Sunday, March 31, 2019
The Legality of the practice of law Stop and Search PowersExperience should teach us to be most on our guard to protect liberty when the Governments purposes ar beneficent. Men born to freedom ar natur e precise last(predicate)y alert to na single-valued functionate invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The wideest dangers to liberty loiter in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, good-meaning except without to a lower placestanding. nicety Louis D. Brandeis, dissenting in Olmstead v. United States, 277 US 479 (1928)IntroductionThe mansion Office discovers on that direct were 50,000 racially or religiously motivated loathe crimes in the UK in 2005 al unmatchable and an estimated total of 260,000 overcompensateed and unreported incidences of often(prenominal) hate crime. In the recent debates over the Racial and Religious horror make for (RRHA) 2006 tending was drawn to the fact that matchless of the primary purposes of the legislation was varyingly set forth as exhorting the communities to regard as each a nonher(prenominal)(prenominal)s different backgrounds. And a pragmatic response to change magnitude inter social tensions, ensuring that diverse groups basin cohabit peacefully. What these dialogues set off is the seriousness with which the legislature, reflecting at least a mass of baseball club, befools the harmful feats of racial discrimination on genial cohesion.Undoubtedly many of the concerns astir(predicate) the fabric of our inn ar ca utilization by concerns over recent geo-political make upts cross demeanors the globe. In particular the publicity of the terrorist bodies that oblige carried outa result of attacks since the turn of the deoxycytidine monophosphate in New York, Washington, Bali, Casablanca, Jakarta, Istanbul, Madrid and capital of the United Kingdom go for make authoritative races and religions, in particular Muslims, synonymous with violence and extremist activities. These fuel al ready pre-existent religious tendencies. However, in many ways the governments approach bill step forward of terrorist act and its inherent links to an enlarge in inter pagan tensions fetch been flawed.A quick reappraisal of the anti-terror legislation passed since the Labour government came to index illust piece the point The Terrorism Act 2000, Anti- act of terrorism, wickedness and Security Act 2001, stripe of Terrorism Act 2005, The Terrorism Act 2006 and Terrorism (Northern Ire kingdom) Act2006. This doesnt even include all the Statutory Instruments overmuch(prenominal) as The Schedule 7 to the Terrorism Act 2000 (Information) Order 2002, The Terrorism Act 2000 (Business in the adjust Sector and Supervisory Authorities) Order 2003 and The Terrorism Act 2000 (Continuance of Patria) Order 2004. in that respect has non been a year since the turn of the century when terrorism hasnt been on the legislative agenda and the upshot has been an exponential growth in legal philosophy caters stemming from this flurry of legislative activity. There was an extension of legal philosophy powers by deterrent V of the Terrorism Act 2000, Part 10 of taint-terrorism, Crime and Security Act (ACSA) 2001, ss.5 and 8 of the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 and Part II of the Terrorism Act 2006. Thus what the fore discharge highlights is that on the one hand the government is attempting to prevent racist attacks and incitement of such(prenominal) feelings finished and through the RRHA 2006 only if too widening the arbitrary powers of the police.It is exactly these kinds of beneficent packs that evaluator Brandeis was talking about that stack end up ca apply infringements on liberty. In the recent case of A v. Secretary of State for the basis Department the courts were faced with a Human Rights challenge to the provisions under the ACSA 2001 held them in breach. It was described by Lady Justice Arden as determination that allow for be used as a point of interview by courts all over the world for decades to come, even when the age of terrorism has passed.It is a powerful statement by the highest court in the land of what it direction to live in a society where the executive is vitrine tithe rule of 1aw. These decisions which have thwarted the aims of the government to a reliable extent have an undertone that liberty is at stake. In this take a crap we attempt to come across at all of the fore overtaking issues in respect of the return and anticipate powers of the police.It is said that the exercise of the police power to baulk and inquisition members of the public is one that has long excited public line. There are legion(predicate) facets about the power which excite this sway however far and away the most controversial issue has been its dis equilibriumate use on ethnic minorities. This work is going to do natural analysis of the police correspond and inquisition powers looking at play of issues.Many commentators take the now infamous MacPherson Inquiry into the death of Stephen Lawrence , which indicated that the stymy and search figures highlighted a pinch core remnant of racist stereotyping. This was rigid once against the boilers suit conclusion that institutional racismexists both in the metropolitan legal philosophy Service and in other Police Services and other institutions countrywide. In particular it highlighted that they believed thither had been a systemic sorrow of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to mess because of their colour, civilization, or ethnic origin.This work wants to look at the barricado and search look into that is currently available to see whether this riddle even so exists or has changed. We overly carried out an semi experiential contemplate ourselves which we deal to incorpo deem into this analysis. one(a) item of particular interest go out be to note whether the heighten of what various studies have call edIslamo phobic neurosis , which is largely exacerbated by the recent terror attacks and underpins the destiny for the RRH 2006, has manifested itself in the police. The aim in assessing the empirical data is to come to conclusion on the Human Rights issues which are now Omni-present in modern society and whether the approaches of the police hindquarters be squared with traditional criminological theory. significant Law on Stop and SearchThe placing of a worldwide arrest and search on a statutory footing was only achieved by s.1 of the Police and Criminal testify Act 1984( railway yard). However, the power has been in universe in nigh manner since the nineteenth century in influence to empower the police to harass marginal sections of the population. PACE gave the power to the police to stop and search anybody that they sanely defendanted of carrying prohibited articles for framework a weapon or stolen goods.Similar statutory power had also existed before because except had been limited to drugs under s.23 of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Again this section takes the format that where an officer has discernmentable grounds to suspect that any soulfulness is in possession of a controlled drug hence they have a power to stop and search that person.The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (CJPOA) 1994 also provided that an officer of superintendent roll or higher may authorise stop and searches where that officer reasonably believes on that point may be incidents of serious violence probably to croak in the police authority area. Indecent years the model in the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act1994 has been extended into the Terrorism colligate statutory measures.In particular The Terrorism Act (TA) 2000 s.44 extended stop and search powers so that, where authorised by an assistant chief police constable or higher, then police officers could search population for anything that could be used in connection with terrorism, importantly can be exercised whether or not the constable has grounds for suspecting the presence of articles of that kind. It is worth noting that the s.60power under the CJPOA, to a higher place, also allows for the constable to stop where in that location is no sane scruple.However whilst the CJPOA and TA are obviously of importance to fight specific types of crime such as terrorism, football bullyism and gang fights the powers under PACE are considered to be the to a greater extent widely used and more than general of the powers in that it can apply to stolen or prohibited articles with the latter having a very general definition in s.1 (7). This naturally means that the level of sagacityary power devolved on the individual constable is directly related to the judicially regulated phase reasonable suspicion. It is receive that the courts are instinctive to police this test for example a reasonable suspicion exit not include a vague assertion by another police officers per DPP v. F rench nor allow an order from a superior officer count as per OHara v. straits Constable of The Royal Ulster Constabulary.In that case gentle Stein cited numerous authorities that uphold a position that he described as being justified because of the long constitutional theory of the independence and accountability of the individual constable. Lord Stein went onto outline the general proposition which applies to reasonable suspicion there need not be outright demo amounting to a case, indeed a tip-off from the public may be sufficient, and hearsay cultivation may be perfectly valid only if a immaculate command or vague beliefs will not suffice.Thus the above clearly illustrates that there needs to be a subjective reason in the policemans mind for the suspicion however there needs also to be an objective part which causes the subjective suspicion. Whilst OHara highlighted that an sensible tip-off could suffice as objective grounds it is clear that a persons race, age, appea rance or the fact that the person is known to have previous conviction cannot be used simply or in combination with each other as a reason. In fact Code A of the Code of recital for the exercise of the statutory stop and search powers specifically warns police officers of using such criteria as race or ethnicity because of the prohibitions in the Race trans serve (Amendment) Act 2000.However, clearly the courts support the reasonable suspicion test as having a low threshold for satisfaction and as long as there hasnt been clear discrimination and the constable himself has other reasons then there is deference. This was more concisely laid out in Casoria v. Chief Constable of Surrey where Woolf, LJ highlighted the tri-partite nature of reasonable suspicion The subjective part requiring there to be an actual suspicion on the part of the constable, whether it was reasonable which will be a matter of law for the suppose and finally as long as it was reasonable was the goody used in compliance with the famous principles laid down in Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v.Wednesbury Corporation.It is heavily to see how the Wednesbury principle of unreasonableness fits with a judicially determined principle of reasonable suspicions How could a constable have a reasonable suspicion and then use his discretion stop in a manner so unreasonable that no reasonable authority insert Constable could ever have comet it. In any case there have been numerous cases on these issues notwithstanding this appears to remain the core of the exercise of reasonable suspicion. It also seems as though the courts have been lenient towards the police in defining what was reasonable and what constitutes suspicion suspicion in its run-of-the-mill meaning is a state of presuppose or surmise where proof is lacking I suspect but I cannot prove.The statutory powers are widely drawn and as the foregoing highlights the judiciary are reluctant to impinge on the discretion of ordinary c onstables. However discretion per se is not a unsound thing, in fact it is necessary if a modern state is going to function. However, it is the empirically measured use of that discretion which is of the utmost concern to all scholars of the law. However, criminological subscribe to has long had a fascination, preponderantly because of classical irrefutable legal thinking and pre-occupation with the rule of law, with the lack of control over demeanour that is subject only to the internal constraints of the individual and that is not subject any to formal rules and sanctions or to direct supervision. What Working called Strong discretion.The essential provisions highlight this precise quality at the lowest level of the police hierarchy the constable has discretion and it is the most visible to ordinary members of the public. It is this reason that many commentators have chosen to focus on the use of this discretion It is quintessentially a low visibility decision, immune to ef ficient accountability mechanisms, for, if officers do not record lolly, then they are unbelievable to come to light. Furthermore, as Waddington et al. make the point that the decision of a police officer not to stop provides opportunities for abuses of discretion which are or so undetectable.Thus from a very basic point such discretion is difficult to square with the standards of the legal-analytical view of the decision process that should be apply by social actors who exercise certain power over members of the public. However, we wish to look at how this power is being exercised by studies however we cannot look at this from every angle Discretion can be analysed from numerous angles such as how it isnt employ in a ordered manner, for example discretion in sentencing , or how it disproportionately effects reliable sections of society such as women or ethnic minorities.It is the latter use of discretion that we are interested in this work because clearly stop and searches in order to meet their purpose will be applied randomly and on the vague reasonable suspicion criteria so constant application is not an issue. We will now look at the empirical evidence on all aspects of the stop and search debate.empirical Evidence on Stop and SearchThere is a wealth of empirical evidence on this issue imputable to it having been at the forefront of research into policing , in Britain and elsewhere and we will attempt to look at more of the statistics as possible in order to get a holistic picture of how the stop and search discretion is being used by constables. The major source of empirical information on this issue has been from the foot Office both in its Annual inform entitled Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System and the six reports produced by the Policing and step-down Crime Unit that did a variety of studies into different issues concerning Stop and Search. We will look at these studies initially in order to get a general overview of the situation.The Home Office Statistics for 2005 show, one is tempted to say as everyday, that there is discrimination in the outcomes of stop and search statistics. chthonic PACE powers it was reported that Black raft were 6times more likely to be searched than egg white people and Asians were nearly twice as likely. In fact no ethnic group was less likely to be stop than gaberdine people.Under the CJPO 1994 it was noted that there had been a 5% increase in the number of Black people being halt and 22% increase for Asian people whilst in the same period the number of washrag people being stop decreased by 3%. Under the Terrorism Act however the proportions changed with the number of albumin people increasing and the number of Black and Asians decreasing (7% and 5%respectively). However, as we noted above PACE is by far the most commonly used with the put down number of stops being 839, 977 as opposed to a combine 73, 363 under the other two powers.Thus PACE gives a much mor e widespread and statistically accurate sample. What arises is that particularly sick people seem to have been targeted more than white people. These statistics are worked out by looking at the extent to which police powers are exercised on a group out of proportion to the number of that group in the general population.What is even more striking about these statistics is that they remain comparatively unchanged over the last few years thus patronage increased attention on this issue there has been scant(p) square impact.Unfortunately these statistics do not highlight a vernal problem as long-ago as the Scar man Report in 1981 there was a view that racism existed in the demeanor of a few officers on the street. It may be only too unproblematic for some officersto lapse into an unthinking assumption that all young people are potential criminals. Furthermore there have been reports that stop and search powers have always been used in this way for example a power to stop people u nder the Vagrancy Act 1824 and the metropolitan Police act 1839 are reported to have been disproportionately used against black peopleThe findings of the Lord Scar man report were confirmed afterward by other studies such as that carried out by Norris et al. which ascertained that not only that young blacks were stopped very much more frequently than other racial groups, but that these stops were made on a more speculative basis. Then in the Macpherson Report into the death of Stephen Lawrence the same concerns were voiced but they made the point that it was institutional Racism rather than Individual Racism causing the contrast and they pointed to the causescan arise because of lack of understanding, ignorance or mistaken beliefs. It can arise from good intentioned but patronising words orations. It can arise from unfamiliarity with the behaviour or cultural traditions of people or families from minority ethnic communities. It can arise from racist stereotyping of black people a s potential criminals or troublemakers. Often this arises out of uncritical self-understanding born out of an inflexible police ethos of the traditional way of doing things. Furthermore such military positions can thrive in a tightly knit community, so that there can be a collective failure to detect and to outlaw this breed of racismThis sort of unconscious racism has been noted by a number of studies and in particular at stop and search powers where many argue that officers rely predominantly upon their own instincts, which could cause elements of race and class diagonal.Fitzgerald Sabot also did an empirical study on this issue which alike found that based on their presence in the population overall ethnic minorities are more than four times as likely to be searched than whites. It was pointed out in that study that the problem was difficult to judge just on the sorts of statistics because it doesnt take into account the difference in the level of usage by different forces thu s for example the Metropolitan Police account for approximately 46% of all stops recorded.This meant that whilst the depicted object average may be four times as likely, as stated above, the actual ratio in individual forces were with the exception of one lower than that. Furthermore it fails to distinguish between stops as such and the searches which follow from these steps. In their study Fitzgerald Sabot exhort the view that there must be a clear picture of what is going on in stop and searches. In attempting to do this they divide the issue into operational and administrative promoters which influence PACE searches.The conclusion is that on the only stop and searches are not random but tend to be lead by intelligence from crime reports relayed over radio or in the context of specific targeted operations. This leads toe skewing of patrolling constables so certain locations and individuals on the Prominent Nominal list were more likely to attract attention and thus they conclu ded that the numbers of stop/searches may vary rather markedly from one police beat to another for entirely legitimate reasons.However, they noted that official statistics were also skewed or distorted by Administrative factors such as non-recording of stops and a lack of lucidity over the powers which the police actually have. In particular the failure to report stops was argued to probably be very great based on the researchers experience particularly because there was little to no incentive to report a stop which resulted in nothing being found and which contained no incidents. The results were also skewed because there was widespread disagreement about what conventional a voluntary stop.Interestingly, haven studied this area the researchers noted that the correlational statistics between stops and intelligence from crime reports was in effect short-lived on an already inherent deviate in the ethnicity of reported criminals. However, as with other studies they discovered tha t there was a great deal of stereotyping that occurred towards non-white groups. overall the picture presented was one where it was incredibly difficult to see whether or not discrimination occurred and they concluded that whilst race may be a factor it may not be anymore of a factor than somesocio-economic factors. In particular because of the administrative and organisational factors there was a conclusion that racial contrariety was often reflected in the factors which informed the use of discretion and when less informed or acting on their own initiative the racial disparity would be less.Fitzgerald Sabot are not the only ones to challenge the orthodoxy on racial discrimination in stop and searches. In particular some researchers have pointed to the fact that often that reference to statistics and traditional studies tend not to taken into account the various ethnic proportions of the population who are on the street often as opposed to a resident population. The findings of initial research into the area found that the population available to be stopped and searched tended to include a greater proportion of ethnic minority groupsWhilst the empirical evidence has been to a degree challenged what seems to be undeniable is the deleterious effect that the perception of stop and search is having. In research done by the home office they conclude that the way in which stops and searches are currently handled causes more distrust, antagonism, and resentment than any of the positive effects they can have.This was exacerbated by apperceived inexplicability for the reason of many stops thus there were complaints that in a large group or in a car only certain people would be searched and there was little understanding of how the police discriminated. Furthermore there was a feeling that the aloofness of time and the embarrassment felt by those innocently stopped was add to severely negative attitudes.One man had described being stopped whilst in his taxi with c ustomers causing a complaint to be made by the customers and he perceived that his reputation at work was in tatters. Finally, there was concern over the attitude of policemen which was felt to be confrontational and unsympathetic. There were also considerable views expressed that minorities felt targeted and that there was an inability to communicate with them leaving a feeling of dissatisfaction.These results were in no way unusual for example the British Crime Survey has found that there is a direct link between being stopped and searched and blessing ratings of police, especially in ethnic minorities. These studies are backed up by others which highlight that inadequate training of police officers failed to instil adequate social and interaction skills. This is backed up by a study into the attitude of police officers towards stop and search training when a group of police officers from the same constabulary were asked whether they had received any training related to stop and search in the previous twelve months the results were that 46% said yes, 40% said no and 14% said they didnt know.Some commentators have argued that on the empirical evidence available there is a clear conclusion that whilst there may be a racial submit in the stops and searches this may not necessarily be due to racial prejudice, whether personal or institutional, but rather the higher proportion of ethnic minority stops may be explainable as an efficient use of the stop and search procedure this is explained in more detail by Borough The efficiency argument for injecting racial bias into stops does not imply that ethnicity per se is the cause of a higher likeliness of offending. Rather, the probability of offending may be objectively related to a number of non- ethnic factors (family background education level economic hatful housing conditions) which, addicted the particular circumstances of society, are relatively more concentrated among ethnic minorities.It is argued that because there is no outward way of determine these on-ethnic factors that race is used as a proxy for policemen. The example given is that an equal split between old ladies and young men stopped and searched would undoubtedly display a bias against old ladies because they far less-likely to be law-breakers. Thus disproportionate concentration on young men is not necessarily a bathing.However, this argument whilst clearly persuasive in its thinking has been discredited in particular because the racial bias to police stops was in excess of that required by inter-ethnic differences in rates of offending. The only conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that there has to be racial prejudice existent because of the level of excess.In fact Borough concludes that a third to a half of racial bias to stops in 1997 /98 across 10 Police Areas of England, equal prejudicemost of this prejudice was directed towards Asians and not towards Blacks. Thus he goes onto argue that even if we are able to overcome the rather ethically dubious efficiency argument there is still a problem with prejudice.The latter point that Borough makes is of particular interest that taking into account intended and justified bias there is more prejudice against Asians. The vast majority of Asians are Muslim and thus it is of interest to see whether there is a potential growth ofIslamophobia in the police forces. It is worth just consumption a brief period of time to understand the rise of Islam phobia in the U.K. The immigration of Southeast Asians following World War II into the U.K.was fairly significant and created a sizeable and politically active Asian, and predominantly Muslim, population at heart the U.K.In the1980s a number of events such as Muslim protests against Salman Rushdies Satanic Verses involving mass book-burning and the fatwa declared by Ayatollah Khomeini which advocated the murder of Salmon Rushdie brought severely negative press coverage. Since the 1980s and through the 1990s there was a great deal of media attention on anything which might portray Muslims as ant western or link to Muslim fundamentalism was seized upon.Islam phobia was coined by the Runnymede Trust in a review on the level discrimination and was defined as unfounded dislike towards Islam and unfair discrimination against Muslim individuals and communities, and to the exclusion of Muslims from mainstream political and social personal business. We have already mentioned in the Introduction how recent legislative action has been prompted by anti-Muslim sentiments has been instituted. In the more recent past there has been studies that highlight generally that receptivity towards anti-Muslim another xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well tarry to, become tolerated. Particularly worrying is the growth of right-wing groups within society such as the British National Party , the National Front, the White Wolves, the Ku Klux Klan, the Third Way, White Pride, the League of St George and various fluidly defined football hooligan groups.There is little research on the issue of whether Islam phobia exists in the police but it seems likely that to some extent there will exist such prejudices that are apparently relatively rife within society. Again this neednt be direct prejudice but maybe a stereotypical view which isnt premised on justifiable grounds. some(prenominal) the case there is increasing worry over the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in society and the extent to which police behaviour in stop and searches, in particular, has created angry young people vulnerable to extremism.This was lately thrown and twisted into the spotlight with the seemingly unjustifiable actions of the police in the collapsed prosecution of ONeil Crooks who was arrested for drug-dealing whilst on a family trip to the theatre. The actions were criticised by the National Black Police Association as alienating members of ethnic communities.Furthermore the Islamic Human Rights kick has claimedIt has been clear for a very long time that there is an institutionalIslamophobia in the implementation of stop and search. We need to get rid of a culture that exists unfortunately it exists in our society as a whole, but it is much more damaging when mixed with the powers the police haveAnecdotal evidence suggests that similar misperceptions exist over Muslims as do over ethnic minorities, for example research has pointed out that police view certain crimes as predominantly carried out by certain ethnic groups and there have been publicly expressed views by policemen to the effect that the bottom line is that the terrorist terror is from the Muslim world..However, the police are using ethnic characteristics such as dress and appearance as proxies for Muslim which belies the fact that there are many white and other ethnic groups who are Muslims. It has been reported that Although figures on conversions to Islam in Western countries are difficult to nail d own, its beneficial to say that Muslim converts in the U.S. and Europe number in the hundreds of thousands.This means that even if we were to accept the somewhat dubious claim that all types of terrorism were predominantly coming from the Muslim world that the police might well disproportionately impact on people who present traditional ethnic characteristics, probably mostly Asian.This is worrying from a criminological perspective but also because the police will be less effective. It is clear that new converts are at risk of becoming radicalised when first gear attracted to the religion this was seen in the cases of Richard Reid the shoe-bomber, Germaine Lindsay who was involved in the 7th July bombings in London and most recently Don Stewart-Whytes involvement in the attempted bombing of the trans-Atlantic flights from London to New York.In the next section we will assess the empirical evidence that we go from doing my own empirical investigation into these issues. However, at this point it is worth just summarising the empirical outcomes that have been expressed above. We have seen how institutional racism, twosome extent, is existent within the police. The figures even with alias built-in still portray a distinctly prejudicial picture however potentially not as discriminatory on black people as other studies have suggested.What are of more interest are the findings that Asians were disproportionately prejudiced and it is of no small consequence that there is a great deal of confusion and prejudice which sees people exhibiting Asian ethnic characteristics as consequently Muslim. It is important to realise that there is a fundamental difference between persons race and his religion. You cannot change your race. Your religion, however, is your choice. Thus again Islam phobia in the police could have potentially disastrous consequences on both ethnic communities and encourage radicalism whilst also missing the new converts to Islam.Empirical Outcomes from S tudy of Stop and SearchI carried out a study on members of the public between the ages of 18 29 in order to discover whether or not there was an actual, or at the very least a perceived, differential impact of police stop and search powers on various ethnic groups. There were real limitations to this study but we can make some informed conclusions from the results. I gave questionnaires to thirty people with various ethnic backgrounds(ten White, ten Asian, five Chinese and five Black) and the aim of the questionnaire was to discover their pre-disposition towards police, their experiences and whether this had been changed by recent political or personal events.Pre-dispositionThe first substantive question asked by the questionnaire took the form of a straightforward scenario where individuals were asked to rate the factors which they thought had influenced the police in it
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Sarah Baartman and Sandra LaingMackenzie DicksonThe lives of Sarah Baartman and Sandra Laing were heavily complicated due to colonialism, followed by pseudo-scientific ideas concerning their gender and bleed.Sarah Baartmans true identity is still unk non even her real establish is still a mystery. some(prenominal)time during the 19th century Baartman arrived in England and was dubbed The genus Venus Hot extot by the media and attendees of the inhumane circus-like act that Baartman was forced to perform. Baartmans life was controlled and ruined by smockmangaze, leading her to ferment a good- not a person. Whitemangaze is the westernized perception of dense women as objects and commodities, entities viewed exclusively through the prism of- either the lure or repulsion of- their corporeality (Werbanowska, 19). The film Black Venus makes an effort to indicate the range of reactions of the blank male-dominated crowd, from disgust to attraction. The crowd was even encouraged to ph ysic anyy assault Baartman. Baartman was not a person she was a dupe of colonialism busy by western culture that ultimately led to the reduction of all non-white women to the role of (not necessarily sexual) objects. The fetishization and otherwiseization that Baartman suffered as a result of colonialism steams from need for transcendence (19).The use of pseudo-science was utilize to establish this sense of superiority desired among westerners white people wanted to hear that Afri chiffoniers were biologically unequal to Europeans. In 1816, Parisian scientists decl atomic number 18d Baartman was the missing link separating beast from man (Spies, 2). She, along with other non-white people, was viewed as a rude from a world populated by grotesque monsters- fat-arsed females, blood-thirsty warriors, pre-verbal pinheads, midgets and geeks (Werbanowska, 19). Parisian zoologist Georges Cuvier dissected Baartmans corpse and preserved her genitalia, spine, and star out of scientific c uriosity and potential obsession. As demonstrated in the opening scene of Black Venus, Cuvier provided pseudo-scientific evidence to connect Baartman with apes and baboons, focusing on Baartmans bottom, skull, and her preserved genitalia- which he subsequently passes around the room. Moreover, comparing African women with uninstructed animals such as apes and baboons speaks to the European fantasy of the ignoble savage whose delusive lack of acculturation implies all sorts of uncivilized sexual behaviors (20). Pseudo-science performed by white men like Cuvier enforced the stereotype that African women are savage sexual beasts, who are commodities rather than an individual.The current day Venus Hottentots can be seen throughout the media theyre called video vixens. Typically, video vixens are attractive, young person, black, females that fall victim to the same fetishization and exploitation that Baartman faced in the 19th century. Baartmans story has become synonymous with a past of sexual exploitation, lasciviousness, and likewise, that has presented opportunity for ruminating on the phenomenon of young black women play the roles of video vixen or ghetto chicks (Henderson, 528-529). Baartman and current day video vixens function under the colonial and patriarchal gaze which perceived them almost exclusively through the prism of their racecourse and gender (Werbanowska, 26). Some video vixens interviewed in the VH1 Documentary Sexploitation on the Set insist they are not being work rather, they are using their body as a form of empowerment. It is undisputable that video vixens are a commodity they are selling their body and their image in order to fix profit and recognition. The black females who take rolls as video vixens are exploited the same way Sarah Baartman was. They are oppressed because of their race and gender, than transformed into a commodity by profiting from exposing their bodies.In 1966, young Sandra Laings race was called into question by the Race Classification Board in South Africa Laing was about ten at the time. In the first episode of the series, The Power of an Illusion, race is depict as a clear distinction among humans genes do not have to be closely looked at to determine an individuals race. This was not the eggshell for Laing, who was born from two white parents but had darker skin- thus, appearing black. The film, Skin, depicts the troubles Laing suffered through a time of racial segregation (Apartheid) and lack of legitimate science. Similar to Baartmans story, race is a societal construct used to place non-whites lower in the hierarchal structure, which leads to a life with or without resources, privilege and power (Younge, 106). Pseudo-sciences used to prove/disprove Laings race was based on her physical appearance. As demonstrated in the film, the members of the RCB inspect Laings hair, bottom, and mouth. Another researcher offered the invoice of a genetic throwback, meaning Sandras white parents carried African genes. This was the only viable explanation for Laings skin color, but the courts found it absurd (Skin). The fact of the matter is that race is a biological myth, but it was believed that race was rooted in biology, and cogitate to other, more complex internal differences. Like athletic ability. Musical aptitude. science (Race- The Power of an Illusion). In the end, Sandra was ruled lawfully white. Despite being legally white, Sandra was shunned by other white people. After finding solace in black communities, Sandra faced legal regulations that prevented her from furthering her life because she was legally white. The forced racial categorization certainly complicated Sandras life.Works CitedBlack Venus. Directed by Abdellatif Kechiche , MK2, 2010. Film.Episode One The Difference Between Us. Race- The Power of an Illusion, directed byChristine Herbes-Sommers, California Newsreel, 2003. Television.Henderson, Carol E. African American Review. African American Revie w, vol. 44, no. 3,2011, pp. 528-530., www.jstor.org/stable/23316222.Sexploitation on the Set. VH1 Video Vixen Documentary. VH1, 2005. Television.Skin. Directed by Anthony Fabian, BBC Films, 2008. Film.Spies, Bertha M. Saartjie. African Arts. 2nd ed. Vol. 47. Regents of the U of California, 2014.Print.Werbanowska, Marta. Reclaiming the Commodified Body The Stories of Saartjie Baartmanand Josephine Baker in the Poetry of Elizabeth Alexander. Ethos A Digital Review of Arts, Humanities, and Public Ethics. Ed. Katherine Walker and Benjamin Mangrum. Ethos, 2014. 18-32. Google Scholar. Web.Younge, Gary. The Margins and the Mainstreams. Museums, Equality, and Social Justice. Ed.Richard Sandell and Eithne Nighingale. Routledge, 2013. Google Scholar. Web.
Antimicrobial Activity of cocoanut Water Research ProposalUrinary nerve tract infection (UTI) is the joint term for the heterogenous group of conditions in which there is growth of bacterium in the urinary tract.1 UTIs occur in 3-5% of girls and 1% of boys. later the origin UTI, 60-80% of girls leave behind develop a second UTI within 18 mo. In boys, most UTIs occur during the 1st yr of life. UTIs are much to a greater extent crude in uncircumcised boys. The prevalence of UTIs varies with age. During the 1st yr of life, the male feminine ratio is 2.8-5.4 1. Beyond 1-2 yr, there is a striking female preponderance, with a male female ratio of 1 10.2According to the National ambulatory checkup Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, UTI accounted for n earlier 7 billion office visits and 1 million emergency department visits each year.3 UTIs are eventd mainly by colonic bacteria. In females, 75-90% of all infections are caused by Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella spp. and genus Proteus spp. more or less series report that in males older than 1 yr of age, Proteus is as common a cause as E. coli.2 UTI can cause significant morbidity if not fitly identified and tempered. Therefore early recognition and prompt treatment is important to prevent late sequelae, such(prenominal) as renal scarring, hypertension, and renal failure.4Coconuts, which are native in our country, spiel an important role in the society. Not only do they proffer shelter and livelihood for mankind but they are also the commencement of important physiologically functional components. Nowadays, cocoa palm has been gaining too much popularity because of its potential difference antimicrobial benefits.5Coconut pissing is incredibly healthy and one of the surmount drinks to hydrate the body. Besides helping to remove toxins from the body and economic aiding digestion, coconuts fetch frightful anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-microbial proper ties that help to cure the disease.6 It contains mettlesome levels of lauric acid, a substance responsible for these properties.7 up to now, no guinea pig has been done to document or confirm its antimicrobial properties against UTI pathogens, thus, this get was conceptualized.Thus, it is the aim of this study to explore adjunctive treatment for urinary tract infection.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURELauric acid which is found in high quantity in Virgin coconut oil was proven to have antibacterial activity against various viruses, protozoal and bacterial pathogens. However, one study conducted here in Davao City dated September 2004 showed that commercially lendable virgin coconut oil has no antibacterial activity against the urinary tract pathogens, E. coli and K. pneumoniae.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYUrinary tract infection is a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year. It is treated with various antibacterial drugs which are readily functional in the market. However due to the increasing cost of these drugs, many people cannot afford them and crystalize to self medication with natural remedies. The result of this study leave behind aid the community on victimization an adjunctive medicine that is readily available for the treatment of one of the common diseases in children.OBJECTIVESGeneral ObjectiveTo go steady the antibacterial activity of coconut water use the geographical zone of curtailment on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (most common causes of UTI).Specific ObjectivesTo determine the zone of inhibition of coconut water on E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilisTo determine which among the bacterial pathogens in UTI is the most sensitive to coconut water.DEFINITION OF TERMS regularize of inhibition this is the clear area formed around the gain vigor publisher dish antenna after 24 hours incubation of the petri dishes.Control disc impregnated disc with Amikacin and Cotrimoxazole used as s tandards for comparing the zone of inhibitions of coconut water against common urinary tract pathogens.Coconut water is the clear liquid privileged young coconutsMETHODOLOGYThe study volition be conducted in a school microbiology laboratory wherein the preparations of the materials and the interpretation of the results will be done.The young coconut fruit will be freshly obtained from the tree and then the water will be separated from its pulp.The test organisms, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis will be obtained from positive cultures isolated from urine cultures of both pediatric and adult patients. aesthesia testing for each organism will be performed to determine the eccentric of antibiotic that will be used as control for the study.The Mueller-Hinton agar-agar will be used as the medium for the susceptibility testing. The Schieler and Schull filter paper will be used to prepare 6mm disc using a puncher. The materials that will be used in the experiment proper will b e sterilized in the autoclaved at 15psi for 15 minutes. After sterilization, the agar will be dispensed in the sterilized petri dishes with a depth of 5mm and allowed to solidify.Three trials with 9 cultures of each bacterial strain will be tested using the Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method. Each bacterial strain will be made into a broth happy chance and streaked evenly onto the surface of the medium using a stereotyped cotton swab. The sterile filter paper disc will be dipped into the coconut water. The prepared discs will then be allowed to change for 3-5 minutes after which, they will be on the agar using a sterile forceps and gently pressed down to ensure contact. For the control, commercially impregnated discs with Amikacin and Cotrimoxazole will be used. The plates will be incubated at 37oC for 24 hours and will be investigated for antibacterial activity using the zone of inhibition. The zones of inhibition will be determined in millimeters using a digital caliper. The th rifty zones of inhibition will be classified as follows 0mm-6.99mm as negative, 7mm-12.99mm as weak, 13mm-19.99mm as moderate and 20mm as strong.
Friday, March 29, 2019
invent Essays Fashion IndustryFor individuals who work in the direction exertion, it is a profession in itself as well as a personal interest.TopicThe importance of direction in our everyday lives is a ruinn. For individuals who work in the contrive industry, it is a profession in itself as well as a personal interest. For those bulge outside the industry, fashion still plays a very important role. However, m either throng do not realize that fashion is likewise a valuable musical instrument for analyzing culture and for assessing the values of that culture. Our fashion plectrums tell people who we argon and what our stand up is in guild in add-on, our choices make up an impact on our great power to succeed or to fail in certain beas of our lives. The topic of investigate for this proposal is an compendium of the itinerarys in which garment functions as a reflection of our culture, as well as a tool that sack enhance or hinder our success in life.Rationale m asses have been using clothing and accessories for centuries. In fact, as ONeil has pointed out, clothing and accessories are not the only occurrences employ to decorate the frame. Across the globe, the styles in which people present themselves vary widely. Items commonly used range from em clay and hair paint to decorative scarring, and from perfume to remains deformation (ONeil 2005 n.p.). robes is primarily irresolute, of course, for practical reasons, such as protection from the weather and open-air(prenominal) elements. It is also worn to cover certain let ons of the eubstance, either out of modesty or cultural restrictions. The fails of the be that are cover whitethorn be different, depending upon the culture and location Clothing may also be used a sort of talisman to ward discharge evil, or a type of supernatural protection. In Christian populations, tiring a medal of St. Christopher is thought to protect the wearer from evil (ONeil 2005 n.p.). In a similar ve in, carrying a rabbits foot or some other item associated with luck is a path of using supernatural assistance.However, clothing is worn for more than the reasons stated above. ONeil asserts that long before we are physically skilful enough to talk to people, their appearance announces their gender, age, economic class, and lots even intentions (2005 n.p.). Fashion is also a medium by which people communicate messages nigh gender, occupation, class, and wealth. This is something we learn to sleep together when we are very young. We also issue forth to contend what ONeil refers to as a vocabulary of primp. In other words, in admission to the actual items of clothing we wear, there are other features that we have come to accept as power of deck. Among these are hairstyles, makeup, and accessories such as jewelry. Additionally, soundbox decoration such as tattoos and piercings have come to be considered part of the contemporary vocabulary of dress. check to Joanne Entwist le, in contemporary culture, the body has create the site of identity. We experience our bodies as separate from others and change magnitudely we identify with our bodies as containers of our identities and places of personal expression (2000 138).An important aspect of fashion is its relationship to connection at large. In recent years, this has become considerably more complex. The way we dress says a great deal more somewhat us than many people realize. What we wear presents a statement to the introduction. It is another way of revealing certain information round ourselves to others without saying a word, we give out clues about our mixer background, our economic status, and our images of ourselves. As Entwistle has suggested, dress is tied(p) up to social life in more than one way it is produced out of economic, policy-making, technological conditions as well as shaped by social., cultural, aesthetic ideas (2000 111).The significance of clothing goes beyond what we wear . A pair of sa looseine jeans is not just a pair of blue jeans. The brand is often just as or more important as the expression of clothing. Brand recognition is a crucial factor in the world of fashion, especially for younger generations. Faedda asserts that for young people jeans have become a tool of social and political protest, of adherence and membership, symbol and emblem for stylists jeans have become a trendy casual product, a refined prt a porter article or quite a high fashion creation (Faedda 20054).Not only is clothing a key to who we are it also plays a role in how outlying(prenominal) we can travel in certain circles. It has been said that the right clothing can grant us access to the right places and the right people (Jones 2002 21). Some scholars theorize that what we wear affects how we act, as well as how others controvert to us. According to ONeil, putting on certain types of clothing can deviate your behavior and the behavior of others towards you (2005n. p.). He uses the example of analogouss, explaining that the message conveyed simply by wearing the clothing associated with a particular profession is both agile and strong. hotshot specific example ONeil mentions is that of a study of Spanish policemen. Without their reproducibles, they were seen as having little or no effect on people, even though they were in fact identified as policemen. With their uniforms on, provided, they acted in a a good deal more aggressive manner. In addition, the people who saw them in uniform were much more responsive to directions.ONeil also explains that uniforms are designed to conjure up this kind of response Most uniforms are consciously symbolic so that they can apace and conclusively communicate statusThe ribbons and other insignias on the U.S. sailors uniform can tell even a stranger about his status, authority, and military experience (2005 n.p.). And it is important to note that uniforms can admit things beyond clothing, such as spec ific hairstyles that are commonly associated with certain groups of individuals. The uniform hairstyle of punkers is one example of this. It is assumed by the wearers that the public leading recognize these markers and make the connection to a certain groupit is necessary to have a go at it what these culturally defined symbols mean in the context that they are used in order to understand what is being communicated (ONeil 2005 n.p.). According to Faedda, the uniform as we know it has become a transgressive symbol that is associated with the so-called subcultures or antifashions, political and social movements, music, mass protests and juvenile cultural phenomena generally (Faedda 2005 4).In addition to its many other uses, dress is also used as a form of camouflage. According to Faedda, dress covers, frames, hides and masks the body. In this sense it works to have it away and, in the same time, to link oneself to the others dress is our filter with the world (2005 4). This aver ment that dress is often used to hide or mask the body suggests that there is something unpleasant, undesirable, or even shameful about the body. This in turn brings up a number of issues about clothing and about that which it disguises. According to some scholars, the role of the body has been evolving in the affluent West, there is a tendency for the body to be seen as an entity which is in the process of get a encounter which should be worked at and accomplished as part of an individuals self-identity (Shilling 1993 5).The concept of the body as a project suggests a dissociation of the self from the body This point is echoed by Entwistle, who asserts that fashion, dress and consumption provide ways of dealing with the problems of the modern world, characterized by increasing fragmentation and a sense of chaos. Fashion opens up possibilities for framing the self, however temporarily (2000 139). In this sense, fashion takes on seemingly therapeutic aspects in response to an incre asingly complex and chaotic world, the one thing we may feel we can control is our sense of self. Since that self is often show through fashion statements, the role of fashion takes on additional significance. As Gilman has commented, in a world in which we are judged by how we appear, the vox populi that we can change our appearance is liberating (1999 3). In fact, as Gilman elaborates,To become psyche else or to become a better version of ourselves in the look of the world is something we all want. Whether we do it with ornaments such as jewelry or through the wide range of physical alterations from hair dressing to tattoos to body piercing, we respond to the demand of seeing and being seen. (Gilman 1999 3)Aims and ObjectivesThe unproblematic aim of chore this look is to explore the intricate and complex messages that are revealed by the types of dress we choose. Our fashion choices say a great deal about us as individuals on a broader level, fashion trends reflect importan t aspects of any given culture during a certain time frame. Questions that are campaign the design of the project includeWhat does fashion indicate about the wearer?How does fashion reflect the values and beliefs of different cultures?What is the significance of fashion trends?By corporate trust information from scholarly research, articles from contemporary fashion magazines, and data from internet sources, the final exam project will seek to answer the questions above and draw applicable conclusions about the complex relationship between fashion and identity.Proposed MethodologyProposed methodological analysis for this project will consist of a combination of quantitative and soft sources. A variety of print sources will be used, including books, scholarly journals, fashion magazines, and newspaper articles. Internet resources will also be an integral part of the research process. Current statistical information as well as the latest information on industry trends is more readi ly usable on the internet. This makes the internet a valuable resource when studying an industry that is characterized by rapid change.Additional methodology in the form of questionnaire judicatory is also proposed as part of this research project. Specifically, a questionnaire would be designed in order to collect data regarding key points that are speculated upon in the research. This questionnaire will be formulated to elicit a range of attitudes found on a series of multiple-choice questions. Although the target audience will be limited by time and resource constraints, participants will be selected at random. In this way, the data collected will reflect society at large.Questionnaire administration will be executed through netmail and through direct contact with the public. Data collected from questionnaires will be organized and interpreted in terms of stratified clusters, in belongings with the original project format, and will be analyzed, and presented in conjunction w ith other findings. If discrepancies are discovered between the anticipated and actual results, possible explanations will be formulated and included in the analysis.As for modes of research as indicated above, information will come from a variety of sources. This will include scholarly research, articles from contemporary fashion magazines, and data from internet sources. Information about research sources will be listed at the end of the paper in a reference list.The reference list will consist of dickens parts. The first part of the reference list will include sources that are quoted or otherwise directly used in the body of the paper. The blurb part of the list will include sources that were consulted but which do not appear in the body of the paper. If a questionnaire is used, a copy will be included in a improverary appendix, along with all additional relevant information that is not included in the body of the paper.ContentThe content of the research will be organized in c hapters and will include sub-headings within to each one chapter. A Table of contents will be included to indicate the chapter divisions, Reference List, and Appendices (if used).References and BibliographyAll research sources will be listed at the end of the paper in a reference list. Sources that are quoted or otherwise directly used in the body of the paper will be indicated as part of the primary reference list. Sources that were consulted but which do not appear in the body of the paper will be included in a supplement to the primary reference list. Appendices, if found to be helpful, will also be included at the end of the paper.Critical PathA proposed timetable will be formulated upon approval of topic, and will consist of goals and completion dates for each portion of the project. The timetable will be arranged to allow for research, data assembly and interpretation, and writing of the paper itself. Time will be allotted for initial and final drafts, as well as proofreadi ng and final revisions before submission. wistful StatementThe complexity of the fashion industry lends itself to a broad choice of career trajectories. This research project will further elucidate the options available. One of the options that has a great deal of appeal is working as a Fashion Consultant, since preliminary research for this project indicates that this is a challenging and rapidly expanding profession in the industry. In addition, opportunities for further research on a more advanced level will be explored.ReferencesEntwistle, J. 2000. The fashioned body Fashion, dress, and modern social theory. Cambridge Polity Press. Faedda, Barbara. 2005. Wearing and appearing An anthropological analysis through the shop windows Retrieved December 23, 2005 from http//www.anthroglobe.ca/docs/WEARING%20AND%20APPEARING.htm Gilman, Sander. 1999. Making the body pleasing A cultural history of aesthetic surgery.Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press. Jones, S. 2002. Fashion design. capital of the United Kingdom Laurence King Publishing Ltd. ONeil, Dennis. 2005. Hidden aspects of communication. Retrieved December 23, 2005 from http//anthro.palomar.edu/language/language_6.htm Shilling, C. 1993. The body and social theory. London Sage.
Portfolio of tuition Outcomes finished ego AssessmentThis portfolio provides evidence of achieving dampment cases. To provide this evidence I go to tutorials envisaging interactive methods and assimilator female genitalstered principle strategies (Hinchcliff 2004), egotism- coordinateed erudition, group work and discussion. I also did further reading, utilizing library facilities, the cinnahl, A thuss and other web sites avail suitable. To shed light on this principle carry donement possible I assiduous in mentee / disciple coitusship with the upkeep and guidance of an approved teach (NMC 2000).I chose this rung bring out-of-pocket my function up in teaching. Since qualification, I pose worked in specializer atomic number 18as and have been actively convoluted in associate teachship. I discover this module will be coifd in my skipper using and inside the clinical beas, I choose to work.I have scripted this portfolio in first person (Webb 1992), as it is a reflective beak, of induces, thoughts and spiritings, preparation through critical analysis and evaluation. This kind of reproval enables us to conduct account of what has happened and to string sense of the outcome (Boud and Miller 1996).Many models of reflection may be apply, Ghaye and Lilyman (2000) refer to structured models leading learners through a shields and questions profitable as a guide and others ar flexible fetching into account the reflective impact and crumb start at different points then there is the focused model fully gr bear meaning to grammatical cases improving enforce. I have used an adaptation of the Reflective Cycle Model (Gibbs 1988) as it is simple and easy to interpret. bringing up Outcomes1. Assist learners to line modern assumement ask.___ self- brilliance- judging of true utilize and ack right awayledgment of accomplishment expect(s) in relation to this outcome. latest make Knowledgeable of student nurse curr iculum. Have a willingness and consignment to teach.My tuition consumes Gain an understanding of the FDA programme. Re aspect and critic anyy snap belles-lettres. Critical reflection.Learning Outcome 1. Assist students to identify current tuition gets._____Examples of evidence that could be provided by the end of the module to show how this outcome has been achieved.Produce evidence of placement acquisition opportunities fit to meet the needs of specific students.Give at least one example of how you have helped the student to identify his/her learning needs, set goals and develop action picture for learning.___________ thick of evince for summative assessment of what you have achieved during the module.Cross- reference as tolerate. I obtained copies of Sandras job commentary and FDA Mentor Pack. Reviewed literature. Critical reflection.DescriptionThe vascular surgical defend I work encounters to a greater extent(prenominal) than tuition for, Medical, Foundation d egree Studies, home(a) Vocational Qualification students and newlyly qualified nurses exclusively needing support. I have been asked by Sandra a 2nd year FDA student to be her mentor to believe on this utilisation impellingly I go to a meeting with Sandra and her Practice trainer. Through discussion, we were able to complete a negotiated learning contract documenting the learning and achievements Sandra had gained, outlining what her current learning needs were to train an agreed action plan. tonesI take my type seriously, committing myself in assisting and accompaniment junior colleagues and students. I am genuinely interested in their stage and take aim of learning and enjoy having an active role in their learning eff. synopsisI agree with Hincliffe (2004) that learning is infern as a alter in behaviour that is brought about to enable heighten upkeep for longanimouss/clients, an event from experience and bore causing relative permanent change in students behaviou r. Curzon (1990) enhances this view considering learning as modification of behaviour through activities and experiences so that discernledge, learnings, attitudes and process of adjustment to the learners environs is changed. Quinn (1995), Welsh and Swann (2004), and Nicklin and Kenworthey (1995) all have identical descriptions.A successful teacher has acquaintance of different learning theories and learning processes using them as textile to beastly teaching maximizing opportunities of learning (McKenna 1995, Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995). Raynor and Riding (1997) and Snelgrove (2004) refer growing need for teachers to understand the learning process to facilitate mortalized learning reducing academic failure.There are many different theories of learning mentioned within the literature (Hincliffe 2004, McKenna 1995 a/b/c, Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995, Welsh and Swann 2004), no single theory has all the answers, some theories view humans as extensions of the animal species, w hereas others see humans as separate, distinct, with cerebral characteristics of their own (Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995).Early theories of behaviourism such as Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner used animals whose behaviour resulted from a stimulus. Much of the literature suggests that such learning is curb and has no real place in nursing education (Hincliffe 2004, McKenna 1995(c), Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995, Quinn 1995) until now I look at there are still situations where these theories are pertinent but learning is limited.Curzon (1997) believes human behaviour is very different from that of animals mocking validity of behaviourism theories. Supporters acknowledge refinement of these works could shape bright reading cognitivity universe how we acquire info and what we need to know stimulated answers learned in part by classical conditioning (Woolfork and Nicolick 1980). Lovell (1987) refers to ruttish responses being corroboratory or negative relating to Pavlov s theory. Repetition is useful in practice which relates to Thorndikes theory of trial and error (McKenna 1995a), but knowledge of the skill learnt is authoritative. As teachers, we constantly use Skinners theory of positive and negative reinforcement, through praise and by giving information and cues prior to the designate performed and by practising a skill repeatedly over till competent in practice (McKenna 1995a).Cognitive theories refer to meaningful approaches of learning, recognizing students knowledge, experience and stages of development. I believe that as a mentor it is my responsibility to establish these factors early in the student relationship (Andrew and Wallis 1999, Forrest 2004, Phillips et al 1994). I agree learning is a purposive process concerning perception, organization and acumen. The learner actively seeks new information and uses past experience to gain understanding (Child 1986, Quinn 1995). Insightful learning occurs from special experience or knowledg e gaining new insight (Child 1986), the student relating to forward knowledge and experience to solve new problems.Experimental learning leads on from cognivitism Allan and Jolley (1987) refer to learners becoming independent of their teachers eventually setting their own objectives initiating their learning using lendable resources and self-assessment. Burnard (1987) describes this as involving personal experience and reflection make sense of events transforming knowledge and meaning from them. I think Allan and Jolley (1987) are excoriate in saying that this type of learning is effective in proof and practice. Allan and Jolley (1987) also state that increased activity and involvement leads to increased learning.The humanist view is related to feelings and experience, including Maslow (1971) humanist approach cited in Wickliffe (2004), McKenna (1995c), Nicklin and Kenworthey (1995), Quinn (1995) and many more. The pay off is to assist self-actualisation fulfilling maximum po tential, this links closely to Knowles (1978) and Rogers (1983) works shoply cited within the literature (Burnard 1987, Mckenna 1995(c), Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995, Welsh and Swann 2000). I believe student centred approaches allow students to take active involvement in their learning modify them to take self-possession for it (Allan and Jolley 1987).Kauffman (2003) sees Knowles (1978) theory of andrology as a useful tool rather than a theory. Knowles acknowledges adult learners having vast ranges of experience, which they use as a basis for new learning, learning occurring through efforts made by the idiosyncratic. Student and teachers need to wield each other as equals to allow student centred learning students taking responsibility and ownership of it (Bennett 2002, Hutchinson 2003 and Mckenna 1995(c). I agree that a partnership bastardly on cooperation and interaction brings about mutual learning due to desolation and trust (Atkins and Murphy 1995). I also agree with Ewa n and White (1996) that it is weighty to know the students individual characteristics and needs being sensible of the students current knowledge, competency and stage of training (Wickliffe 2004).A learning contract is a of import tool (Calhoun et al 2000), utilizing optimum learning. It is a formal written arrangement between the student and mentor specifying what needs to be done to achieve the students learning outcomes. Regular formative discussion enables skills and us to get to know each other allowing me to establish the students stage of training, previous experience. Regular discussions are necessary as part of the learning process (Cahill 1996) as through discussion we can identify strengths, weaknesses and any problems encountered by the student, measuring the level of competence revising our initial plan to achieve the rest of the students outcomes which utilises the student centred approach.Action figureI need to hold frequent discussions with Sandra to observe he r senesce effectively promoting active involvement and ownership. I am aware that an effective mentor/student relationship enhances the level of learning courtly to make this possible we need to have significant contact involving us to arrange our off-duty to make sure we frequently work together.Learning Outcomes2. rebel self-awareness in order to be a role model.__________Self-assessment of current practice and identifications of learning need(s) in relation to this outcome. Acknowledge that self-awareness is primal.I am cozy. It is my professional responsibility to provide silk hat bursting charge. It is my responsibility to be good role model.My Learning Needs Gain greater awareness of how others view me. encourage reading. Become self aware through reflection.Learning Outcome 2. split up self-awareness in order to be a role model._____________Example of EvidenceRecognize the impact of own professional behaviour and actions on students learning._____________Summary of E vidence summative assessment of what you have achieved during the moduleCross-reference as appropriate. Understand others views gaining insight of how Im seen. Now old(prenominal) with the terms self-awareness and role model. critically reflected, becoming progressively self aware of my actions.DescriptionAs an E grade, I have a responsibility for junior colleagues and student nurses and am involved in their learning and teaching. I am competent and sure-handed shewing to act in a professional manner at all times. Feedback from my colleagues and students shows Im respected and liked but at times of stress, I can come across as harsh and abrupt not tolerating fools gladly.FeelingsI am proud of my achievements and think I am a good role model but am aware that I can be abrupt on occasions. .AnalysisThe former U.K.C.C (2000) standards for dressing of teachers of nursing and midwifery state clearly that as nurse I essential be a good role model enabling me to build effective relat ionships with uncomplainings and clients and contributing to an surroundings in which effective practice is maintained ensuring safe and effective care through assessment and management.Nursing relies on clinical staff to support and teach rationale being the student learns from an expert in a safe, supportive and educationally familiarised environment (Andrews and Wallis 1999). As a senior nurse students and junior colleagues see me as a role model. Students see a good mentor as someone who teachers, guides and assesses having a genuine interest in student learning (Andrews and Chilton 2000, Gray and Smith 2000, Neary 2000). Good role models are knowledgeable and skilful professionals who are respected and trusted. Taylor (1997) suggests novices copy or imitate professionals casting themselves on nurses with varying standards of practice, notice being an important part of their learning. married person (2001) small longitudinal study utilised various information collection m ethods that found evidence of students observing and relating to actions and behaviours they believed as good. My actions manifest by annotation of voice, comments made and enthusiasm and interest shown have an impact on learning, unbefitting behaviour is noticed and at worst copied because the learner see it as acceptable to do so. Findings of this study would be more valid and a claim made stronger if repeated on a grander scale literature supports these findings.Banduras (1977) theory of social learning and vicarious conditioning (cited by Mckenna 1995) involves this observation of behaviours and consequences of this to the learner this theory differs from others, as learning is instant therefore role modelling can be highly effective and positive or destructive.Self-awareness is being aware of what is taking place in oneself learning experience and self-concept changing over time as we see ourselves in many different roles influenced by others and the media (Quinn 1995).Refle ction of events and actions increases self-awareness giving insight of behaviour and response enabling us to examine relationships with others in the practical and social setting. haddock and Bassett (1997) suggest that use this in self-management and improvement. To be a self-aware practitioners we need to reflect on the way we come across to others implementing required changes (Stuart 2003). Self is as all thoughts, feelings and experiences of an individual, arising from biological and environmental influence. It is the way individuals see and feel about themselves (Quinn 1995). The major resource that a helper brings to the relationship is himself, the more complete his understanding of himself, the greater his capacity for self awareness and more effective he will be as a guidance Nicklin and Kenworthey pg 120.Self-awareness also implies to individuals being aware of their limits of knowledge and ability reflected by the individual partaking in further training or seeking help from see colleagues.Quinn (1995) and Burnard (1990) refer to two main ways we can be self aware, introspection and feedback from others. Introspection is looking within oneself and attempts to recognize own feelings and reactions, this is not easy and can cause feelings of discomfort and fright but allows identification of our emotions good and gravid assessing their impact. Palmer (2001) states a highly developed sense of self worth comes about within a person who can identify his/her emotions, learning to manage and contain them when inappropriate. Being self-aware get together insight of what we can change. Feedback is a way of seeing how others see us, ability to chip in and receive constructive feedback is a skill being told how you are comprehend is hard but thought provoking.Crewe (2004) relates to interrogation of the Duval and Auckland theory (1972), establish on two distinct forms of conscious attention, attention focusing outwards towards the environment or inward towards oneself. The person receives and perceives feedback from the environment regarding their behaviours and attitudes. Perception of approval from others can increase confidence and self-esteem while perception of disdain or negative evaluation can have the opposite effect. Objective self-awareness is an individual being aware of the personal characteristics that distinguish them from the majority the focus is exclusively on the self.Conclusion/ Action PlanI was not in full aware of my impact on others. It is critical for me to be conscious of my level of patience taking great care not to react negatively in times of stress, or when students or colleague fail to progress (Borgess and Smith 2004) as this can cause great harm to the learner.Learning Outcomes3/6/7 Develop, maintain, and evaluate an environment for learning in your area of practice.Self-assessment of current practice and identification of learning need(s) in relation to this outcome.Current Practice Have interest and commitment in teaching. Im intimate and approachable supporting students in their learning. Orientate students to environment. Participate in assessment with formative feedback.My Needs Increase awareness of what contributes to a good and bad learning environment. Be involved in educational placement audit.Learning Outcome 3/6/7. Develop, maintain and evaluate an environment for learning in your area of practice.Examples of Evidence Produces evidence of placement learning opportunities/resources suitable for meeting needs of specific students. Give examples of how you create and sustain an environment for learning.Summary of Evidence for summative assessment of what you have achieved during the module.Cross-reference as appropriate. Greater awareness of what contributes to a good learning environment. I try to maintain adequate supervision and liaise with colleagues regarding my students progress. Attend courses and study years for my personal development. Students always have a designated Mentor. There is a ward philosophy of care. Students have access to the internet, journals, pt notes and policies/procedures. Students attend spokes placements attached to the ward area, and have opportunities to spend time in theatre watching germane(predicate) procedures.DescriptionPatients are admitted onto my ward from electoral and urgency lists or via A+E for vascular assessment, procedures or surgery. Wound care and management is a large part of our role as well as patient education and discharge planning.FeelingsI feel this ward environment offers a lot of learning opportunities to students and new staff but has high patient demands, conquerd staffing and skill mix due to high levels of sickness effecting aggroup spirit and morale, which has a huge impact on our ability to teach, without delay affecting the learning of students and junior colleagues.AnalysisFinding a description of a clinical learning environment is not easy due to a complexity of numerous factors involved. Quinn (1995) uses holistic description, a broad explanation referring to all factors influencing quality and effectiveness of a learning environment, Chan (2001) description is corresponding relating to the learning environment as a multidimensional entity with interactive networks of forces that can affect the learners learning outcomes.Literature cites numerous studies concerning social support for students and nursing staff. These studies include Fretwell (1982) and (1985), Lewin and Leach (1982), Ogier (1982) and Orton (1981) conclusively identify quality relationships between prepare staff and students and support being crucial in creating a positive learning environment (Cahill 1996, Chan 2001, Saarikoski and Leino-Kilpi 2002). All studies conclude that an important determinant of an effective learning environment is the managers organisational and leadership style. Highly structured wards with rigid task allocation and hierarchical systems unlikely to mee t the learning needs of students and staff (Chan 2001). It set throughout the studies that team spirit, humanistic approach to students learning and teaching and learning support are influential factors of an effective ward setting. The frequent references to these studies show that their findings are seen as valid even though all were small size.I believe team spirit comes from working as a team, best achieved through encouragement of the ward manager (Welsh and Swann 2002) giving a sense of group pride and self-esteem for all staff. We need to make students feel part of this team so that they feel accepted having a sense of belonging (Chan 2001, Quinn 1995 and Spencer 2003).A team approach with an appropriate leadership style on the part of the manager creates fertile stain for the development of an appropriate learning climate. (Welsh and Swann 2002 pg 117)Studies carried out post Project 2000 explored more in depth themes and perceptive related to the clinical learning enviro nment and clinical supervision (Wilson and Barnett et al 1995) the meaning of nursing care and the teaching activities of nurses explored also. Saarikowski and Leino-Kilpi (2002) felt these studies demonstrated transition of individualised supervision and the role of the mentor. I agree with cubic decimetre and Glacken (2004) that ward managers are no longer able to dedicate time to teaching due to managerial demands, therefore nurses now have this overall responsibility for teaching.Mentorship is favoured in facilitating learning (Chow and Suen 2001). Watson (2000) acknowledges that mentors need education and training to function effectively in this demanding role with preparation mentors are able to create opportunities for students identifying experiences that meet individual learning needs.Studies by Cahill (1996), heartfelt (1984), Earnshaw (1995), Hart and Rotem (1994) (cited by Chan 2001) and Spouse (2001) are again small sized but all use similar methods of valid and relia ble data collection. The common theme throughout these studies is personal characteristics of the mentor, which include approachability, interpersonal skills, interest learning and teaching and supervision and support. These studies relate to students perspectives of the learning environment and mentorship, most of the findings viewing mentorship in a positive light and find it beneficial in reducing the theory practice gap for students. Staff attitudes and behaviour, the need of the student to belong and level of mentor contact spotlighted throughout. Mentors need to make time for the student so that they can practice, develop and learn to be a nurse (Spouse 2002).Phillips et al study (1994) was of a larger scale, carried out throughout Wales commissioned by the D.O.H., a two-year look for find concerned with the implications and impact of mentorship. This had qualitative and quantitative methodology information self-contained through questionnaires, diary accounts, interviews and observation again the give away elements of mentorship surrounded mentor/student relationships. Evidence of teaching, organisation of experiences consoli interpretd with feedback and discussion that aided and enhanced the students experience.Significant mentor contact seen to directly affect activities students are involved in, this contact essential for building rapport needed in a good working relationship. Mentor presence provides emotional support to students allowing gruntle introduction into the different and a difficult experience that exist and is crucial to students well being and learning potential, reducing anxiety (Jowett et al 1992). Feeling useful and part of a team are other important aspects. Chan (2001) and Welsh and Swann (2002) relate to this but feel that the students role needs to be understood admit and clarified to prevent them being used as a pair of hands.Studies that concern nurses perspective of the learning environment and mentorship (Andrews 1993, Atkins and Williams 1995 and Rogers and Lawton 1995) highlight barriers of effective mentorship due to lack of time, inadequate planning and role conflict. Lambert and Glacken (2004) also view inadequate staffing, poor skill mix, lack of support and training of staff and poor management structure as barriers that reduce learning potential.Phillips et al study (1994) reflects the findings of Jowett et al (1992) which I agree that in clinical area where demands for care are high and resources stretched it is difficult to give adequate support and supervision to the junior student. When I am in charge of the ward, I am less involved in direct care of patients and have difficulty working closely with the student.Action PlanI need to liaise with my colleagues closely to make them aware of my students learning needs so that constant supervision and constructive support and feedback is on-going when I am not available or am engaged in ward coordination. This will enable my student to be i ncreasingly involved in the nursing team learning skills appropriate to their training preventing them feeling neglected, used or ignored.________________Learning Outcomes4. Create and develop opportunities for students to learn, utilisingevidence-based practice._________________Self-assessment of current practice and identification of learning need(s) inrelation to this outcome.Current Practice. ken of constant changes within nursing and medicine that initiates change. I am familiar of protocols, standards and procedures regarding nursing intervention based on evidence-based practice. I back up my teaching with evidence based on experience or acknowledged research. Attend attending Pain Nurse Link meetings and wound care sessions providing me with current evidence for practice.Needs. To develop skills of critical analyse, systematic review and evaluation of research. Review literature increasing my awareness of this topic.Learning Outcomes 4. Create and develop opportunities for s tudents learning ofutilising evidence-based practice._____________Examples of Evidence Produce evidence of the ability to meet own learning needs in relation to thefacilitation of learning. Give Examples of how you have identified and facilitated individuals or groups tolearn._____________ Reviewed and critically analysed the literature. I am increasingly aware of the importance of evidence-based practice.DescriptionI have gained a great deal of experience throughout my career, which I use within my clinical practice and teaching. My knowledge has developed through practice, study sessions relevant to my area, advice of specialist nurses, reading journals and followers clinical guidelines, standards and protocols that I encourage students to read. Students invited to attend relevant wound care updates and to spend time with many of our specialist nurses.FeelingsI already base most of my practice on evidence but need to go in in literature reviews and develop skills to analyse and scrutinise research findings.AnalysisI believe evidence-based nursing is a process in which nurses base clinical decisions using the best available evidence (The University of manganese 2005). The newspaper column (1997) defines evidence-based practice as giving quantitative and qualitative meaning to a cause, course, diagnosis, treatment and economics of health problems managed by us nurses including quality government agency and continuing professional development which maintains and enhancing knowledge, expertise and competence to give best care (cited by Hincliffe 2002 pg 11). Curzio (1997) views it as the bridge between theory and practice agreed by White (1997) agrees with this suggesting it links personal intuition research and practice providing nurses with greater knowledge to base their care, our clinical decision-making and teaching must be based on evidence, expertise and highly importantly patients discernment as referred to by Hincliffe (2002).The aims of evidence-b ased practice/nursing ensuring patients receive up to date care based on up to date knowledge. As we develop skill inquiry, we become more knowledgeable in our profession that improves standards of care (Hincliffe 2002). I agree with Welsh and Swann (2002) that there is a need for reasoning(a) nurses using initiative, effective communication and clinical reasoning skills so that intercommunicate decisions are made through critical analysis of evidence available especially due to the constant changes within the NHS.The government introduced a framework of clinical governance in an attempt to achieve national clinical effectiveness within the NHS to guarantee quality services for patients and clients a key component being evidence-based practice. Behi (2000) states clinical governance requires every professional to use evidence-based practice. The New NHS Modern, Dependable (D.O.H 1997), The Drive for Clinical Effectiveness (D.O.H 1996) and A offset Class Service Quality in the NHS (D.O.H 1998) shows quality improvements at the headspring of the NHS agenda. The NHS National Service Knowledge and Skills Framework (Hincliffe 2002 McSherry and haddock 1999 and Welsh and Swann 2002) development tool promoting effectiveness through quality, staff and service development linking current and future research activity.The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (N.I.C.E) is accountable for assessment of technologies and for producing guidelines and the Commission for Health Improvement (C.H.I.M.P) monitors quality of services at a local level and ensure organisations are fulfilling their responsibility for clinical governance Health Care Organisations accountable for quality of services they provide, heading Executives carry ultimate responsibility. The government also provides funding essential for research activity.Spector (2004) refers to evidence-based practice as being rigorous and time-consuming involving selection of all research done in an area, analysis and synthesis developing combinative reviews termed within the literature as a systematic or meta-analysis reviews (Renfrew 1997, University of Minnesota 2005). Completed reviews are available to taking some of the pressure of us the Cochrane database has a wide range of these. Behi (2000) and Mcsherry and Haddock (1999) relate to clinical practice standards and guidelines produced by the N.M.C, R.C.N and local Health Authorities systematic review, recommendations and policy statements based on best evidence agreed by experts. There are also systematic reviews published in research journals and by the National Clearing House.Clinical appraisal is crucial in ensuring practice is evidenced based involving asking a clinical question related to practice and finding the research and literature to answer it, appraising evidence and deciding on its relevance and validity before applying findings to practice and evaluating effectiveness (Behi 2000 and McSherry and Haddock 1999). Castledei ne (2003) refers to this as a three-stage process producing the
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Journeys come in many an(prenominal) different forms, some being lengthy in duration while others may be just hours long. On occasion, hotshots direction to self-knowledge may be found in doing the same things as one used to do in a whole new purlieu and finding that the slipway of the past are inadequate for the ways of the present. This imagination is shown in the untitled narrative by Sara Chase, where the discovery is that her study habits from naughty school no longer correlate with what she will need to do to be successful in college.Failure is a common idolise for almost everyone. It is something that we try to avoid as much as possible. In the narrative, the author panics when thoughts of failure flood into her head. The author states the confidence that I acquired previous(predicate) slipping away and fear filling its place. All this over one little question? we ask ourselves. This made me wonder Is what we strive for as the vision of self-knowledge actually perf ection or is self-knowledge agnize when we finally read the fact that perfection is unattainable?The crucial element, in my opinion, was not a paragraph or a single sentence it was one pronounce that was repeated numerous times throughout the narrative confidence. Is confidence what leads us to self-knowledgethe confidence to continue on, to try new ways when old ways fail? Is confidence a pre-indicator of a successful journey or can you claim self-knowledge without possessing confidence?The past serves as a recyclable reference for the present and the in store(predicate). In this case, the past could not compete at the same level as the present. But this fact was only realized after failure, disappointment, and self-pity, as the author states. The past, in someway, develops who you are and what experiences and life lessons we pee-pee from the past and use in the present create a future that brings us closer to self-knowledge. This narrative is like Sir Gawain and the Green Kn ight in some ways. Sir Gawain reacts to the fear of death when he takes the green sash from the Lady. He also fears for his life and flinches when he thinks the Green Knight is going to cut down at his neck.
The HR Professional as Thinking operator and Business PartnerA lot has been written about the bring for HR professional to be athinking performer and a short letter quisling. How can I demonstratethese two attributes in spite of appearance my own establishment?Let us begin by be exactly what it is to be a thinkingperformer and championship retainer.Business PartnerThe very idea of organism a strategicalalal business render was the subjectof a CIPD (2004)1 survey which showed that 56% of those questionedaspired towards macrocosm considered a strategic partner. The fit ofbusiness partners into the organisation is as a combination ofstrategic HR and proactive HR. The same CIPD survey suggested thatstrategic partners are defined thusa) Their current role profile for the HR function is perceived to be more strategic-proactive as opposed to operational-reactiveb) They accept they have more involvement and influence in the business schema processc) They are generally mor e positive about chief executive officer and management perceptions of the HR functiond) They pass away greater time on strategy and less time on implementation of HR constitutione) They place more emphasis on the HR competencies of strategic thinking, business knowledge and leadership abilitiesf) They perceive themselves as working for organisations in which HR performance outcomes are measuredIf we look at the above definitions, it appears that, a strategicbusiness partner is combination of mind-set and the ability to spendmore time on strategy. The HR Business Partner ensures that the take uppeople solutions meet the strategic aims of the business.Ulrich defines the qualities of a HR business partner as follows* Focus on outcomes and not process* Measure results* service of process to resolve business problems* Be able to hold their own in discussion with business partners* Ensure that HR strategy is aligned with business strategyThe change of HRs role to business pa rtner is well documented in HRpublications and on HR websites. However, Lengnick Halls interrogation of1988 concluded that there is little empirical evidence to suggestthat strategic HR directly influences organisational performance orcompetitive advantage. more recent research, Wright and Snell (1998)recently reviewed all of the studies attempting to demonstrate the fitb... ... advising of the internal processes that leadaffect delivery deadlines or payment terms.I would also remember the development of an intranet to waive HR andbusiness managers to get closer to employees by encouraging feedbackon all aspects of employment. The intranet should be integrated withother systems to allow for easy use but any comments posted byemployees should be anonymous to allow for honesty from employees.Indeed, Deloitte & Touches CEO and Managing Partner fanny Connolly,believes that by surveying their employees on a regular basis, theyhave been enabled to consider what it is that drives t heir staffcommitment to the firm. Engaging their staff is considered to be a nominatepart of their HR strategy and to do this, they need to have a solidunderstanding of the issues that concern them.These are but some of the ship canal in which I would demonstrate my valuein terms of being a business partner and thinking performer. It is mybelief that all employees of our organisation should demonstrate bothof these qualities in all aspects of their work to enable us to betterdeal with the unpredictable nature of our business, the market and oureconomy.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
A tragic hacek is defined as a person of amply social rank, who has a tragic daub or flaws that lead to their downfall. These heroes downfalls are usually either complete go bad or death. Tragic heroes face their downfall with courage and dignity. While military many characters in Julius Caesar could fit these conditions, the person who fits the role of a tragic hero the best is Marcus Brutus. Brutus develops into a tragic hero through come to the fore the play, and this is shown though his qualifications of a tragic hero, his high status, his tragic flaws, and his courage in the face of his death. Brutus has high social status in Rome. Brutus is a senator, and a popular unrivaled at that. Cassius says that many of the best respect in Rome... have wished that horrible Brutus had his eyes (1103). Many people look up to Brutus, and wish he would help with their problems. Brutus has enough social status and wealth to hire sise servants (1097). Brutuss wife, Portia, is Catos fem ale child, a highly respected man (1124). IT would take someone of high status to marry a daughter of Catos. Portia asks if Brutus thinks she is no stronger than her sex, being so fathered and so husbanded (1124). This implies that Brutus is a man on a near caliber to that of her father. Even after Brutus is run out of Rome, he keeps his high status by becoming a general. unrivaled of the qualities of being a tragic hero is high social status, and Brutus has this quality. Brutus has several(prenominal) tragic flaws. One of these tragic flaws is how he trusts people a lot. Brutus says that he knows that we shall have Antony well to a friend (1140). He trusts Antony will be a friend of the conspirators, yet he seems to not realize that Antony is obliviously against them, because they killed his friend. Brutus trusts Antony so much, that he lets Antony speak to the public alone. Antony turns the people against Brutus and the conspirators, leading to the wars where Brutus takes his own life. Brutus as well as receives letters, supposedly from the people of Rome. As he reads the letter out loud, Brutus remarks Speak, strike, alter Am I entreated to speak and strike? O Rome, I amaze thee promise, if thy redress will follow, thy receivest thy full petition at the hand of Brutus (1118).
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Milkmans Search for Identity in vocal of Solomon Song of Solomon tells the story of Deads unwitting search for identity. Milkman appears to be destined for a life of self-alienation and isolation because of his commitment to the materialism and the linear conception of eon that are part of the legacy he receives from his father, Macon Dead. However, during a start to his ancestral home, Milkman comes to understand his place in a cultural and familial community and to appreciate the value of conceiving of time as a alternate(prenominal) process(Smith 58). The Deads exemplify the patriarchal, nuclear family that has traditionally been a stable and faultfinding feature not only of American society but of Hesperian civilization in general. The primary institution for the reproduction and maintenance of children, ideally it provides individuals with the means for understanding their place in the world. The degeneration of the Dead family and the destructiveness of Macons humili ated individualism symbolize the invalidity of American, indeed Western, values. Morrisons depiction of this ...