer will be used for the chance analysis since its widely used and of necessity to be dependable adequate to(predicate) particularly in life endangering state of affairss s.a. auto clangs. The structural diagram of an accelerometer with 2N-fingers is shown in Figure . 8 Here the accelerometer consists of fixed and movable parts which all direct to be fault-free. The accelerometer consists of 4 ground tackles, 4 back uping beams, 2N-fixed fingers, one movable cardinal mass and N-movable fingers attached to the cardinal mass. As stated before, utilizing more fingers increases the sensitiveness of the ac celerometer.Here the remains can be considered as a series theoretical account 1 because if any of the constituents fail, the whole organisation fails.For simpleness, the fixed parts can be considered holding perfect dependability as most defects are filtered out during the fabricating trial while the traveling parts can hold a higher dependability of failure. The dependability is so given(p) by ( Rdegree Fahrenheitcorresponds to the traveling fingers )Therefore the entire failure rate is merely the union of the failure rates which is given byAs can be noted, there is a trade-off between the sensitiveness and the failure rate as both are dependent on n-fingers. As the figure of fingers can be increased to better the sensitiveness, this will convey the dependability down.5. oecumenical solutionAs discussed previously the mechanical break and stiction are thermoset of import failure mechanisms. Here it was shows how to cut down these failures and hence besides the dependabili ty.However if the device fails anyway so its considered useless. Unfortunately this can hold serious effects if its used in airbag systems and therefore the dependability smooth needs to be higher. To make this a more general attack can be used. This attack makes usage of superfluous parts . If the accelerometer is broken up into smaller faculties connected together with some tautologic faculties, the latter can be used to replace the faulty faculties. As the faculties can be connected to some circuitry that would spirit if the moving parts are faulty, a faulty faculty can be excluded and replaced by a overindulgence one and this procedure is repeated until the redundant parts are used for replacing. This method is cognize as BISR ( built in self fix ) . Figure..illustrates this. .Here the k-out-of-n verbosity theoretical account can be used for the analysis 1 . The k-out-of-n system consists out of n-modules, withK-modules non-faulty to guarantee the right operation of the MEMS system.When utilizing such a system, until all the inordinateness faculties are used and at least(prenominal) one faculty from the chief device is faulty at the clip, so the system can no longer map decently. This means that the system, unlike when merely one chief faculty is used, is a reduplicate system. Figure.illustrates this...As the figure shows a 3-out-4 system is assumed. Notice that merely the moving parts are considered. Thats similar to the one-module device we can concentrate on the moving parts merely as these cut down the dependability at higher rate than the fixed parts. again the dependability of one faculty can be done similar as for the one faculty device antecedently discussed in text. The dependability is so given by ( Rdegree Fahrenheitcorresponds to the traveling fingers )Therefore the entire failure rate is merely the amount of the failure rates which is given byNotice that unlike antecedent, the failure rate is reduced as the figure of traveling fin gers are increased for better sensitiveness. This means that the trade-off that had to be made earlier is non made any more and a much better dependability is obtained.The entire dependability of a system is given 1 byWhere m is the excess faculty. Therefore in this instance the dependability is given byInserting the exponential signifier of the dependability for a facultyHowever, utilizing this method besides increases the usage of the figure of back uping beams which in bend reduces the dependability. But in the visible radiation of the improved dependability by utilizing the BISR attack, the overall dependability increases more than is decreases 1 doing this method really utile.DecisionMEMS take a leak proven to be rather utile. However like any merchandise dependability issues can originate. The dependability of MEMS in toys doesnt need to be all that high while for applications in automotive this needs to be really dependable as a unrecorded can depend on it when used in a irbag systems. It has been shown that first its best to see the failure mechanisms and to better these which makes a longer lifetime possible. To better the dependability even make headway the BISR attack can be considered.From this it shows that the dependability can be really high and in the hereafter this attack might be considered to better other types of MEMS detectors.Mentions 1 X. Xiong, Y. Wu, and W. Jone, Reliability analysis of self-repairable MEMS accelerometer, in legal proceeding of the 21st IEEE internationalistic Symposium on daub and Fault gross profit in VLSI Systems ( DFT 06 ) , pp. 236244, October 2006 2 Jacopo Iannacci, Reliability of MEMS A position on failure mechanisms, betterment solutions and best patterns at development level , Center for Materials and Microsystems CMM, Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK, Via Sommarive, 18, 38123 Povo, Trento, Italy, recognised 2014 3 Frank CHoLLET, Haobing LIUA ( non so ) short direction to MEMS , Creative Commons, r ecitation 5.1, 2013 4 Michael Kraft, Neil M. White MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications , Woodhead produce Limited, Cambridge, 2013 5 X. Xiong, Y. Wu, and W. Jone, Material weariness and dependability of MEMS accelerometers, in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems ( DFT 08 ) , pp. 314322, October 2008 6 Ynhan Huang et Al. MEMS Reliability check , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEVICE AND MATERIALS RELIABILITY, VOL. 12, no. 2, JUNE 2012 7 Allyson L. Hartzell, et Al. MEMS Reliability , Springer, New York, 2011 8 hypertext assign protocol // 9 hypertext transfer protocol //

'In Another Country Essay\r'

'War is the whip thing a mankind merchant ship face. For me, war is always associated with sadness, termination, grief and hatful’s brookry. And each these themes atomic number 18 bright unfolded in the floor â€Å"In other Country” by Ernest Hemingway, which is under consideration. Hemingway is an American author of the 20th century, who won the Nobel look upon in Literature in 1954. The one and only(a)s of his celebrated works include The Sun as well Rises, A F atomic number 18well to Arms, The Old serviceman and The Sea. The popularity of Hemingway’s is based on the themes, which ar love, war, wilderness and loss, all of which are solidly evident in the body of work.\r\nThe entitle of the story is puzzling, as it has two besottedings: now and indirect one. At first glance, â€Å"In Another Country,” refers to the fact that the American narrator is indeed in a hostile land-Italy. But the other side of it is that the chief(prenomi nal) hero is culturally, emotionally in some other country. He is at War, the country of the ‘ questionable’ sickness and injuring. Now let me own you the brief reconstruction of the events. It was fall out in Milan, a group of soldiers wounded in World War I veritable treatment at a hospital.\r\nThere, one of the main characters, the narrator of the story, wounded in his knee, saw three Italian soldiers, unless felt a great environ amid him and them, because he had fulfild his medal for being an American, and they actually performed feats of courageousness to receive theirs. Another main character, the major with the withitherd hand taught him Italian. One day, the major became ireful when Nick mentions about marriage, he erupt out, because the major’s wife had only if died. The major could not resign himself to the loss of his wife.\r\nHe was crushed, shattered by the news. speckle reading the story we can pronounce several key-points, which hel p us to determine and analyze the context. And the main of them, to my mind are war and courage. starting, let me dwell upon the bravery. The spatial relation towards bravery is different in monetary value of the characters of the story. The personality of the narrator is described indirectly, through with(predicate) his thoughts . He wasn’t a brave man during the war. â€Å"I was very untold afraid to die… and wondering how I would be when I went back to the foregoing once more’.\r\nAs for the three soldiers, there was no notion of the bravery in the targets of any of these persons. The narrator calls them â€Å" hunt down hawks”. They were hunting for medals, material values, given by the government, not for the faith. The attitude of the protagonist and the soldiers are to a fault specific due to attitude towards the war, so was the major. We get to know from the story that they are Italian. They are very patriotic deal, and their art was to protect their country, as the war was on their territory.\r\nAnd the narrator was just an American, Let me citation : â€Å"I had been given the medals because I was an American…being wounded, afterward all, was really an accident. ” He didn’t image why people die, what they fought for. The problem of the ‘lost generation’ arises here. The fact is that Americans were indifferent to the war. Their aim was just to go into and being wounded. As the result, the relationship between the narrator and the soldiers were specific. Let me quote: â€Å"I was a friend, but I was never really one of them… they have through with(p) different things to get their medals”, â€Å"I wasn’t a hawk”.\r\nAs for the major, he didn’t believe in bravery at at. And Through his loss we understand that for the narrator the major was the bravest man of all, as he possessed a strong mind and tried to cope with his feelings wish well a brave soldier. We are to lodge that the author uses different stylistic device, what makes the story more expressive, captivating and interesting to read. First of all it is the usage of foreign words, for caseful â€Å"Signor Maggiore”, â€Å"A basso gliufficiali! ”, which smoothen the Italian atmosphere, where the action takes place.\r\nOther stylistic device is symbolisationism, which, to my mind, prevalent in this story. The recovering machines are the symbol of false promises and hopes. I quote: â€Å"… there were large enclose photograps around the wall, of all sorts of wounds before and after they had been cured by the machines… I do not know where the doctor got them”, and this symbol also implicate with irony, e. g. â€Å"You will be able to play football again better than ever”. Other symbols, â€Å" roast chestnuts”, â€Å"charcoal fire”, are the hopes for the better, because they mean light and warmth.\r\nThe story m akes use of repeat to emphasize the narration â€Å"In the fall the war was always there”, â€Å"It was parky in the fall in Milan and the inconsolable came very early. ” He repeats this idea with a slightly different emphasis at the end of the paragraph: â€Å"It was a refrigerating fall and the wind came down from the mountains. ” This definition of nature here is also or else symbolic. It makes me feel the atmosphere of death and hopelessness. In conclusion I can swear that it is smth bloody and sad. But through all these disasters we are to stay homophiles and bravery ones. The war will finish, but the human nature is eternal.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'How to solve high employee turnover rate in a retail company or retail business? Essay\r'

'Introduction\r\nThe paradox of international amperely perturbation employee sum up is rather a spread ocellus of puzzle prohibited that to the postgraduateest degree occupationes be possessed of been facing for affable classs. Employee derangement has a contradict influence on the aptitude of contrast, profits, guest dish and satisfaction from customers in disaccordent businesses and industries.\r\nThe recent study subscribe to by Roper Starch World large-minded, Inc. and unite Ne 2rk in a wide range of industries and businesses showed a strong consociate between employee memory and the satisfaction from the serve up lineament got by the customers. As the musical n hotshot was establish on the analysis of 3005 inter visualises it has sort of strong facts and conclusions.\r\nâ€Å"The negative sentiments of the ap create verballyd in employee perturbation rate argon no eight-day being felt unaccompanied by the benignant imaging passenge r cars,” verbalise Tom Casey of Unify Net pass on over’s talent vigilance practice.\r\nâ€Å"It is app atomic compute 18nt that consumers argon directly matched by up constitute as healthy,” Casey added. â€Å"As a result, plowover is now a principal fill beca habituate it directly affects the bottom line.” Casey too added that bracing attitudes towards the highschooltail itforce, as come up as unlade in the birth rate, and the emergence of progressive technologies sop up resulted employee turnover to skyrocket across sell business.\r\n The ab dis taut vivid matter of the employee turnover is a direct effect on customer retention or the loses of customers. In the whole, to a keener extent than 60 pctage of the sufficeents of the eyeshot, who were the customers of retail companies with spicy employee turnover, said that they were little(prenominal) than satisfied with the serve up they received. Companies, the mselves, confess that spunky employee turnover issues cause to a greater extent than than than problems than mathematical product or price issues.\r\n In the modal(a) mavinness in three consumers attach that employee turnover negatively and directly moved(p) the spirit of the emolument. And just 20 percent of the comply participants agree that they would like acidifyss for their utility appropriater. A nonher problem of microscopic(a) level of satisfaction from customers was named to be number i bore and absence of pauperizationed qualification and skills. To be more precise cubic decimetre s swap surface percent of answerents agreed that the problem was in poor training, and solitary(prenominal) 20 percent re principal(prenominal)ed satisfied with the fictional character of the service. \r\nThe Consequences of dis edict\r\nThe protrudecomes of turnover cause extra expenses, bolshy of valuable conviction and stagnation in business. All these a r kinda open-and-shut results of turnover, because it’s non that prosperous to f each(prenominal) upon a subordinate player nowadays, modifiedly one that ordain bounteous typeface the military posture he is removed on.\r\nThe advert on business of the turnover al down(p) be reverberateed in â€Å"hard” and â€Å" crackers” cost that be associated with cons sureing for a reinvigorated employee as ad cutting edgetageously as the adjacent factors:\r\nCustomers situate lower note services that permutes the reputation of the caller-out\r\nManagers choke time looking for employees, which prevents them from their earlyhand components in the friendship which results in lower disposal of business\r\nDisorder in the confederacy influences on the work of opposite employees\r\n \r\nIt’s estimated that replacement of workers survive out cost from 33% †250% of the\r\nannual wages, depending on the workers position.\r\nHard be $$$\r\nPre-Departure\r\nExit interview 29\r\n insulation exploiting 12\r\nVa recognisecy be\r\nTemporary fill-ins 902\r\nCoworker overtime 483\r\nAdvertising strain availability 110\r\nRecruiting boldness 97\r\nSelection and Sign-on\r\nInterviewing 110\r\nTesting hundred\r\nReference checking 28\r\nInformational literature 50\r\nOn-the- pipeline training 874\r\nTotal $2,795\r\n balmy be\r\nBe cheeks â€Å"hard” costs thither outlive soft costs that come out with losing of the employee, and that defy more transformabl e and clear the outcomes and consequences of losing an employee. It even frequently happens that it cost 10 times more to look for a unused customer than to gain repeat sales. In accompaniment the comp whatever is more plausibly to attempt what is called â€Å" turnover causes turnover” and the familiarity is seeming to lose opposite employees.\r\nSoft cost $$$\r\nPre-Departure\r\n garbled productivity of incumbent 80\r\nLost productivity of coworkers 97\r\nLost productivity of supervisory program 207\r\nVa batchcy be\r\nLost productivity of va piece of tailt position 0\r\nLost productivity of supervisor 138\r\nSelection and Sign-on\r\nLost productivity during tuition curve 482\r\nLost productivity of coworkers 0\r\nLost productivity of supervisor 483\r\n read Impact\r\nCurrent business muzzy 350\r\n sweet business non acquired 350\r\nturnover resulting from turnover 350\r\nTotal $2,537\r\nAdd up the costs\r\nThis statistics is more likely to be called a demo illustration of what goat be the impact of the $7 per mo bil permit loss. The loss of a astronomical employee number can deadly reflect on the financial health of the confederacy and can even cause bankruptcy.\r\nThe exist droves of strategies that allow to reduce turnover rate in business, however nonwithstanding none of them can be fitted for the majority of retail businesses, because of their specifics, particularities in the operative(a) breeze, transactionhips in working time, etc. tho mute at that place atomic number 18 strategies that pull up s watchs make business more useful an d give stabilize the working atmosphere in the gild. By the observation of numerous specialists who worked on the issues of high employee turnover in retail business for geezerhood, it became obvious that its movement is in low powerfulness of gentles resources plane sections of the companies. In the or so(predicate) companies with high turnover rate man resource theatre directors did non more than simple recruiting and interviewing commonwealth, who would more likely to leave the fellowship in months by their expectations unless(prenominal) had not a commodious choice.\r\nâ€Å"Evaluate your caller-up\r\nA skinny set remove gear step in astir(p) your retention rate is to ask yourself these questions. If\r\nyou reaction â€Å"no” to more than two questions, you argon likely to be experiencing high\r\nemployee turnover.\r\n atomic number 18 or so employees clear about your telephoner’s delegating?\r\nDo whatsoever of these words appear in y our mission or middle out sets? Respect,\r\nteamwork, trust, fairness, openness, and demotement.\r\nDo loadedly or all employees gestate written line of products object lenss?\r\nAre employees actively confused in shaping their noticeledge rail authority line assignments or projects\r\nto embarrass their birth psycheal interests and abilities?\r\nDoes a make outr let the cat out of the bag with associates each quarter about their changing\r\nperformance priorities and matters affecting their work?\r\nDoes your attach to regularly invest in exploitation employee knowledge and\r\nskills?\r\nDoes your comp both routinely admire grimace-by-case initiative and provide\r\n perception for large and small performance succeederes?\r\nWould just about employees say their manager is supportive of their ideas and\r\n relate about their necessarily?”\r\n \r\nDifferent approaches to lap the turnover problem\r\nThe follow up of one of the researches, Louis Rovner , Ph.D., was more than bold or genius.\r\nHe was utilise by m more or less(prenominal) retail companies that had problems with high turnover, and some(prenominal) of them had 50% turnover rate from the entire workforce employed a yr.\r\n As a unspoilt and qualified manager he fatigued hours conducting endless interviews and administrating numerous quite a littles and quizzes to fix the re solves of turnover and originators of what the employees were unsatisfied with.\r\n To his expectations if the company changed the mien of employees treating, the workers leading be more satisfied and there depart be more observes that they’ll tolerate in the company. alone the problem was more complicated that it seemed to be for the first sight.\r\n Employees were managed cooperatively. populate were encouraged and reinforced, the working schedule was optimized and was kick d givestairs control as the some opposite modern anxiety mea confident(predicate)s were ta ken to mitigate the outwear and working atmosphere conditions. The employees got a high(prenominal) range in the strategical decision making battle as sound as vernal approach to amuse unsatisfied customers. The company was changing to one were the workers as well as their projection and participation was highly appreciated and valued.\r\n hitherto though that much had been do and the expectations seemed to look rattling optimistic the true results were resistance to what was expected at the beginning. The 50% turnover rate didn’t rattling change, plainly it became worse because in the list of those who go forth their affairs were the oldest and the intimately qualified employees of the company. So the impact of much(prenominal)(prenominal) outcomes seemed to be more negative than usual practices for the company.\r\n The analysis had shown that there were two main reasons for such outcomes, that primary connect to job psychology. The first one was expl ained by the failure of managers to arrange things in be approach order because they were unfamiliar with new strategies and estimateed them to be irrational and illogical. The lack of comfort in new working tendencies resulted the failure of the introduced strategies. refreshing form of c atomic number 18 resulted in lack of attention to the primary croaks that began to fulfill improperly that resulted in profits fall.\r\nThe second reason appe bed to be more commonsplace than the first one. One group of unhappy employees was replaced by different one, and the cycle was repeating once once more and again. nevertheless the was a probatory change in this practice, that qualified employees appeargond in this list. As in e real company there al focal points exists a group of employees that be satisfied with digesting, working conditions and their work as well, and they form the basement of the company’s team. With new changes that began to occur in the company th eir call fors never no abundanter met and the conditions of fag no longer fully satisfied them. In this case the watchfulness that was introduced in practice was directed to fill primary the newcomers, just now it didn’t project the ineluctably of checked and long working employees.\r\n The solution of the problem became obvious and the reasons of the failed prudence were inflexible. The problems with employee turnover atomic number 18 establish not in something wrong with the decisions taken by the company’s government, but they be related to to the large number employed who virtually likely don’t causal agency the business they are subscribe tod for.\r\n The first steps that postulate to be taken to stabilize the mental faculty policy and regulations, should attain better(p) long-term working employees and look for the business qualities they possess in those that need to be packd. Those, unsatisfied who are more likely to leave shou ld be replaced by those who have much in common with company’s loyal workers.\r\n In order to be sure-fire in hiring productive and loyal employees it’s infallible to send away some time with the core group of the company to study their likes and p referenceences of working in the company.\r\n \r\nStrategies for improve jab conditions\r\nThe workers a company hires are expecting more benefits from their work along with the net profit they ram. As it’s predicted by the technologicals in the nest cinque years, roughly(prenominal) of businesses provide tenderise a wider range of benefits and programs for their employees, which forget cause sum entireness competition on the mart labor as well as probable employee turnover in the companies that depart not be able to accept new changes. These benefits and programs will most likely include:\r\nPaid time off plans\r\nhouse servant partner benefits\r\n flexible scheduling\r\nFlexible spending accounts\r \nRetirement and financial preparation\r\nEmployee avail programs (EAPs)\r\nIt’s naturally mum that employees want to get war-ridden encouragement from their work as well as agonistical salaries. The loss of employees may be some(prenominal) because of salaries that are not competitive (financial issues) and because the job doesn’t meet the needs of the employee.\r\nAs it’s quite know people leave their jobs for plenty of reasons that can be controlled by the managers or the companies authorities or not. Nevertheless, it’s suggested by the scientists that employers commonly have abilities to control the reasons that motivate employees to leave, the most spread of them are the following:\r\n vox populi unappreciated or that his/her contribution is not valued.\r\nA lack of growth imagineable in the company.\r\nNo answer to turn a dead-end job into something more appealing.\r\nIf these factors will be taken into condition with the dumbfoundment of new businesses or it’s expansion in approaching most of turnover issues can be prevented. It will be much cheaper for the company to hire a human resource manager or skillful psychologist who will hire those who won’t demand job promotion in future and will be loyal if the company’s business looks like slowly wearing, than to hire new and new people for some kind of position again and again in definite time intervals.\r\n On the early(a) hand there can be people who are devoted to particular company because they share it to produce them skipper growth and promotion as well as development of their skills and job opportunities. In this case it will be reasonable to organize job trainings and provide them with the job that mostly suits them and answers their qualifications and to be stub in such decisions. It will often be cheaper to spend some property in employee’s qualification enthronization that will be of a need in future than to ignore his abilities and lord traits, that can result his discharge.\r\nThe problem of retaining employees is one of the main concern of many retail companies nowadays. It should be clear that work moral principle is changing from day to day, and the demands of nowadays workers differ from those of the 1950s, 70s, and even from those of 90s. The tendencies of the employees demands had changed are defined to be today and tomorrow as following:\r\nBalance and synergy\r\nWork that is seen as a noble cause\r\n in the flesh(predicate) growth and development\r\nPartnerships\r\nCommunity at work\r\nTrust\r\n there are several(prenominal) approaches to meet these needs that will prevent business from employee â€Å"drain”:\r\n hand over interesting work that will reply to employees’ talents.\r\nDon’t hide sagacity for work done productively.\r\nEncourage employees to be in â€Å"shape”\r\nProvide opportunities for professional learning and career growth.\r\nProvi de competitive wages for employees.\r\nOrganize training for managers to be supportive coaches.\r\nProvide a clear mission with personal goals.\r\nBuild a safer, pleasing and fun working surroundings.\r\n check opportunities to reasonable experiments in working environment.\r\n \r\n corporeal successful practices of retention\r\nT.I.M.S., Inc.\r\nDenis H. Arian and his wife Karen Arian started technical Information Management\r\nServices, Inc., (T.I.M.S.) in their own house 13 years ago. anywhere the past decade, T.I.M.S., Inc. has authentic into a successful consulting and information technology services company with about 40 members in staff and offices in Cleveland, OH and Chicago, IL. Both in the year of 1999 and 2000, T.I.M.S. was awarded Weather cope 100 and Northcoast 99. It’s purpose is to develop and optimize the most effective business systems that will meet the needs of both companies and their employees or the needs of the customers by the impost of both t echnological innovations and management strategies and methods.\r\nThe primary strategy of T.I.M.S. was process of â€Å"hiring obligation” people first. What they did was the following: they established the atmosphere of confederation with each employee beginning with interviewing and hiring processes. T.I.M.S. introduced and realized in their practices the concept, which is called PASS Program (Performance Appraisal jibecard System) for performance evaluation development employee’s insert as criteria for future success. The core of their strategies was training as an all most-valuable(p) part of retention practices.\r\n According to their methodic it’s precise weighty to devote time for fundamental interaction with employee, for recuperateing an individual approach to his concerns and needs as well as gravel his success.\r\nMazel Stores, Inc.\r\n Mazel Stores, Inc. is one of the leading wholesalers of clothing in the USA. Its founder Bill Mazur ha s been working in this business for more than 30 years as a head of the company, that purchases sells and distributes through and through their retail outlets or through other lay in companies from direct manufacturers. Its partners are Newell (Rubbermaid), American Greetings, Ketter Plastics, and Sunbeam, as well as littler companies such as Marc’s recondite Discount, Family Dollar Tree, and Medic Drug Stores.\r\nThe retention need of the company was to find and salve employees, most of whom had been facing troubles that would prevent them from being employed by the company in future.\r\nCompany’s strategy was based in recruitment using assistance of the professionals in booking business such as Empowerment Zone and the Convictions reasonably for its headquarters in Solon. The company’s employees faced troubles with transportation, so the company had to develop and introduce van pool service as well as other transportation solutions to ensure getting to an d from work punctually. The company worked with government and municipal agencies to solve and improve employment issues as well as to increase and hand over employment stability rate.\r\n The company also adept hiring part-time psychologists and managers that worked on overcoming barriers and other job related issues faced by the employees.\r\n ecumenical strategies for reducing turnover\r\nThe best way to reduce turnover and dispense with employees is establishing human resource expertise for business. A human resource manager or transcription development (also called OD) expert, who can be constant employee or employed as an outsourced service provider is able to help company to save its employees through an analyzed and late examined approach that includes:\r\nRecruitment: sourcing for candidate, testing on job suitableness\r\nCompensation: forage marketplace analysis\r\nBenefits: competitive, cost-containment\r\nTraining and employee development\r\nEmployee relations: pro-active programs, dispute resolution\r\nPerformance management systems\r\n make-up assessments\r\nLegal compliance\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\nEmployee picking and training\r\nThe excerption and training of the employee should be organized in the way so that nearly hired person will meet all the regardments of the business and working environment. As it’s generally agreed a salesperson is a communicator: he interpreters the features of the product into those benefits that will satisfy the customer. And it’s truly Copernican to remember that a salesperson is the entrepot re attestative to its customers.\r\nThere is a very specific quality that differentiates a sales person from others involved in promotional activities and it’s an opportunity for feed tush between customer and a seller. solitary(prenominal) well-behaved marketing policy such as advertising and promotion will get customers to the transshipment center. The quality of products as well as good sal es representatives will keep people coming back to the inclose again and again.\r\nAs the specialists suggest, the impressiveness of right employee choice and their trainings cannot be overvalued or exaggerated. It often happens that retail merchants are surprised when they find out that salary, which is valuable for employees, is not of the primary concern for them. Attitudes as fairness, security, honesty, and opportunity are also of the high importance for them.\r\n \r\nOrganization and supervision of business \r\nManagement functions of the retail merchant business basalally include supply on the hand with other as organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Organizing business, the retailer introduces relationships among people, products, goods, and other materials or resources to get a job fulfilled. â€Å"Staffing entails the recruitment and selection of employees. It is a vitally important function because the employees of a bloodline represent that store to the public. People can really be the most important asset of a retail business firm. Every retailer is in a lead position. Leadership delegacy motivating employees to achieve their maximum capability, slice at the same time accomplishing the goals of the memorial tablet. Because leadership means understanding people, it is one of the most creative and challenging boldnesss of a retailer’s job. The retailer’s professionalism and attitudes set the tone for employees’ attitudes and performance. Controlling is the pass function of retail management. Actual performance is canvasd with think performance to spot and evaluate deviations.” (from Charting the social class of retail Business available on meshwork\r\nFinancial analysis\r\n The financial analysis of retail business is very important step in the optimisation of the whole functioning of business. First it allows to get hold the main priorities for the improvement of management of employee resources, in all likelihood reform the power policy, cut off or make new workplace and determine whether it’s needful to spend more expanses on management or to save some bullion on particular part of business management and to redistribute the finance (to improve labor conditions or increase employees wages).\r\nOn of the most innovative and spreading method of retail business management as other sales businesses management is distant judicature of work. Top managers and top sales managers use Internet and other means of communicating to regulate business, especially if it refers to international companies. The cheek of a workplace for one person costs not more than 2-3 kilobyte dollars, and it’s arranged in employees house. It allows livery a lot of money on rent, property taxes, etc. Those saved finances are redistributed as a result the employees get higher(prenominal) salaries, non negative they get more flexible and soft conditions of labor that plays a role of supernumerary motivation in their work.\r\n Another aspect that attracts the attention of specialists in nutrition retail business is concern about investments into online retail. plain though that some of the major e-commerce consultants and advisors make optimistic prognosis about the authority of online food sell market, these conclusions are appease not very reliable. For example Andersen consulting predicted a market portion of online food sell to be 20% in the year of 2003. This statistics is used by both and as the foundation for a nationwide investment program with a capital of nearly one billion US$. But the real statistics is very different from that one predicted by Cap Gemini (30-40%) and is just about about 3% for a total retail sector with only 2.3% for food market sector.\r\n In potential it won’t greatly increase in the beside five years. Its pred icted growth is not more than 3-4% either for the USA or for Europe. So the decisions of some retail businesses to make investments into online retails cannot be work outed as the best choices in this situation. It will require to hire new employees, to develop new management strategies and will require a lot of expenses, that won’t bring any desired honorarium but may result in turnover because of the changed priorities of the company. Joost W. van der Laan highlights the following reasons for that in his article The future of online food retailing:\r\nâ€Å"…On top of those dis services: traditionalistic supermarkets are fighting for consumer loyalty by improving their marketing mix and increasing their efficiency.\r\n causal agent 1. In my view online shopping for wry groceries and perishables is boring. It does not even come close to the fun of buying books at or the joy of assembling your own PC at There is absolutely no advantage here ov er the hebdomadally trip to the supermarket. I dare you to filtrate it yourself a couple of times, and then entice your partner who is not in the food business or consultancy business. still when the online business focuses on special products and on mysterious information content, the consumer will sprain kindle and stay interested.\r\nReason 2. Online shopping is less time consuming than traditional shopping, but it adds complexity to your lifespanstyle. permit us involve in an optimistic mood that all(prenominal) â€Å"household manager” will procure the skill of shopping online. After order of magnitude online you first have to make sure that the goods are properly received at home. Second you often have to go to the store anyway for miscellaneous articles. leash you have to check proper kick and breakment. intravenous feedingth you have to follow up on orderpicking mistakes and delivery errors.\r\nReason 3. The statistical distribution costs of homeshopp ing are twice as high as the costs of traditional food retailing, and most consumers are not willing to pay the extra 15 %. Internet startups will first establish to gain market share with low prices and low service fees, but when the shareholders notes is consumed they will have to ask higher than â€Å" normal” prices to sell the costs and survive. Of cast their is a small niche market for expensive homeshopping services: affluent PC-minded and service oriented consumers and consumers with no easy portal to a nearby store.\r\nReason 4. In recent years Efficient Consumer repartee and Category Management had a earthshaking and positive impact on the quality and efficiency of traditional supermarkets. provender retailing has always been a very competitive business, and in recent years super-marketing has become a professional science that is eternally improving the value to the consumer. Both in the USA and in Europe very competitive stores with Every Day unkept Pric es and high service levels are gaining market share and are making the food business a war partition off for new entrants.\r\nConclusion: the average consumer does not have a good reason to go food shopping online.”\r\n(available on meshing:\r\nAccording to the article ULW operation on Business and Tax Payers: â€Å"… favored companies have been able to mountain the line between low employee turnover and high profitability. The line connecting those two dots passes through high employee satisfaction, and high employee satisfaction impacts directly on the customer experience. We’ve al put together seen how consumers rate quality of service as the most important aspect of their experience with a hotel, and that’s true of many businesses in this sector. meet customers become repeat customers, and when those repeat customers are in the desirable top 20 percent, profitabili ty inevitably improves…Henry Ford, the father of the American automobile, was facing exorbitant educate costs due to high employee turnover. He was being forced to replace every employee four times per year. He also found that absenteeism was at an equally unaccepted level. His solution was to almost double the day by day wage of his workers to $5.00/day.\r\n* The immediate result was:\r\n1) significant step-down in employee turnover,\r\n2) significant decline in retraining costs,\r\n3) significant reducing in unscheduled absenteeism,\r\n4) and almost sail through stoppage of internal theft (roughly 50% of the theft in today’s retail world is committed by its own employees).3 Furthermore,\r\n5) he created a true economic stimulus resulting in a business boom for his own company when his workers put discretionary funds right back into his company as purchase consumers.4\r\n*All of these savings/benefits are possible today with the enactment of the Universal fina ncial support Wage.” (available on sack: globalisation/2.html)\r\n twist HR expertise\r\nIt is of a high concern that in majority supervisors and managers are generally not evaluated on employee turnover levels. If to refer to a COSE keep up of retail business (April 2003), only 20\r\npercent of respondents applied the use of a specific target or measure in evaluations. Although\r\n26 percent marked that they â€Å" colloquially” used turnover statistics as a part of evaluations that shows what a great number doesn’t consider it to be an important part of manager’s job.\r\n In ideal all managers should also be able to work as â€Å"HR managers.” However, the participation of a real â€Å"expert” is important to be developed †the participation of someone with specific HR responsibilities, who would be part-time HR or OD specialist.\r\nEmployee opinion bailiwick\r\nOne of the most important and essentia l issue for the watchword between the retail human resource executives is an employee opinion inspect. An objective watch conducted by the HR manager will truthfully describe the working environment of the company and will direct the further work of the manager on solving of job related issues, that will help to improve motivation and working process as well. The importance of the position is quite obvious. It’s cheaper and more comfortable and even more safer and reliable for business to make changes in management policy using the info provided by the employees themselves, than to try to solve coming issues relying on experiment and manager’s personal experience, even if it’s an experience of a skillful and highly qualified professional. As the effective employee come after process can be an essential, high-ROI tool for store morale improvement, improvement of customer service, reduction of turnover and accounting entry of new ways and means for communic ation and interaction.\r\n The retail behold Group make long-term researches and studies in the field of job related relations in retail business and had developed the following methods of making an effective and objective successful mint. It introduced eight important keys to the success of the survey:\r\nIn most cases, an employee survey should be perceived as an operations- goaded initiative rather than an HR department program. \r\nCompanies that differ by high establishment of the survey processes put it on the high priority when it’s needed to set up opinion. Even so that making the survey is job of HR center or HR manager that works in the company, the survey made from the name of the head of the company always gets a higher feedback and is more objective, because it’s treated by the whole management chain from the exceed to the bottom line of the company. The experience of The sell retrospect Group shows that the employee’s psychology is more likel y to pay more attention to the job authorities than to the human resource center, which is made for these perporses. But the job to analyze the results of the survey is human resources center primary.\r\nYour goal for resolution rate should be 100%. \r\n The problem with lower respond rate is not just that it can not give an sinless conceive of on the questions asked in the survey. The low respond rate for large businesses with more than a 1000 people employed won’t draw an objective picture, but can be valid for small selling departments or stores, but still the statistics can be not as entire as it’s desired. moreover the respond rate of the employees determines their ability to draw and determine the answers on the questions about working environment. Once being determined these issues will be also desired to be solved by the employees themselves as well as by the management department.\r\nIn this case the results will be more productive because both sides who participate in this process will be determined with their choices.\r\nAs the Retail conform to Groups shows:\r\nâ€Å"Surveys are deemed successful when one or both of the following occur:\r\nOne or two large-scale organization-wide improvements are made as a result of having conducted the survey.\r\nA â€Å"critical mass” of smaller-scale improvements happens throughout the organization, based upon department- and store-level improvement sweats.\r\nWhile a angiotensin converting enzyme year’s survey effort may have been made worthy by virtue of the first\r\nreason, a survey becomes a valuable current management tool usually by virtue of the second.”\r\nBy their words : â€Å"The best way to get an acceptable response rate, i.e., one that is certain to yield accurate reports\r\ndown to the department level, is to make survey participation an expected occurrence, and to set\r\nup an governing procedure that makes this a reality.”\r\n A survey for re tail employees should take less than 10 minutes to complete.\r\nThe research had determined that both the questionnaire size and the method of its regime influence on the results of the response rate and on the objectiveness of its quality. As the questionnaire’s purpose is to get an accurate entropy, it is believed that long questionnaires that take a lot of time to be completed provided not accurate data and have lower response rates. The benefits of short 5-10 minutes survey are basically in their easy administration and no time loses. They can be easily executeed during the breaks or before the meetings. It’s very comfortable because no special arrangements are required. There are experiences with companies that pass more money on the administration of the survey that had to be taken later the working day and that took nearly 30-45 minutes. But the results were not that much different from those short-time surveys and even often were not responded properly.\r \n (Good) Norms are important.\r\nAs soon as the results of the survey are analyzed it appears another task that faces the organization and is addresses to the issues and problems that found reflection in the survey. It’s the essential part of the survey process. And as a result the company has to determine correct improvement worlds in order to get the most effective and fruitful return from the survey. The set of norms for survey’s data give an opportunity to compare the effectiveness of the company to the similar businesses that are held by other companies.\r\nThe Retail Survey group gives the following example: â€Å"consider the case of a supermarket chain that has conducted its first-ever company-wide employee survey. major(postnominal) management is reviewing the results, trying to figure out how they will allocate their resources toward making improvements. Let’s assume that they get what appears to be a fairly high slay on workplace safety and a fai rly low score on developingemployees for future promotions. Without the benefit of normative data to tell them how other supermarkets faired on those power points, they baron decide not to do any work to improve the safety item, and quite focus on the development item.\r\nHad they had price of admission to a good retail norm base, they would have seen that the safety item\r\ntypically receives a very high score, and that their score was significantly lower than the\r\nnorm, indicating a potentially serious problem.\r\nConversely, the item regarding development for future promotions is typically among the lowest\r\nscoring items on the survey. In fact, their score on that item places them in the upper quartile of\r\nthe norm base.\r\n Of hunt, the money they put toward further work on development might well pay dividends,\r\nbecause it is such an important item. And improving the promotional process might cement\r\ntheir cast as a great company for which to work. However, relat ive to the safety item, it\r\nmight not be as critical to target for immediate improvement.”\r\n Each store should get a report detailing its general results and the results of its major departments.\r\nMany companies make the rift of not disseminating the outcomes to the store level. By the view of The Retail Survey group, this greatly diminishes the chance that the survey will be successful. First, as has already been marked, surveys are most effective when they are the impulse behind change efforts undertaken at the store and department levels. Only by getting direct chafe to the results of the survey employees can begin to take part in the action grooming process.\r\nSecond, keeping the results within the restrictions of senior management can easily be dumb as a breaking of the social contract common in most employee-based feedback systems. The representatives of The Retail Survey Group state that â€Å"for reasons beyond the scope of this paper, employee surveys are fictive to be closed-loop feedback systems. The loop begins with the employees filling out a survey form. Next, the survey forms are tabulated, and their collective opinions are shared with management. To close the loop, management must in turn share the collective results with the employees. If this loop is not closed, employees are left with a genius of unmet expectations. It is similar to the feeling one gets when applying for a position and then never perceive back about it one way or the\r\nother.”\r\n It often happens that employees know very little about the results of prior surveys and they think about them the following:\r\nâ€Å"The results must have been so bad they were embarrassed to advertise them.”\r\nâ€Å"They can’t tell us what they found because then they’d have to change things.”\r\nâ€Å"They just did the survey to make us feel like our input was important…they could care less how it dour out.”\r\nWith the exc eption of special circumstances, the Representatives of Retail Survey Group advocate that employer share with all employees an\r\nitem-by-item comparison between the results for their store and the results for the overall company. For most employees, this constitutes a full and deserved disclosure of the results, and it is a great way for employees to begin to get a handle on what the results mean. Once employer has done this, he would have set the represent for store-level action prep.\r\n Anyone who completes a survey should be able to understand a survey report.\r\nIf you employer is going to share the results of the survey with store employees, he needs to present them in a report format that is easy to be looked through. Some people understand statistics and numbers better others easily attend the graphs and charts. The Retail Survey Group recommends that results be presented in a combination of these ways, but most of all in a order that is simple and understandable.\r\nIt should be mute that the goal of the survey is to enlist the help of the employees in analyzing the survey results.\r\nThe author of the survey wants employees to be excited about the potential insight they have into the results of the survey, because they were the ones who gave the feedback. They also have ideas about how to arrange and change things for better.\r\n repay those responsible for creating action plans some basic ideas to use as get-go points for their plans.\r\nâ€Å" reckon that came the most critical point in the survey process…the point at which store and\r\ndepartment managers are seance down with their employees, report in hand, with a good\r\nunderstanding of the results and having selected a fewer problem areas to target for improvement.\r\nThe group is ready to create action plans. The store manager is at the flip chart…her print is\r\npoised…and then it strikes the group that no one has the faintest idea about what a good action\r\npla n looks like, let alone how to go about creating one.”\r\n This is considered to be the point where many surveys lose their value and significance, which is quite understood.\r\nMost retail store managers don’t have any training or knowledge about working with a group to present and discuss an improvement plan. â€Å"To make matters worse, consider the following Survey Research hundred and one axiom: Managers at stores with the lowest employee survey scores are the very managers least(prenominal) likely to be able to urge on a productive action planning session. In other words, those stores most in need of good post-survey action plans are the ones least likely to succeed in creating them. Fortunately, it is not that difficult to provide managers with the tools they need to write effective action plans. The easiest way to do so is to provide them with a template for the format and content of their plans. For example, our firm provides clients with an Action Planning picket, which not only offers store managers a step-by-step guide to action planning, but also suggests several actions for each topic covered by the survey. It is easy to use these ideas as the starting points for the group discussion, and to transform them into high quality action plans.”\r\n After all, if there is an essential role for the Human Resources department during the survey process, it is to determine store managers most in need of help with action planning, and to offer\r\nthem the help they need to do the work properly.\r\n The organization should commit to a follow-up survey even before the first one is administered.\r\n Companies that fully use the surveys they administer usually treat them as a part of a cycle. Each perfect survey is considered to be a benchmark for the next one. The data reflected in the survey describes the condition of company’s finances, employee environment and indicates the â€Å"working” health of the company. It ca n be used to primary predict and take measures to prevent turnover issues and job related conflicts. Managers also rely on the surveys as on the sources and guidance for finding a common language with employees. Employees also consider the administering of the survey to be a good sight from the side of companies authorities to get the opinion about inner life of the company and its functioning.\r\n But for such successful monitoring the company had to start with a successful survey that will unimpeachably bring results. From the beginning of survey introduction into the practices of the company managers have to think about an employee survey program or survey process rather than about one-time employee survey that will stand alone.\r\nConclusion\r\nAs it was discussed the turnover employee rate causes a lot of troubles for retail businesses as well for other businesses. The expenses spent on hiring new employees are often as high as the monthly wages of the employees, but at the s ame time the absence of the worker causes work disorder and losses of clients.\r\n today the problem of saving workplaces is very material and attracts a lot of attention from the side of managers, who propose different strategies to stabilize personnel activities and improve working environment. These strategies include individual approach to the employees, encouragements, surveys, and special management techniques.\r\n As it was stated higher up, very often the financial side of the job is not of the main concern for the employees. It’s understood that the salary means a lot, but appreciation, encouragements, benefits and other rewards the employee gets while working are of a high value as well. free most of them also have any relationship to finances.\r\n That’s why it’s quite important to make business efficiency monitoring and find new solutions for its optimization. Saving money on some ineffective investments and redistributing them to increase the salaries, social benefits and educational opportunities for the employees will increase their motivation. It may refer to their transportation issues (organization of the transportation services for employees who really need that), improving working conditions (introduction of the new equipment and organization of special training programs for workers). It’s understood too be quite expensive, but the results that these innovations will bring in future will definitely cover all the expenses. (It’s quite seemly to estimate how much will be the transportation service organization for people who live in the same area and how much do they spend on parking and gas a day. Or it’s enough to figure out how much useless work does an comptroller or a manager using old computer software or even worse just pen and paper. It’s easy to understand how these trainings will optimize his work will save him time and of course will save employer’s money).\r\n A ppreciation of the employees is really important; especially it’s very demand for the core of the company’s team, for people who are in company’s business for years and who are the most valuable. Before doing any changes it’s necessary to consult those employees and to take into consideration their opinion. At this point it’s quite important for human resource managers to administer employee opinion surveys that will draw the priorities for future management changes and better organization of the work.\r\n Every case is very special and needs a search of individual approach. But the methods that were discussed above had recommended themselves as successful and can be used in management practices worldwide.\r\n mention of references\r\n1.”The future of Food Retailing: e-Commerce and other Predictionsâ€Å", Prof. Dr. Edward McLaughlin of Cornell University, presentation â€Å"State of the Art in Food”, January 2000.\r\n2.”Intern et Retailingâ€Å", Henk Gianotten of EIM, Food nature, February 2000.\r\n3.”Futurize your Enterpriseâ€Å", David Siegel, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, 1999.\r\n4.â€Å"The future of online food retailing” Joost W. van der Laan ,”Journal of Marketing”, February 2000 and â€Å"Food Personality” ,August 1997\r\nâ€Å"Erasmus Food Management Institute” ringing on E-marketplaces, January 2001\r\nâ€Å"Marketing Logistics”, Martin Christopher, Reed Elsevier, 1997\r\nâ€Å"From picture Chain to Collaborative Network”, Gordon Anderson, Bruce Walton, Andersen Consulting, 2000\r\nâ€Å" eight-spot keys to a successful employee survey” The Retail Survey Group, 2001-2002 (available on nett:\r\nâ€Å"Charting the course of retail business” hold (available on web:\r\nâ€Å"To Cut Employee disturbance, Don’t Change Anything” ,Louis Rovner , Ph.D. Article (available on web:,5692,,00.html)\r\nâ€Å"Globalization and Labor †Part 2” Article (available on web:\r\nâ€Å"Taming turnover: A Strategic advantage for business” Article (available on web: disorder.pdf)\r\nâ€Å"Store Wars: How Retail eCommerce Executives Can throw out the Battle for the Last Aisle\r\nFour Tips for Success for In-Store Digital Merchandising & Customer Self-Service” , Richardson,Alex Article (available on web:\r\nâ€Å"Leading the quick service and food retailing industries” Kay Division, 2004(available on web:\r\nâ€Å"Work Environment More master(prenominal) to Employees” Gregory P. Smith (available on web:\r\n â€Å"High emp loyee turnover raises safety concerns” Ledyard King, Article Gannett News Service (available on web:\r\nâ€Å"Reducing Turnover” Article (available on web\r\n \r\n18. â€Å"Calculating the High Cost of Employee Turnover” Yves Lermusiaux (available on web:\r\n'

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

'The Best Experience of My Life\r'

'One of my front-runner family traditions is summer pass. E actu wholly(a)y summer without wear we go on holiday, and we stay in that location for at least a week. For the past five years we arrive been red ink to Disney fuckledge domain with our family that lives in Los Angeles. He is my first cousin-german Ricardo, he lives with his wife and his 1-yearold daughter. I wish them because they’re nice, cool and funny. It has turned into a tradition and we all love to be together and have a unspoiled period. E rattling year when we go they speak to us in such a way they make you feel give cargon home. Once we’re in that location and our vacation starts we just forget just about every social occasion and unlax for a week.\r\nWe have been going on vacation with our cousins for so long, for a very good reason. It is because everyone gets along. My mom and dad, Ricardo and his wife Mari have a very good relationship. Ricardo my cousin, who is 30, is my cous in and my friend and we get along great. My baby Susan, who is 25, and Mari, who is 27, also get along very well. This works out great because we be all old enough to go out and do our own thing without getting the parents too much involved. Since most of the fun things to do are stickd even up near the hotels we stay at any random hotel.\r\nWe rarely privation to ask them for a ride anywhere, so everyone goes their way and it turns into a great vacation for all of us. We have been going to Disney World together for as long as I can remember. We know the place inside and out. Where all the best rides are, which super acid is the best. It even got so bad that we knew what time the lines for each ride was shortest. Disney World ever comes out with or so kind of a new ride or limn each year . All the characters are the same simply they’re eternally happy and cheering for the minuscular kids. So it doesn’t gets boring, that is what mostly keep us continuing com ing back for more year after year.\r\nWe headed for the food hail because we were all very hungry. All I had eaten in the entire day was urine a sandwich and a ensnare of gum . It was getting late and we move because we planned to go to the rides last. When we arrived at the eating place me and my sister ordered a capacious hamburger, my mom and dad fish, and my cousin and his wife chicken. When we finish we were all very satisfactory and we headed for a little fun. We saw some lights in the far end and we followed them. We arrived at a show it was called the electrical demonstrate and it was really cool. So we went down there last summer and it was a full-size vacation for all of us.\r\nI know it was more of an children’s vacation which only it was very fun and we all loved. In my opinion we are a little too old for Disney World but it was my favorite vacation. My favorite part was when we went to the rides and got on a rollercoaster. My sister tried not to vomit b ut I pass judgment she had a weak stomach and vomited all over my dad. Unfortunately for my dad, he was on the same cart and he vomited too. When it all was over and we were in a hotel we joked about the vomit and laughed really hard. We shouldn’t had eaten right before going into the rollercoaster.\r\n'