Wednesday, July 31, 2019
There are many stereotypes that pertain to black people. One that really stands out is Ã¢â¬Å"If you want to hide something from a black person hide it in a bookÃ¢â¬ which the white man is trying to call us African Americans illiterate. Which is ignorant is so many type of ways. But yet we do nothing more to make that statement false by not being educated, well organized and full of wisdom. Years ago, when slavery was in its actions African Americans where always thought of as less. White people came up with the assumption that black people where only good for three things; sex which theyÃ¢â¬â¢d rape most of the women, singing, because they made them perform as entertainment, and sports because African Americans were always Ã¢â¬Å"activeÃ¢â¬ . Which shows you that African Americans were nothing more than than serfs (which is another word for someone working labor on itÃ¢â¬â¢s owners estate). African American had no real opportunity of living. Reading was against the law for African Americans. They werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to read or to even learn how to read, because the white men didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the slaves to go against or better yet become stronger than them. Fredrick Douglas said Ã¢â¬Å"Knowledge makes a man unfit to be a slave. Ã¢â¬Å", and the white men knew that. So they stayed uneducated. Which gave the white men even a better reason to think they could take over our brains. From this point on was the way for the whites to start lowering expectations of black people. As of today, African Americans are still looked down on and still are given some of the stereotypes from slavery now. Are generation and before make it no better. With the lack of education, attitude and everything else thatÃ¢â¬â¢s makes up our community in a negative way. The black on black crimes and violence doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make it even better. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s basically giving the white men exactly what he set out to happen. The gang violence and fighting just puts the icing on the cake for everything. We are basically confirming what the white me. Is saying because we are not taking any time to read into and make a change. Make it better for no one but ourselves. These assumptions are untrue and the only way we can show that we are the opposite of these stereotype are by making a change starting small and ending big. Ignorance has existed for decades. It not that we canÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything about it. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s never going to go away. But one thing we canÃ¢â¬â¢t do us loss out sense and pride for our race and culture. William Wilberforce once said Ã¢â¬Å"You may choose to look the other way but you can never say again that you did not know. Ã¢â¬ Which basically means, yes you may feel what information you may have been given is something you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hear, but in reality itÃ¢â¬â¢s the truth and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need it in the long run. It will define who you are a person if you take the information you get and go and expand it and take it a long way. To finish up, you have to realize education is the key to a better tomorrow. Now matter how many out down and downfalls you come across just know thatÃ¢â¬â¢s there will always be brighter days. As an African American young lady i know I have to work ten times as harder knowing the roots of how females where looked at. As long as we have life and breath, we have an opportunity to change.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
In this era of modernity and high technological advancement, the conveniences and efficiency that it brought can be credited to the birth of the Industrial Revolution. The first wave of this phenomenal social, economical, and cultural event came from the European coast at around the 18th century. From the moment the revolution came into its climax, it spread around outside Europe and progressively steered the world into the path of modernity.A new era has been born by the moment the Industrial Revolution took place. Like all things in this world, the revolution has its own negative and positive attributes but despite whatever hazards it may have incurred in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s societies, this essay will look at the good news which the Industrial Revolution brought. Before its inception, European societies were under the rule of feudalism. It is in this context where lands were owned by the landlords given as a reward by the monarchy.The era of feudalism can be described as a period of soc ial and economic organization where the economy and politics of the feudal states were autonomous and the power of the feudal lords were derived from close relations with the aristocrats (Morrison 13). This period provides a fixed structure in the society where laborers will eternally serve the feudal lord in exchange for a piece of land. The people belonging to the working class do not have much opportunity to prosper or to get out of the social ladder to which they belong. The lifetime rule of the lord over his workers will not let the masses free from poverty and slavery.By the time feudalism was destroyed, urban societies started to develop. The need for individual independence gave birth to the rise of the cities where everyone can work, can gain education, and can have political and social participation within an equal status in the society (Cipolla and Woodall 121). It is in this light that the Industrial Revolution was born. The construction of factories and the start of imp lementing division of labor made the mark for efficient and mass production of goods and services. The system of factories became the instigator in developing more machines to maximize production and profit.The production in the Industrial revolution shifted from manual labor to the usage of machines and from human and animal power to steam power (BarronÃ¢â¬â¢s Passware 382). Contrary to the constricting and limited context of feudalism, the growing economic activities within the Industrial Revolution provided more freedom to the masses to earn their own profit by mean of the entering in the growing demands of factory labor. To earn independently entails opportunity to save salary to be able to own properties and to educated themselves, having a chance to climb up the social ladder.The job specialization that the division of labor implemented on factories paved the way for training more people in those fields providing the workers a chance for promotion. Education thrived in sync with the needs of the Industrial Revolution focusing more on scientific education to expand the knowledge in machine cultivation (Mokyr 10). Subsequently, as more rural places in Europe became urbanized due to this revolution, the standard living of the people improved and gradually shied away from poverty.Aside from the drastic changes that the Industrial Revolution inflicted to labor and the economy, the continuous progress in the development of machine and technology produced convenient means of transportation and communication which made transactions in the government, education, and businesses much easier and quicker. The innovation of machines became one of the main results of Industrial Revolution where the demands of making things faster and more efficient became the consistent objectives.The cities became the center of political and economic activities during this time and as the Industrial Revolution flourished, banks became active in giving out loans to people who wanted to venture on small-scale businesses. Seeing the economic growth that the revolution caused, people from the labor sector took risks in building up their own business made possible by these bank loans (Hudson 26). The Industrial Revolution was not pure success. It was an era where most Ã¢â¬â if not all- of the technological innovations have been made formulated and made.As European societies enter a new social context, its adjustment to current condition of the revolution became a rigorous trial and error process. This can be considered as the transitional and at the same time, an experimental period for most of the European societies where most of its processes were tested and perfected before it has been spread to the world. Most of the positive effects that have been brought by the revolution are manifested for the following decades Ã¢â¬â a progress where its effects were long-term and provide stability to its people.Comparing the conditions between Feudalism to the Industr ial Revolution, the birth of the latter became a path for the European citizens to individually gain autonomy in terms of social participation in the economy. It can be said that the living conditions of the people drastically improved compared to the limited rural lifestyle that the masses had under serfdom. The slaves were able to see an opportunity to get out of that status and improved their conditions. There maybe hazards weighing more than the advantages but the fact that the Industrial Revolution was a world phenomenon which brought the kind of progress that we have now.Based from the arguments discussed on this essay, this implies that the Industrial Revolution changed the world for the good. The aspects of equality that was provided for people to participate in labor can serve as a mark for the pursuance of equality in terms of justice, freedom, and individual rights. It opened up new roads for human liberation where each individual are not just free to participate for econ omic progress but to live a good life enjoying the rights that a citizen should receive.
Monday, July 29, 2019
HMV music retailer - Essay Example The retailer must have had several issues that were affecting its performance in the market, which led to the distraught performance. First, there is a need to analyse the politics that govern the retailer (Boddy, 2008:21). The politics of the administration affected the running of the retailer in a number of ways. For example, after entering into administration, there was change in the way the business was being conducted. Since new administration comes in with different performance strategies, these strategies failed. Similarly, the political environment of the new administration was not conducive for business. It brought loss of interests as most of the workers and employees were not contented, which brought dire consequences to the retailer.The retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s economic position was adversely affected with introduction of administration. In such an instance, the retailer had to incur other costs that are used in running the businesses of the retailer. In this instance, the retai lerÃ¢â¬â¢s income was stagnant while the expenses of administration increased. Therefore, the budgets of the retailer were skewed as they had to get more resources to run the business (Boddy, 2008:14). This was a disadvantage to the business. The third aspect that affected the performance of the retailer was the social environment. Previously, the retailer had concrete business bonds with the market. This strengthened its businesses across the competitive market (Johnson and schools, 2008:18). This ultimately led to dismal performance by the retailer.... With introduction of new and sophisticated technology, the retailer is well prepared to make better and improved products. Similarly, the retailer is able to serve a large number of customers in minimal time (Mennen, 2011:11). However, with the introduction of the administration, there was minimal investment directed toward technological improvement. This ultimately led to dismal performance by the retailer. SWOT Analysis HMV as a retailer was well prepared to tackle the market in making substantial accruals in terms of profits and returns. The most prudent decision the retailer should have taken is relying on the strengths and utilising the opportunities it had (Boddy, 2008:23). Similarly, the retailer should have generated strategies to reduce the effects of its weaknesses and reduce the threats that would drive the retailer out of business. In the first place, the retailer had a strong point in that it was well-established in the market. The retailer had opened numerous branches i n many countries across the globe. Similarly, it was a strong retailer in that the demand for its products was escalating. However, the retailer had an internal weakness with the inception of administration. The administration was not apt in executing its tasks. Similarly, the retailer was not keen on extending its market share. This led to murky performance after the threats surpassed its strengths. The retailer had an opportunity in investing in technology and making superb approach to the market. Since it is a music retailer, it had an opportunity to invest in current and sophisticated technology (Pearce, 2009:14). A perfect example is AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iTunes. AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s iTunes are appreciating a greater market share due to their compatibility with the new technology. Apple
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Micro-Teaching - Assignment Example (Gardner, 2000, 45) I got hold of some school text books as well as college books on mathematics and statistics. I studied these in depth. I made sure that I understood every word in the explanations. I did quite a few numbers in the exercises to practice. It was not possible to try every sum because they were in large numbers. I referred some experienced teachers on the subject. I also went online and studied pie charts in bona fide websites. In addition to this process, I tried many times to make the presentation more understandable to the level of age that the class I am to teach is under. This would help them realize the subject more practically. (Erickson, 2006, 76) I discussed pie charts and how they are to be taught to university students. I discussed this with one senior and experienced teacher of statistics in the university. I discussed the basic features of pie charts and their use. I also talked to a few students to get an idea of what they expected from teachers. I also learnt when pie charts are best used. These conversations allowed me to see through the process of learning that would most likely work on the students I am particularly dedicating the presentation to. (Gardner, 2001, 54) Through the advice and the perceptions of the people I talked to, I realized when is it best to utilize pie charts and rather give them a more practical sense of function in the class during certain conventional discussions may it be about math or other subjects. How did you select materials I talked to students in the second and third years of their college. I got wind of the text books that contain explanations and problems in pie charts. The teacher I spoke to in this regard also helped me. I also had an idea about the school text books that contained explanations of pie charts. I also went online and used key words to select website that had explanations on pie charts. Through these implicative understanding garnered through research, I made it a point that what I would be presenting to the class would not simply be a functional piece of aide for teaching, but it would also be something that would make learning an easier task for all the students in class regardless of whatever age or whatever level of learning they might be able to grasp.(Tyler, 2001, 54) This made my presentation more applicable to all ages and all learners both in secondary school and university school classes. What alternative approaches did you consider I did think about using audio visuals. Proper use of audio visuals impact students' minds rapidly and clearly. It also becomes easy to explain pie charts use thoroughly with the help of audio visuals. Audio visuals come in many forms. I prefer using my laptop for the purpose. I will have to prepare the notes and charts. I knew that this
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Creating Your Own Start-up Business Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Creating Your Own Start-up Business - Assignment Example In the very beginning the business would be limited to importing homemade ups namely bed covers, curtains, pillow covers, quilts, towels and the like. The market for such goods in the United States is not only large but rather diverse because consumers from all buying strata are present in the market. Moreover the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s large size means that imported textile products have a low chance of getting stuck up in warehouses because there are not enough right kinds of buyers (Arthur and Sheffrin). Another advantage in starting such a business could be local contacts in the South East Asian region who could supervise the manufacturing and supply efforts. 2. Business Structure Preferably the business would have a centralized buying office in the United States close to a major port which would help in dealing with incoming supplies and custom clearance for imported goods. Moreover the business would possess overseas buying offices in the South East Asian region typically located in I ndia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Pakistan (Haider). Given the restriction of funds initially the business would have only one overseas office in India to supervise the manufacturing and supply efforts. Within the United States the business would have a CEO supervising local distribution along with a small staffing. The overseas offices would have no more than two employees to oversee the entire manufacturing to ensure quality and to report delays in a timely fashion. 3. Relevance of Skill Set and Background Being a business major background would help me to focus on business areas that matter most for example I would prefer to spend money initially on surveys and questionnaires to determine market demand rather than importing blindly. Also my credentials with finance would allow me to keep a close watch over the budget to see if the business might overrun its estimated targets. Such an effort is all the more critical initially because squandering money in the beginning would be easy and would leave the business high and dry. Similarly my background in business studies would allow me to market my products more effectively as I would try to hit target market segments only instead of trying to subdue the entire market. Another major advantage that would allow me to develop this business more effectively is a contact in India who is already involved in shipping textile goods to the United States. My contact in India would be able to help me with his expertise in supervising manufacturing one on one and would also be able to ensure quality at the very first step in the supply chain. 4. Offered Services As mentioned before the business would initially offer homemade up textiles only but later as the business expands it will include garments and apparel as well. For the initial homemade ups market the business would provide a large variety of designs and styles that have been manufactured and packaged outside the United States. When the goods have been imported to the United States they will be distributed throughout the nation by the business using a complete supply chain mechanism that ensures adequate stock levels at all times. Overall the business would be offering a comprehensive supply chain mechanism for textile goods (Joshi). 5. Target Markets In order to start the business the market segments that would be most desirable to deal with are the lower and middle spending tier segments. Though there is rampant competition in either market segment but the
Friday, July 26, 2019
IRAC Brief - Essay Example As the employer of the victims, was Mariano Prime LLC dba MD Wholesale cognizant of the harassment that took place and was it required to put an end to this type of behavior? Rule: Harassment can include undesirable sexual advances, solicitation for sexual favors as well as verbal or physical harassment that are sexually attuned. A client, employee or a customer of either male or female gender can experience sexual harassment. Analysis: The EEOC, upon conducting its investigation, filed a lawsuit with the U.S. District Court for Guam District in September 2011 (EEOC v. Mariano Prime LLC dba MD Wholesale, Case No. 11-00029). This came after futile attempt to settle the case through conciliation process. During the EEOCÃ¢â¬â¢s investigation, it established reasonable evidence suggesting that MD Wholesale facility breached Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Marianas Variety",Ã 2013). The case has also made apparent that there was no training whatsoever on sexual harassment, sexual assault, or reporting procedures. We can further assume that from management throughout subordinate levels, were totally oblivious of the consequences due to violations of a persons civil rights. Conclusion: MD Wholesale made a settlement with EEOC in the amount of $77,500 for the victims and accepted to change its policy and procedures for dealing with grievance on workplace sexual harassment. In addition, MD Wholesale is also required to retain an EEOC as a way of ensuring that their staffs are educated about their rights in light of workplace discrimination, harassment as well as retribution. Further, the company is expected to implement training program for its management to ensure compliance with future complaints. MD Wholesale agreed to offer extra training for its management and human resources personnel in order to ensure that they are capable of dealing effectively with future EEO grievances. Apart from monetary compensation to
Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis - Assignment Example A good investment strategy is one that earns the investor an expected return that is at least equal to or higher than what comparable investments would earn (Sharpe, 1991). The goal of any investment strategy is to maximize the value of the investment by getting the highest possible expected return for a given level of risk. Every investment involves risk, which is the possibility of losing money if the investment decision turns out to be a wrong one. According to normal human behavior, the higher the risk, the higher should be the expected return. Different investments have different levels of risk. For the UK charity, the safest investment, which also gives the lowest return, is to buy UK government bonds because the government always pays its debt obligations. Other investments, such as metals, a start-up business, or equities have higher levels of risk, and according to studies such as one by Barclays (2007), equities have consistently given higher returns compared to bonds or metals. Thus, investing in equities is a good first step in theÃ Ã Ã The risk level of investments in equities is measured by beta (Black, 1993), which shows how the val ue of the investment moves compared to the FTSE All Share Index, a composite number that represents the investment return of the UK equities market. The Index measures the daily values of all shares traded in the London Stock Exchange. If this index went up from 6,131.50 to 6,554.90 in the last 52 weeks, then the return on an investment, also called the market return, in all the shares included in the index would be 6.91% and a 10,000 investment 52 weeks ago would now be worth 10,691 excluding fees and commissions (Economist, 2007). A beta of 1.03 means that the value of the investment portfolio moves very close to the market but is slightly riskier than the market and therefore gives a slightly higher return compared to the market. Thus, if the market returned 6.91% in the last 52 weeks, the portfolio returned 1.3 x 6.91% = 7.12%. A 10,000 investment would be 10,712 or better than the market. However, higher risk also means a higher loss than the market if the Index dropped. The correlation coefficient measures how the prices of the stocks in the portfolio move against each other. The figure is always between +1 (perfect correlation) and -1 (negative correlation) or zero (independent correlation). Perfect correlation means all stocks go up or down together; negative correlation means that some stocks go down when others go down, and zero or independent correlation means that the stock prices move independently of each other. Ã
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Production Of A Klashnikov - Coursework Example The stock of the rifle in it is production is simply made out of wood, which is a non-strategic material, over time, AK-47, have been simplified through the use of spot welding, reducing the number of machined parts 2. One production method I would use to produce the riffle is Izhmash production method which produces around 95 units per hour which is an equal amount of over 1 million units per year. The process is rather cheap and cost effective both in the short run and long run. 3. The manufacturing methods used in mass production in comparison to those used in less developed regions is way very different, in mass production, the methods used are very advanced and fast to produce, new design are being tried and tested so as to improve the future designs while at the same time improve its accuracy and reliability. In less developed region, the manufacturing methods lack the new technology hand in it and thus are faced with the challenge of producing as many numbers as possible. For instance, in Russia the Izhevsk production method is the chief mass manufacture of the riffle, producing in mass numbers and has equally sold over 50 million units since its inception. Fackler M, L., Malinowski ,JA., Hoxie S,W., Jason, A. "Wounding Effects of the AK-47 Rifle Used by Patrick Purdy in the Stockton, California, Schoolyard Shooting of 17 January 1989". American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 11 (3): 185Ã¢â¬â9. (1990).
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Personal and Profesional Development - Essay Example Research has always been key in my learning journey. I use all means at my disposal to research about any subject of concern that might impact on my career. The internet has always been invaluable. I gather all necessary information about almost any learning need I intend to meet. My selling skills techniques were bolstered by thorough research on the relevant issue. Various renowned newspapers are online thus I get to acquaint myself with information that will give me valuable knowledge in my field of career. Also, I read good books. Most of them contain information relevant to my career and wholeness of life in general. People are great source of information. I listen to people and their grievances or happiness with a particular product or service. This gives me insight on the consumer behavior and how they can be well addressed and over time I get to know the general trend with time. I have found this useful since many changes occur within a span of few years and old techniques ce ase to apply. Technology is always evolving at a surprising speed. Since the advent of Twitter and Facebook among other social websites, learning has been made simpler. I always ensure I follow or like all relevant companies, individuals and any useful party. This way I am able to keep up to date with advancements, the conditions of the global and local market and most importantly learn from industry giants and individuals who are specialists and experts in the field. It takes discipline to conform to only useful information and communication in the entertainment laden segment of the internet catering to social media. Reading technology related information magazines and newspapers helps in coping up with technology based acumen. Another useful self-learning technique that has proved indispensable is the power of networking. It dawned to me from an early time that building networks and using any chance to talk and share ideas with
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Mystery Shopping research for starbucks, costa coffee and cafe nero - Essay Example The purpose of the primary observation in the mystery shopping is to do a random surprise check on the three companies in order to collect data without manipulating the findings. The information is to provide room for comparison of the performance of the three companies by addressing the achievements and failures. The findings here expose the areas that require improvement to promote the satisfaction among customers. Mystery shopping provides data whose measurements are in percentage form. The validity of data is measured by percentages. For data to be considered as valid, it has to range between 0 and 100 %. The second aspect of validity is the measures of extreme information. For example, it may be invalid to obtain 100 percent score for all the variables or 0 percent for all. Similarly, it may not be valid to obtain a similar measure for all the three companies, say 77% for all the data being measures. The research technique used in this exercise is quantitative, descriptive and systematic. First, it is quantitative since it uses measurable data to do the analysis. Secondly, it is descriptive since it uses the results of the analysis to provide the descriptive statistics and their relevance to analyzing the three companies. Thirdly, it is a systematic method since it involves the use of specific and well-organized set of information for the three
Monday, July 22, 2019
Recruitment and Selection Strategies Recommendation Essay It is the responsibility of the HR department of Landslide Limousine services to provide data for the job competency and an analyses and minimum qualifications to staff the company. The HR department is responsible for interviewing candidates, integrating information collected by the rest of the department to determine financial and salary recommendations and make final decisions on entry-level hires and promotions (Cascio, 2013). Diversity in the workplace can compose a range of different elements. The differences in national origin, primary language, social status, religion and age can benefit or harm the business. Managing diversity within Landslide Limousine services will effectively be the key to leveraging the advantages and minimizing the disadvantages of diversity in the workplace. Workplace diversity objectives: A workplace that values are integrated into a board range of organizational values. The Landslide Limousine will support all staff members, families, career and cultural responsibilities. The Landslide is a business that is free from discrimination and harassment. Methods for screening candidates can be an overwhelming experience for the interviewer and interviewee. As the interviewer for the company, you probably have seen a lot of applications and resumes with a variety of education and experience. Each candidate interview might seem like a good candidate, with perfect grades and resumes that are very impressive. It is impossible to know rather the person will be a good fit for your company until an actual interview is conducted. Choosing the wrong person could be costly to the company and a waste of time for both the company and the employee. The best way to conduct interviews is to: Screen first by phone Then conduct an in person interview with a set of behavioral questions. ThisÃ allows interviewer to discover if the candidate is motivated, a team player and their desire to learn new things. Laws to consider in Austin Texas for the recruitment and selection process: Affirmative Action- Law set to enforce by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs to band discrimination in the workplace. Child Labor- This law was set in place and enforce by the Wage and Hour Division of the United State Department of Labor. Foreign Labor- This law is set in place when a business wishes to hire a foreign national. After the recruitment and selection process and a candidate is chosen. It is then the responsibility of the supervisor to make sure the employee is aware of their job responsibilities and set goals to achieve during the year to be more of an effective employee to make the company more successful. The performance management and plan discussed below and in plan past recommendations is used during this time. Performance Management Plan A performance management is used as a tool to indicate the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s direction and desired direction within the company. This is not the same as a performance appraisal that identifies and discusses job-relevance and performance, strengths and weaknesses. A poll was done to show that 58% of HR executives rated their performance management systems at a C or below average (Cascio, 2013). The one solid payoff for a strong performance management plan is that studies show 51% are more likely to outperform their competitors on a financial standpoint (Cascio, 2013). This tool will be explained and given as a recommendation to Mr. Bradley Stonefield for his Limousine service. Feedback from the employee will be important to Landslide Limousine Service and the employees no matter if the feedback is positive or negative. Employees will have to learn to accept constructive criticism and for Landslide to know how to work with the department and each employee to improve production. A rubric for appraisal will be held by the management team it will require each employee to meet a significant and or attainable requirement. It will be important as a company to demonstrate the standards related to each individual performance. This helps employees to identify what is a failure and what is a success (Cascio, 2013). Management should also be able to give employees a time-frame in order for them to fix the negative parts of their appraisal. TraciÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation would be forÃ receiving too many negative feedbacks would be to put the employee on probation for 60 days to fix the problem which they received on their appraisal. The employee will have the opportunity to clean up their act to keep their position. This will show the employees are capable of fulfilling the terms and conditions of their terms under the position in which they have been working. Landslide Limousine will offer opportunities for promotions that offer lateral and advancement within the company. Growth with in Landslide will help develop more opportunities to stimulate knowledge and skills in the business. One service that in the future Landslide would like to provide is to offer educational advancement classes that will be available online. In order to take part in these services the employee will have to wait until after their first year and having a good appraisal and not being placed on probation for any reason in order to be considered for a promotion (Cascio, 2013). Employees who are not micromanaged will work better and offer a more flexible schedule for the limousine service. With selecting a schedule; the employee will keep the same schedule for a year. Offering the employees a flexible schedule will also allow more family time for employees. Landslide is big on family and feels that family is very important so employees should not have to miss out on family functions and appointments (Cascio, 2013). Diversity within a company is important. The drivers and administrative staff of Landslide Limousine Services will be diverse, with a diverse group of different ages and race. The appraisal system will also be a diverse group of individuals. The appraisal teamÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to help motivate the team of employees to be more valuable to the company. Using the company mission statement and vision will help motivate the team to be successful. Having a diverse group gives the company different experiences from different people and helps provide the drivers with different ideas and each driver can express their experiences and ways of learning in order to improve the team. The more determined the team the better the experiences for our customers and helps the possible longevity of the company. All drivers and staff will be treated as an equal and no one will be heard over someone else. Each driver will be given a job description and with his or hers roles. Each driver will have a background check conducted and diverÃ¢â¬â¢s record check by Texas DMV. Ensuring a clear background and driving record will ensure our customers that we areÃ providing them the best service. A check will be conducted every year to hold the drivers accountable and to ensure our or customers safety at all times. All tickets, accidents, arrest will have to be reported to the administrative office within 5 days of the incident. All arrest for DUIs will call for an automatic termination from the company. All drivers will be put through an intensive training. This training will insure the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities and the driving skills are up to the standards of Landslide Limousines services. The training will help develop stronger individuals and to help them reach their goals and make Landslide Limousine a successful company serving all types of people in the city of Austin, Texas. The organizational performance philosophy is great to have when starting a business. It is important to set the standards for the employees in the beginning. Employees work well when they have a clear understanding of their expectations. The performance management plan gives that clear understanding. Criteria Training evaluation strategies are an important aspect of any company. Ã¢â¬Å"To make an intelligent decision within the HR department and the best way to deploy and manage people, there are two ways that are most essential (1) a description of the strategies that the company would like to use to compete in the marketplace. (2) The design of the job, that includes a description of the work that needs to be done and the skills needed to perform the job and the training and experience requirements required for the number of jobsÃ¢â¬ (Cascio, 2013, pg. 182). Training should include methods to evaluate: Employee reaction to the training Knowledge and skills gained during the training Application of the knowledge and skills in the workplace The impact of training on the organization. Pretests It is important that Landslide Limousine Company have a written plan for evaluating and training its employees. When there is a clear course objective and content developed, it should not delay until after the training gets completed. Ã¢â¬Å"An evaluation determines the amount of learning achieved by trainingÃ¢â¬ (Kirkpatricks Four-Level Training Evaluation Model, 2014). An employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance will improve on the job as a result of training, and the methods of evaluating training are: 1. GainingÃ employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions, questionnaires or informal discussions with employees can help employers determine the importance and suitability of the training program for the employee. 2. SupervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s observations allow supervisors to remain in a good position to observe the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance before and after the training to note the improvements or changes. 3. Improvement in the workplace the ultimate goal in the workplace regards getting constant improvement in the workplace. The training programs helps to make changes throughout the workplace, and it may reduce injury and accident rates. Monitoring and observing training The strategy is very important. It provides the big picture of how you the company intends to evaluate the training across the business. Ã¢â¬Å"The training evaluation strategies help generate coherence to your activities forcing the company to write down and approach the evaluation of the training that helps ensure that the employee and employers have a logical and efficient plan in placeÃ¢â¬ (Kirkpatricks Four-Level Training Evaluation Model, 2014). Collecting feedback An important way for the Landslide Limousine as an employer to determine what the employees has learned during the training events remains during the training, and the training instructor should have specific learning objectives. Evaluations done on the training should get done immediately after the training event to determine if the employee has gained the knowledge, skill, or attitude toward the training. Implementing feedback The behavior of the employee determines if the training changed his or her on-the-job behavior as a result of the training program. If the behavior on the job did not change, it is the responsibility of the supervisors of Landslide Limousine to find out why a change has not occurred from the feedback received. Ã¢â¬Å"The supervisors and training instructor should determine if the training had a positive effect on the job performanceÃ¢â¬ (Kirkpatricks Four-Level Training Evaluation Model, 2014). Landslide LimousineÃ¢â¬â¢s management should explain to the employees the importance and applicability of on-the-job training, actual experiences, real world examples, and practicing behaviors to explain the importance to the employees. The final results are determined by the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ operations, and the results contribute to how good the business functions. How well the training gets done and observed get based off of several things: Improved quality of work Higher productivity Reduction in turnover Fewer grievances Lower absenteeism Fewer accidents Greater job satisfaction Increased profits. In Landslide Limousine the HR department is going to become very important when it comes to recruitment and selection process. It is important to use the tools and information given in the last 6 weeks recommendations for your business to be successful. References Cascio, W. F. (2013). Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Henderson, K. (2014). Acts or Laws Behind Recruitment Selection. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/acts-laws-behind-recruitment-selection-2536.html Hogan, M. (2014). Interview Screening Techniques. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/interview-screening-techniques-1233.html
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Maggi Brand Extension And Repositioning This research paper deals with the study of Maggi brand which made its footprint in India in the year 1983. Maggi is a brand originated in India by Nestle India Limited. It has over the years become synonymous with noodles. This research paper tries to find out the new areas and the market where Maggi can enter. Also, Maggi has always tried to play on the platform of a Healthy Product. This paper analyses its success and the gives a picture of Maggi as in the eyes of the consumer. The introduction provides the company background, operational other important information provided by the company which would assist in taking the decision for the right brand extension strategy for Maggi. The industrial revolution in Switzerland in the late 1800s created factory jobs for women, who were therefore left with very little time to prepare meals. This wide spread problem grew to be an object of intense study by the Swiss Public Welfare Society. As a part of its activities, the Society asked Julius Maggi miller to create a vegetable food product that would be quick to prepare and easy to digest. Born on October 9, 1846 in Frauenfeld, Switzerland, Julius Michael Johannes Maggi was the oldest son of an immigrant from Italy who took Swiss citizenship. Julius Maggi became a miller and took on the reputation as an inventive and capable businessman. In 1863, Julius Maggi came up with a formula to bring added taste to meals. Soon after he was commissioned by the Swiss Public Welfare Society, he came up with two instant pea soups and a bean soup the first launch of the Maggi brand of instant foods in 1882 83. Towards the end of the century, Maggi Company was producing not just po wdered soups, but bouillon cubes, sauces and other flavorings. The Maggi Company merged with NestlÃ © in 1947. Today, Maggi is a leading culinary brand and part of the NESTLÃâ° family of fine foods and beverages. Under the Maggi brand, which is today known worldwide for quality and innovation, Nestle offers a whole range of products, such as packaged soups, frozen meals, prepared sauces and flavorings. MAGGI BRAND IN INDIA Maggi Comes to India teething troubles Maggi noodles was launched in India in the early1980s. Carlo M. Donati, the present Chairman and Managing Director of Nestle India Ltd, brought the instant noodle brand to India during his short stint here in the early eighties. At that time, there was no direct competition. The first competition came from the ready-to-eat snack segment which included snacks like samosas, biscuits or maybe peanuts, that were usually the bought out type. The second competition came from the homemade snacks like pakoras or sandwiches. So there were no specific buy and make snack! Moreover both competitors had certain drawbacks in comparison. Snacks like samosas are usually bought out, and outside food is generally considered unhygienic and unhealthy. The other competitor, homemade snacks overcame both these problems but had the disadvantage of extended preparation time at home. Maggi was positioned as the only hygienic homemade snack! Despite this, NestlÃ © face d difficulties with their sales after the initial phase. The reason being, the positioning of the product with the wrong target group. Nestle had positioned Maggi as a convenience food product aimed at the target group of working women who hardly found any time for cooking. Unfortunately this could not hold the product for very long. In the course of many market researches and surveys, the firm found that children were the biggest consumers of Maggi noodles. Quickly they repositioned it towards the kids segment with various tools of sales promotion like color pencils, sketch pens, fun books, Maggi clubs which worked wonders for the brand. Why the specific Brand positioning? Maggi was positioned as 2-minute noodles with a punch line that said Fast to cook! Good to eat! And this gave the implied understanding to the consumer that it was a between meals snack. The company could have easily positioned the product as a meal, either lunch or dinner. But, it chose not to do so, because the Indian consumer mindset did not accept anything other than rice or roti as a meal. Hence trying to substitute it with noodles would have been futile. The firm did not position it as a ready-to-eat meal either, as the housewife prefers to make a meal for her kids rather than buy it for them. And if she can make it in two minutes with very little effort, then obviously its a hit with her! Whats more, if kids also love the taste, the product is as good as sold! So the 2-minute funda coupled with the yummy taste worked! BRAND STORY Launched in 5 flavors initially Masala, chicken, Capsicum, sweet sour, and Lasagna Maggi had to fight hard to be accepted by Indian consumers with their hard-to-change eating habits. The packaged food market was very small at this time, Nestle had to promote noodles as a concept, before it could promote Maggi as a brand. It therefore devised a two-pronged strategy to attract mothers on the convenience plank and lure kids on the fun plank. Gradually, the market for instant noodles began to grow. The company also decided to focus on promotions to increase the brand awareness. In the initial years, Nestle promotional activities for Maggi included schemes offering gifts (such as toys and utensils) in return for empty noodles pack. According to analysts, the focus on promotion turned out to be the single largest factor responsible for Maggis rapid acceptance. NestlÃ ©s managers utilized promotions as measured to meet their sales target. Gradually, sales promotion became a crutch for Maggi noodles sales. Later many of the Maggis extensions also made considerable use of promotional schemes. The focus of all Maggis extensions was more on below the line activities rather than direct communication. In addition to promotional activities, Maggi associated itself with main stream television programs and advertised heavily on kids program and channels. After its advertisements with taglines like mummi bhookh lagi hai, bas do minute and fast to cook good to eat Maggis popularity became highly attributed to its extremely high appeal to children. As a result, Maggis annual growth reportedly touched 15% during its initial years. Maggis Brand Extension In 1998, Nestle launched Maggis first brand extension, Maggi soup. At this stage, there was no organized packaged soup market in India. Nestle planned to create a market for packaged soup as it felt the category had a lot of potential. However, according to analyst, the company had introduced soups only to cash in on the Maggis brand name, and was never very serious about the segment. In 1993, Sweet Maggi, the first variant of Maggi noodles was launched. The company supported the launch with a huge advertisement outlay that amounted to 75% of the total yearly expenditure on the Maggi brand. However, the product failed to generate the desired sales volume and Nestle was forced to withdraw it. At the end of the year, Maggi noodles was generating sales volume of around 5000 tons and remained a loss making proposition for Nestle. To boost sales, Nestle decided to reduce the price of Maggi noodles. This was made possible by using thinner and cheaper packaging material, the company also introduced money saver multi packs in the form of 2-in-1 pack and 4-in-1 packs. As a result volume increases phenomenally to 9700 tonnes in 1994 and further to 13000 tonnes in 1995. Maggis euphoria was, however, short lived, as sales stagnated in 1995 at the previous years level. With soup business being threatened by a new entrant Knorr soups launched in 1995, offering 10 flavors against Maggis 4 the company started rethinking its strategies towards the soup market. In order to stretch Maggis brand to include Indian ethenic foods the company tied up with a Pune based Chordia foods to launch pickles under the year 1995. The company also tied up with Indian foods fermentation (IFF), a Chennai based Food Company to market popular south Indian food preparation such as sambher, dosa, vada and spices in consumer packs in Dec 1995. The company reportedly saw a lot of untapped potential in the market for ready to use south Indian market. In 1996, products from these two ventures received lukewarm response from the market; sales were rather poor in the regions in which they were launched. Analysts attributed the failure of these Maggi extensions to the fact that NestlÃ © seemed to be particularly bad at dealing with traditional Indian product categories. Maggi noodles performed badly in 1996. Despite slow sales in the previous two years, NestlÃ © had set a sales target of 25,000 tonnes for the year. However, Maggi couldnt cross even 14,000 tonnes. Adding to the company woes was the failure of Maggi Tonites Special, a range of cooking sauces aimed at providing restaurant-like-taste to food cooked at home. The range included offerings such as Butter Chicken gravy and tomato sauce for pizzas. Understanding these failures, and buoyed by the fact that the Maggi brand finally broke even in 1997, NestlÃ © continued to explore new options for leveraging on the brand equity of Maggi noodles. The company realized that the kids who had grown up on Maggi noodles had become teenagers by the late 1990s. As they associated the product with their childhood, they seemed to be moving away from it. To lure back these customers and to explore new product avenues, NestlÃ © launched Maggi Macaroni in July 1997. According to analysts, Maggi Macaroni was launched partly to deal with the growing popularity of competing noodles brand Top Ramen. Maggi Macaroni was made available in three flavors, Tomato, Chicken, and Masala. The company expected to repeat the success of Maggi noodles with Maggi Macaroni. As with most of its product launches, Maggi Macaronis launch was backed by a multi-media advertisement campaign including radio, television, outdoors and print media. The products pricing, however, proved to be a major hurdle. A 75-gm Maggi Macaroni pack was priced at Rs 11, while a 100-gm noodles pack was available at Rs 9. According to analysts, NestlÃ © failed to justify this price-value anomaly to customers, who failed to see any noted value addition in Maggi Macaroni (packaging and flavor variants were similar to those of Maggi noodles). In addition, customers failed to see any significant difference between Maggi Macaroni and the much cheaper macaroni that was sold by the unorganized sector players. The biggest problem however was the taste of the new product. Since macaroni is thicker than noodles, Maggi Macaroni did not absorb the tastemaker well and consequently did not taste very good. The interest generated by the novelty of the product soon died out and sales began tapering off. Eventually, NestlÃ © had to withdraw Maggi Macaroni completely from the market. NestlÃ © had not even recovered from Macaronis dismal performance, when it learnt to its horror that Knorr had dethroned Maggi as the leader in the soup segment (end of 1997). The only saving grace for Maggi seemed to its ketchups and sauces, which were turning out to the rare successful extensions of Maggi. These products were supported by a popular advertisement campaign for the Maggi Hot Sweet sauce brand. These humorous advertisements, featuring actors Pankaj Kapoor and Javed Jafri, used the tagline, Its different. However, during mid-1997, HUL began promoting its Kissan range of sauces aggressively and launched various innovative variants in the category. NestlÃ © responded with a higher thrust on advertising and different size packs at different price points. Though Kissan gained market share over the next few years, Maggi was able to hold on to its own market share. Meanwhile the operational costs of Maggi noodles had increased considerably, forcing the company to increase the retail price. By early 1997, the price of a single pack had reached Rs 10. Volumes were still languishing between 13,000-14,000 tonnes. Pricing and Product Development It was at this point in time that NestlÃ © decided to change the formulation of Maggi noodles. The purpose was not only to infuse fresh life into the brand, but also to save money through this new formulation. The company used new noodle-processing technology, so that it could air-dry instead of oil-fry the noodles. The tastemakers manufacturing process was also altered. As a result of the above initiatives, costs reportedly came down by 12-14%. To cook the new product, consumers had to add two cups of water instead of one-and-a-half cups. The taste of the noodles was significantly different from what it used to be. The customer backlash that followed the launch of the new noodles took NestlÃ © by surprise. With volumes declining and customer complaints increasing, the company began to work on plans to relaunch old Maggi to win back customers. In addition, in 1998, NestlÃ © began working out a strategy to regain Maggis position in the soup segment. To counter the Knorr threat, the company relaunched Maggi soups under the Maggi Rich brand in May 1998. The soups were not only thicker in consistency than those produced earlier, the pricing was also kept competitive and the packaging was made much more attractive. However, Knorr took NestlÃ © by surprise by launching one-serving soup sachets priced as low as Rs 4. HLL too launched two-serving sachets of Kissan soup priced at Rs 7. As Maggi did not have any offerings in this price-range, it lost a huge portion of its market share to Knorr. The relaunch prompted market observers to compare NestlÃ ©s move with US soft drinks major Coca-Colas New Coke fiasco. However, the company disagreed, Its a hard-5 nosed strategy, that mixes nostalgia with the consumers voiced preference for the product it has been bred and rought up on. The reintroduction is NestlÃ ©s acknowledgement of the loyalty of the Indian mother and the child to the original product. By May 1999, NestlÃ ©s decision to bring back the old Maggi seemed to have paid off. Two months after the relaunch, the monthly average sales of Maggi noodles n the northern region rose 50% in comparison to the previous year. In July 1999, Maggi the brand, was promoted as the biggest brand in NestlÃ ©s portfolio of brands in India, overtaking brands such as Nestum and Cerelac. NestlÃ © believed that Maggi had immense potential as it was a very flexible brand under which regional variants could be introduced to meet various market needs. Company sources claimed that with reas onable price points and innovative products, Maggi could emerge as a top brand and a major growth driver for the company. To further support the brand, NestlÃ © carried out various promotional activities as well. These included the August 1999 Fun-Dooz campaign and Jungle Jackpot campaigns. 6 As a result of the above initiatives, NestlÃ © claimed to have cornered an 81% market share of the 20,000 tonnes noodles market by the end of 1999. NestlÃ © sources claimed that Maggi noodles outsold the competition four times over and that more than four Maggi noodle cakes were consumed every second in the country. PRODUCT VARIENTS The product mix of Maggi is divided into various categories defined below. The company has launched various products under each category as mentioned below. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVES Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ To understand the influence of Maggi as a brand on consumers mind set. Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ Sources of Brand equity of Maggi like Brand awareness, Brand image, Brand association, Brand recall Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ To understand the Brand performance of Maggi products. Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ To understand Brand Imagery, Brand Quality perceived by customers, Brand credibility, consideration, superiority and feelings. Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ Brand Extension of Maggi in terms of product diversity. Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ Analyse the repositioning of Maggi brand as a Healthy product and the consumers perseverance towards the same. RESEARCH PLAN Research Design: The research will be carried out in the form of a survey which will be done in areas near to Delhi (NCR region). The population has been segmented on the basis of salary Group and Age Group. Sample Design: The target population for our study is households. The sample will be selected by a simple random sampling method . Sample Size: The sampling unit is 150 which are divided as follows: |Number of respondents |150 | |Age-group |10 45 | |Monthly Household Income |25000 75000 INR | |Survey Locations |Delhi, Faridabad,Gurgoan,Noida,Greater Noida | |Salary Group |No income |25K 40K |40K 60K |60K 75K | |Number of Respondents |30 |50 |70 | |Age Group |10 25 |25 35 |35 45 | |Number of Respondents |50 |50 |50 | DATA COLLECTION PLAN Data Gathering: This study involves data collection (primary research) from different households in four different areas Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgoan, and Noida. Literature Review The research conducted as a part of our study would include Primary as well as Secondary research. Primary research would include a survey that would be conducted in selected localities of Delhi and nearby areas where the responses of consumers would be recorded through a designed questionair.Secondary research would include various aspects of Brand management through Internet , Journals, company reports , expert views etc. METHOLODOGY The research will be carried out in the form of a survey. This will include primary research in addition to secondary research as stated below. The survey research method will be descriptive research design. Each respondent will be interviewed through a Questionnaire. The sample will be selected by a simple random sampling method. The survey will address the following information area: Information Areas: The objective as spelt out can be elaborated into specific information areas to be studied. Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ How do customers perceive Maggi as a stable brand, their perception of noodles and how do they associate themselves with Maggi? Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ Are the consumers aware of Maggi Brand or they associate noodles with some other brand? Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ Do they consider noodle as a healthy product or they are aware of the companys strategy of repositioning it to a healthy product by the launch of some of the new products? Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ Which product from the entire basket of Maggi products do the consumers consider as the best selling product for Maggi and to which the consumers frequently buy? Ã ¢Ã ¾Ã ¢ Are the consumers willing to accept Maggi brand extensions to some other products like chocolate, juices, chips etc? SURVEY RESULTS: 1. Brand Associations: Sources of Brand equity like brand association of Maggi as a Brand was found highest with the age group of 10-25 and the product category associated with it was the noodles category ( see exhibit 1). Consumers in the age segment of 10-25 could easily relate Maggi to noodles. In the income wise category the brand association was highest with the income group of 25k-40k were more than 40 respondents associated Maggi with noodles ( see exhibit 2). The implications from the findings discussed above seem that Maggi has good brand association in terms of noodles. Consumers presume Maggi as Noodles and the companys philosophy of projecting the brand as noodles brand seem to be viable in this regard. 2. Brand Recall: From the Exhibit 3 4 given below it seems a clear trend that Maggi has a good brand recall as compared to its competitors like Top Ramen, Surya noodles etc. Consumers could easily associate Maggi with noodles. In the Age wise category, the respondents of the age group of 25-45 were highly cautious of Maggi brand and seemed to be consuming Maggi more as compared to other age segments. In the gender wise category the companys strategy of positioning of Maggi brand for working women seems to be adaptive and gaining shape as women respondents had a brand recall more than male. 3. Brand Awareness: From the responses of the respondents in the conducted survey it was evident than Maggis Brand awareness was very high in terms of noodles were around 65 %of the respondents associated maggi as noodles and only 20 % of the respondents knew ,Maggi as a Ketchup, 9% as soup etc. The trend indicated that Maggis brand extension strategy to increase its basket has not been quite successful in other food segments .This might be because of the larger share of market captured by the competitors hence Maggi has a high potential in markets like ketchup, soups etc. 4. Repositioning Maggi as a healthy product: The companys strategy to reposition Maggi as a Healthy product was not found conducive as per the survey results. The survey showed that consumers did not perceived Maggi as a healthy product with 53% of them consumed Maggis traditional products as compared to the rest who consumed other variants of Maggis brand that were positioned as Healthy products. From the pie chart given below it can be clearly seen that Maggi is still perceived as a non healthy products by the consumers and in spite of the efforts to position Maggi as a healthy product by the company the brand is still perceived as a ready to eat food brand that has a high market share in the noodle category in India. SWOT ANALYSIS OF MAGGI BRAND The SWOT analysis of Maggi brand clearly indicates the strengths of Maggi as a Brand in Indian market. The Brand was found to be a leader in its category of Noodles, with strong customer loyalty. Intensive distribution of Maggi as a Brand was seen in urban areas of the country. The major threats of the brand as shown in the figure below indicates that Maggi has made several attempts to revamp itself as a Healthy Product but till date its perseverance towards the tag line is low by the consumers. The brand is in the growth stage of product life cycle with a strong inclination towards the maturity stage. [pic] STPD ANALYSIS OF MAGGI BRAND Segmentation: Market Segmentation divides the heterogenous market into homogenous groups of customers who share a similar set of needs/wants and could be satisfied by specific products. Maggi Brand have segmented the market on the basis of lifestyle and habits of URBAN FAMILIES. Target: Market Targeting refers to evaluating and deciding from amongst the various alternatives, which segment can be satisfied best by the company. The Maggi Brand have mainly targeted the Kids, Youth, Office Goers Working Woman which falls into the category of convenience-savvy time misers who would like to get something instant and be over with it quickly. Positioning: Market Positioning is the act of designing the companys offerings and image to occupy a distinctive place in the minds of the target market. The goal of positioning is to locate the brand in the minds of consumers to maximise the potential benefit to the firm. Maggi has positioned itself in the SNACKS category and not in the meal category since Indians do not consider noodles as a proper food item. Therefore Maggi have developed its brand image of instant food products with positioning statements such as 2 minutes noodles and Easy to cook, good to eat. Differentiations: Points-of-difference (PODs) are attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand. The Maggi Brand have also differentiated its brand image from its competitors in terms of taste, flavours and packaging. Maggi have launched wide varieties of products in different flavours which can attract larger set of customers. Maggi products are also available in different sizes catering to different customer needs. CUSTOMER BASED BRAND EQUITY PYRAMID (CBBE) Maggis customer based brand equity pyramid seems to be equally strong on left hand side and right hand side, it is also strong from bottom to top enjoying the highest brand awareness of any fast food noodle brand in India as well as repeat purchase rate and high customer loyality. BRAND PRISM OF MAGGI CONCLUSION The food processing business in India is at a nascent stage. Currently, only about 10% of the output is processed and consumed in packaged form thus highlighting huge potential for expansion and growth. Traditionally, Indians believe in consuming fresh stuff rather then packaged or frozen, but the trend is changing and the new fast food generation is slowly changing. Riding on the success of noodles, Nestle India, tried to make extensions of the Maggi brand to a number of products like, sauces, ketchups, pickles, soups, tastemakers and macaroni in the mid-1990s. Unfortunately, the macaroni and pickles didnt pick up as expected. The soups and sauces did somewhat fine, gathering considerable sales volumes and have a satisfactory presence even today. Maggi Noodles itself faced a bit of difficulty with respect to taste, and nearly lost its position in the minds of Indian consumers in the late 1990s. When Nestle changed the formulation of its tastemaker, the ominous packet that came along with Maggi Noodles, a major chunk of consumers were put-off and sales started dropping. Also, Maggis competitor TopRamen took advantage of the situation and started a parallel aggressive campaign to eat into Maggis market share. But the company quickly realised this and went back into making the original formula coupled with a free sampling campaign. This helped Magg i to win back its lost consumers and pushed up its sales volumes again! Maggi Today The year 2008 saw India leading in world wide Maggi sales. The brand has grown to an estimated value of Rs 160-170 crore and contributes at least 8-9% to Nestle Indias top line. All the same, some FMCG analysts feel that the brand has not done much to expand the noodles category. Even after 25 years of its launch, the size of the instant noodles market is yet quite small at Rs 300 crore. But yes, the parent company, Nestle India Limited has certainly encouraged the brand to enter into other culinary products. RECOMMENDATION After the conducted study following recommendations could be sited for Maggi Brand. To gain maximum leverage in terms of profit the company should pay emphasis on segments with age groups 25-35 and above .Advertising is the key to success. Targeting these segments will not only enhance the companys profit margins but also it will leverage the brand image of Maggi. The company should advertise its products by depicting attributes related to Health like Nutrition values, % of Vitamins, Proteins etc.This would help in customers perceiving the product as Healthy. Foray into other food products like chips, chocolates etc under its sole brand name would not only help in Brand extension but will also enhance Maggis market share. FUTURE PLANS NestlÃ © Indias objective is to manufacture and market the companys products in such a way so as to create value that can be sustained over the long term for consumers, shareholders, employees and business partners. Maggis aims to create value for consumers that can be sustained over the long term by offering a wide variety of high quality, safe food products at affordable prices. The company continuously focuses its efforts to better understand the changing lifestyles of modern India and anticipate consumer needs in order to provide convenience, taste, nutrition and wellness through its product offerings. LIMITATIONS: The present study is confined to a minimal sample size and may not reflect the opinion or response of the entire population in general. The results of our study are entirely confined to the responses of the Delhi consumers and might deviate in terms of actual population as a whole.Recomendations given after the study are entirely dependent on the survey and the secondary analysis done in the report.
Implementation of New Procurement Methods in India The construction industry in India is complex, challenging and unique. Selecting appropriate procurement method is a critical feature. In India even today traditional procurement methods are used. The options of adapting new procurement methods are open but there are various challenges in implementing them. This study will identify the barriers and difficulties which restrict the implementation of new procurement methods in India. The literature review investigated characteristics of new procurement methods. It highlighted the nature and types of projects in India. It emphasizes on structures and trends in the Indian construction Industry. It gives an insight on procurement methods used in developed economies. The chapter on characterization focuses on issues specific to Indian construction Industry such as demographics, socio-economic concerns, economical advantages, rapid growth of the industry etc. It highlights the typical procurement methods used for different types of projects in India and the regulations and administration within the construction Industry. This study gives us the nature and character of the Indian Construction Industry. Further, the study analyzes various issues, and draws attention to challenges in implementing new procurement methods. In the light of the characterization, issues and challenges this study identifies and concludes with the barriers and difficulties which restrict the implementation of new procurement methods. The worldwide construction industry includes projects of dramatically different types, size and complexity and requires extensive professional and trade skills (Groak, 1994). A construction project can refer to any building activity that includes building, repair, erection, demolition, maintenance, land clearing, earth moving, excavating, trenching, digging, boring, drilling, blasting, concreting, installation etc. (Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act, 1996). All these activities involve a considerable number of goods and services as well as large number of transactions to support a project. Most significantly, goods and services should be procured at the best possible cost to meet the needs in terms of quality, quantity, time and location (Weeley, 2010). However, construction industry is a significant contributor to a nations economy. Internationally, construction industry accounts for approximately 8-10 percent of gross domestic product GDP. Currently, in India construction industry accounts 8 percent of GDP. Furthermore, main construction sectors in India are Infrastructure, housing and commercial developments. In India by 2014 the second phase of infrastructure development will be started. This will provide additional boost to the construction industry. Owing to numerous projects the significance of procurement will be very important. Considerably, a well procured construction project is completed in time with desirable quality and within estimated cost. Internationally, plentiful construction procurement methods are practiced. Worldwide effectively used, key procurement methods are Design and Build, Management Contracting, Construction Management, Build Operate Transfer, Public Private Partnerships, Strategic Partnership, Joint ventures etc. Generally, in developed economies procurement methods such as Design and Build, Construction Management and Management Contracting are widely used, due to the maturity of the industry. However, in India mainly traditional construction procurement methods are practiced. Construction industry consists of large number of scattered small firms. The professionals prefer to operate within their silos. As a result, they remain in their comfort zone of using traditional methods. Nowadays trends are changing particularly in infrastructure and large scale projects management. This is due to the increased number, size of projects and capital invested in the projects. Mainly the upcoming procurement methods are Build Operate and Transfer and Public Private Partnerships. However, these are restricted to only a few projects. Still a large number of projects are carried out in a traditional manner. Major obstacle to implement new procurement methods are large population (1.2 billion approximately) large inclusive demand, large demand spread across the country, many small projects, traditional outlook of construction professionals, segregated industry, numerous small firms, enormous unskilled work force. Other barriers include considerable number of regional languages, excess availability of skilled professionals in one part of the country and scarcity in the other parts, no standard terms of contracts, different legislation in different states, local suppliers, mon opoly of manufactures in a region etc. As a consequence it is increasingly important to explore the reasons why new procurement methods cannot be implemented in India. Some key interdependent and inter-linked issues to be investigated are economic issues, management issues, technical issues, legal issues and cultural issues. Research outcomes will be inferred by careful observation of challenges and study of difficulties for implementation of new procurement methods. 1.2 Research Aim The aim of the research is to identify the barriers and difficulties that restrict the implementation of new procurement methods in India. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives will include the following 1) To investigate the issues, namely economic issues, management issues, legal issues and cultural issues which act as barriers for the implementation of new procurement methods in India. 2) To investigate procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management and relate it to the traditional Indian procurement method, to understand the challenges of the implementation of new procurement methods in India. 3) Identifying the barriers which act as hindrances for implementation of new procurement methods in the Indian construction industry. 1.4 Scope of Study This study of identification of barriers and difficulties that restrict the implementation of new procurement methods is confined to the Indian construction industry. The data is collected from secondary sources. The main sources were U.N views on India, U.K Trade and Investment and other secondary data. It outlines various difficulties and barriers which are already present in the Indian construction industry which in turn affects the implementation of new procurement methods. This study restricts itself in identifying difficulties and barriers from the nature and character of the Indian Construction Industry. As moving into detail of all issues was not possible, it explores largely economic issues, management issues, legal issues and cultural issues and finds the barriers which prevent the implementation of new procurement methods. This study will also mainly look into procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management and compare it with the traditional Indian procurement method to find the challenges in implementation of new procurement methods. 1.5 Structure of Dissertation Chapter 1) This chapter gives an introduction to the topic and gives the idea about how the study will be carried out. It gives an idea of a fast developing Indian construction Industry and the need to adapt new procurement methods. It states the research aim, objectives and scope of study and also discusses the structure of the dissertation Chapter 2) This chapter reviews the literature associated with the study. It looks into new procurement methods, projects in India, Indian construction industry and important factors affecting the construction industry in India. Chapter 3) This chapter describes the research methodology adapted within the scope of the dissertation. Secondary data, semi-structured interviews with the experts and academicians were employed to address the objectives. Chapter 4) This chapter characterizes India. It describes the nature and the character of the Indian construction industry. It gives an insight into the Indian construction Industry and its approaches. Chapter 5) This chapter looks at the barriers and the difficulties that restrict implementation of new procurement methods in India. It identifies various issues and challenges in implementation of new procurement methods in India. It looks at the present construction Industry in India and its characterization and identifies the barriers and difficulties that restrict implementation of new procurement methods in India. Chapter 6) This chapter presents the conclusions and direction for further research in this area. CHAPTER 2:Ã LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Procurement Methods Introduction Around the world procurement methods are developed through the years as per needs. The selection of the most appropriate procurement method is critical for both the client and other project participants as it is an important factor that contributes to the overall clients satisfaction and project success. This selection will be dependent upon a number of factors such as cost, time and quality which are widely considered as being the most fundamental criteria for clients seeking to achieve their end product at the highest quality, at the lowest cost and in the shortest time (Hackett et al. 2007). The type of procurement method adopted mainly depends upon the type of project, type of ownership, nature of construction industry in that particular country and the maturity of the industry. The selection of the procurement path is much more than simply establishing a contractual relationship (Newcombe, 1992), inspite of the continuing search for maximum value for money. In the developed economies such as USA, UK, Australia, Sweden etc. procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management are used from a long time. This is because the construction industry is developed, the projects are needed to be delivered efficiently and the clients demand the delivery of projects within budget and in least possible time. In this dissertation the study is limited to procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management. 2.1 Design and Build Design-build is a method to deliver a project in which the design and construction services are contracted by a single entity known as the design-builder or design-build contractor. Design-build relies on a single point of responsibility contract and is used to minimize risks for the project owner and to reduce the delivery schedule by overlapping the design phase and construction phase of a project. Design and Build with its single point responsibility carries the clearest contractual remedies for the clients because the DB contractor will be responsible for all of the work on the project, regardless of the nature of the fault (John Murdoch and Will Hughes 2007). The Design-Build Institute of America (DBIA) takes the position that design-build can be led by a contractor, a designer, a developer or a joint venture, as long as a the design-build entity holds a single contract for both design and construction. The main contractor takes responsibility for both design and construction and will use either in-house designers or employ consultants to carry out the design. Most of the construction work will be carried out by specialist or sub-contractors. The contractor tenders against a client brief and will often follow an initial concept design prepared by consultants appointed to advise the client. The design will be developed by the contractor and the works will be completed, usually for a fixed price. Tendering is more expensive so it carries more risk for the contractor than the traditional approach. This is because the contractor has to develop an outline design and a detailed price. Tender lists will probably be shorter than for traditional contracts. However, the client commits to the cost of construction, as well as the cost of design, much earlier than with the traditional approach. Changes made by the client during design can be expensive, because they affect the whole of the Design-Build contract, rather than just the design team costs. This strategy is a low-risk option for clients who wish to minimize their exposure to the risks of overspend delays or design failure. However, the exposure to risk will increase where the design phase is rushed, where unreasonable time targets are set or where the tender documents are not fully completed. 2.1.1 Characteristics of Design and Build It provides single point of responsibility so that in event of a failure the contractor is solely responsible. There is no ambiguity between the designer and the contractor. The clients interests are safeguarded in this respect. When the client adopts Design and Build method he knows his total financial commitment early in a project. The client has direct contact with the contractor. This improves the lines of communication and enables the contractor to respond and adapt to the clients needs more promptly. In Design and Build contractor is responsible for design, planning and control. This gives him a better control over the activities and can concurrently carry out the activities which are not generally possible using traditional procurement methods. The contractor can purchase, obtain planning permission and arrange his finance simultaneously which helps him to give a better deal to the client. He can also benefit himself and the client by making use of proprietary modular designs which reduces design time and time required for approval. The contractor can start the work as soon as the approvals are obtained and sufficient information regarding the site operations is available. The design does not need to be finalized before some, at least, of the work may be commenced. The Design and Build proposals ensure economical tenders and alternate design concepts which can benefit the client. The nature of Design and Build procurement system promotes the creation of integrated design and construction team. In some countries using Design and Build system relaxes the architects code of practice, which encourages them to become full partners in design and build firms. The closer involvement of architects leads to more aesthetically pleasing buildings and leads to designs which have a greater appreciation. By using Design and Build method time and cost savings are achieved, which benefits the client. The total project completion period is also reduced. Design and Build reduces the employers financing charges, inflation has less effect and the building is operational sooner which commercially produces an early return on the capital invested. The Design and Build method facilitates novation of design with the consultants to the contractor which provides advantages to the client. The advantage of Design and Build is that the contractor has some control over the design and is able to introduce components, materials and systems which are beneficial and which he knows are more economical to construct. 2.1.2 Critique of Design and Build Design and Build is not suitable for complex projects. The traditional method of construction procurement dissociates the designers from the contractors interests, design-build does not. The contractor decides on the design issues as well as issues related to cost, profits and time exigencies, which may be the matter of concern in some situations. The client is required to commit to a concept design at an early stage and often before the detailed designs is completed. There is no design overview unless separate consultants are appointed. And there is no one appointed from clients side to manage the works or act as clients agent. If client changes the scope of the project, this can be expensive. Design-build does not make use of competitive bidding where prospective builders bid on the same design. In Design and Build the criteria to select contractor is subjective and difficult to evaluate and to justify later. 2.2 Management Contracting In management contracting the client appoints the designers and a management contractor separately and pays the contractor a fee for managing the construction works. Payment to the management contractor is done on the basis of cost of the works packages plus agreed fees. The main benefits of management contracting are the time required for design and construction is shorter. There is an early involvement of managing contractor during design phase, in which his expertise can be used. The management contractor has the responsibility to manage the project. The sub-contractors are appointed by the management contractor, thus reducing the day to day administrative responsibilities of the client. The management contractor has major role in directing the project. The lines of communications are improved. As there is a direct relation between the management contractor and the client changes and variations can be done in a project. The main advantage is that the project is completed in time as the management contractor manages the works. Because of this the client gets possession quickly and the return on investment starts. The client normally appoints the management contractor to take an active role in the project at an early stage and the client can benefit from the contractors expertise. The overall design is the responsibility of the clients consultants, but the management contractor is normally responsible for defining packages of work and then for managing the carrying out of those work packages through separate trades or works contracts. The management contractor can sometimes not be employed to undertake the work but is employed to manage the process. All the work is subcontracted to works contractors who are directly employed by the management contractor. The client usually needs to be given the opportunity to approve the terms and conditions of the trades or works contracts before the packages are subcontracted. The management contract will usually include both a pre-construction phase and the construction phase. The management contractor is responsible for the administration and operation of the works contractors. However, the management contractor is not liable for the consequences of any default by a works contractor so long as the management contractor has complied with the particular requirements of the management contract. 2.2.1 Characteristics of Management Contracting Clients and contractors adapt this system once they gain experience, which suggests that it has merits. It is generally recognized that its adoption requires mutual trust. The management contractor is appointed much earlier. He is able to become a member of design team and contribute his expertise and mainly his management expertise. Management Contracting is an effective method for the client retaining control of the design whilst drawing on the experience of a construction specialist as part of the Professional Team. The Management Contractor is paid a fee for its services as well as enters into contract with the client for work packages, generally separate works contractors are appointed to carry out work packages under the management contractor. This type of arrangement tends to be used on complex projects where early input from a construction specialist is required. Decisions regarding appointment of subcontractors are made jointly by designers and management contractor thus making use of wider experience. Specialists contractors and subcontractors compete at second stage ensuring economical tenders which benefits the client. Lines of communication are shorter between management contractor and client than with the traditional procurement method. The client has direct control over the management contractor, who is the main contractor, so that the project is completed in a better way and in shorter time. The total project completion period is reduced by parallel working. A reduced project completion period produces a corresponding reduction in financing charges and interim payments to the contractors. Inflation has less effect. The client takes the delivery of the building more quickly and obtains returns on his investment more quickly. The main functions of the management contractor may include acting as principal contractor, cost planning and cost control, consenting for works contracts, coordinating and managing works contracts, coordinating commissioning, collating pre construction information and construction phase plan, monitoring key performances and managing the site. 2.2.2 Critique of Management Contracting The client is usually given an approximate estimate of the final project cost by the management contractor early in the project life but the client does not know the final project cost until the last sub contract is entered into. On other projects he is given a guaranteed maximum cost. The architect may have less time to develop the design because he is under greater pressure from the client and contractor. The design may suffer as a result. The client should provide a good design brief as the design will not be completed until the client has committed significant resources to the project. The strategy relies on quality committed team or it may just become a mere reporting system in some cases. Management contracting is not suitable for inexperienced clients. It is less suitable for clients wanting to pass the complete risk to the contractors. Specialist contractors frequently prefer to be in contract with client rather than the management contractor appointed by the client because interim payments are usually made promptly when paid directly. 2.3 Construction Management In construction management the client appoints a construction manager for a fee to manage, programme and coordinate the design and construction activities. The client does not allocate risk and responsibility to a single main contractor. Construction work is carried out by trade contractors through direct contracts with the client for various packages. The client takes the risk. The construction manager supervises the construction process and coordinates the design team. The construction manager has no contractual links with the design team and contractors. He only provides professional expertise without assuming financial risks. On appointment the construction manager takes over any preliminary scheduling and costing information and draw up detail programme accordingly. In this method the client should have administrative or project management staff with the ability to assess the recommendation of construction manager and take actions. Adapting construction management reduces the time required for the project. This occurs because the contract strategy, construction and design can overlap. A construction manager should have a good track record in cost forecasting and cost management, as the time can be reduced but the price certainty is not achieved unless the design and construction have advanced to the extent that all the work packages have been let. This method puts so much emphasis on the role of client, if the client is experienced, with the help of construction manager he can control the project effectively. The clients continue to use construction management to their advantage, for example, the cultivation of direct, long-term relationships with trade contractors helps to secure many of the benefits more often associated with partnering. Furthermore, by employing a construction manager who is able to focus on the interests of the project, rather than on its own risk management, the client can be confident that its project objectives will be shared by the rest of the team. Construction management is distinguished by the influence of the clients and construction managers management and leadership skills on the success of the project. By adapting construction management method the client can have greater influence over the project and can have more flexibility over the contractor selection and so on. 2.3.1 Characteristics of Construction Management Construction management offers relative time saving potential for overall project duration due to overlapping of various activities. The roles, risks and relationships are clear for all the participants during most of the situations. In some situations changes in design can be accommodated later than some other strategies, without paying a premium. In construction management method the client has direct contracts with the contractors and pays them directly. This helps the contractors as they are paid promptly and there is evidence that this results in lower prices because of improved cash flow certainty. The client has direct involvement in the project as compared to most of the traditional methods. As the client is directly involved he is enabled to make prompt decisions which can be implemented without delay. This also makes possible a prompt response by the client to unforeseen site problems and also makes possible a prompt response by the contractor to changes required by the client. In this type the construction manager acts as an agent of the contractor. This benefits the contractor in managing the works. This also excludes the client for keeping his own staff for overlooking the issues which are looked by the construction manager. The central role of the construction manager is managing the project and providing administrative support to the employer. In this there is no single point of responsibility related to the delivery of the project. 2.3.2 Critique of Construction Management In construction management price certainty is not achieved until the last works packages have been let. Budgeting primarily depends heavily on design team estimates. The client should be pro-active and must provide a quality design brief to the design team in order to complete the design. The strategy relies upon the client selecting a good quality and committed team. In construction management the client has to manage and administer many contracts as there is no single contractor, all the works contracts are directly between the works contractors and the client. The client has to manage coordinate with the design team appropriately or else there increased likelihood of design change. There is a high degree of client ownership of risks associated with design including impacts of late or incomplete and uncoordinated design. In construction management the client has exposure to performance risk and exposure to consequential loss associated with trade contractor default. In construction management method there is increased administration role for the client. Construction manager owes duty of care liability only. The client is at the center of management and requires decision making capabilities. The client has to rely on management capability of construction manager. 2.4 Indian Construction Industry and Economy Indian economy has been growing from last two decades at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly because of industrialization and service sector growth. The main reason for Indias growth is its huge internal demand. In recent years particularly after the global recession in 2008 the Indian economy has shown signs of slowing down. In 2011-12 due to the current global economic scenario India found itself in the heart of managing growth and stabilizing prices. The Indian economy is grown by 6.9 per cent in 2011-12, after having grown at the rate of 8.4 per cent in each of the two preceding years. This indicates a slowdown compared not just to the previous two years but 2003 to 2011 (except 2008-09). At the same time, sight must not be lost of the fact that, by any cross country comparison, India remains among the front-runners. The Gross Domestic Product (nominal) of India is $ 1.848 trillion (Indiabudget, 2011). The Gross Domestic Product (Purchasing power parity) of India is $ 4.457 trillion (Indiabudget, 2011). The annual expenditure budget of India is Rs.1490925.29 Crores (Indiabudget, 2011). Over the years, more than half of the expenditure budget is spent on civil engineering, construction and related activities. The construction industry sets in motion the process of economical growth in the country, investment in this sector contributes 6.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The construction industry in India is large and scattered. Today in India there is a massive demand in housing and infrastructure. The construction industry is the second largest industry of the country after agriculture. It makes a significant contribution to the national economy and provides employment to large number of people. The use of various new technologies and deployment of project management strategies have started to gain importance. In its path of advancement, the industry has to overcome a number of challenges. However, the industry is still faced with some major challenges, including housing, disaster resistant construction, water management and mass transportation. Recent experiences of several new mega-projects and large demand are clear indicators that the industry is poised for a bright future. It is the second homecoming of the construction profession to the forefront amongst all professions in the country. Every Re.1 investment in the construction industry causes an Rs.0.80 increment in GDP as against Rs.0.20 and Rs.0.14 in the fields of agriculture and manufacturing industry, respectively. Statistics over the period have shown that compared to other sectors, this sector of economic activity generally creates 4.7 times increase in incomes and 7.76 times increase in employment generation potentiality (Economicsurvey, 2011). Despite of the challenges in the construction industry there will be a continuous rise of the construction sector in the country, with over 4 Crore persons employed in it. 2.5 Projects in India The construction industry in India is large and diverse. In India majority of the projects are procured locally and are small in size. In recent years there is a demand for large projects such as large housing schemes, rural and urban and infrastructure projects but still there are large numbers of small projects. The projects include residential complexes, shopping centers, industrial development projects, urban roads, rural roads, water supply systems, sewerage systems and infrastructure projects such as highways, power stations, rapid mass transport systems, airports up gradation and new and ports. These projects are not concentrated in one part of the country, they are spread over the length and the breadth of the country. Except some few high profile and prestigious projects majority of the projects are due to local needs and demands. In India the metropolitan cities are experiencing a rapid growth of 25-30% in residential construction activity every year and the other non-major cities are experiencing 15-25%. The top 15 cities in India account for 18% of the total construction activity in India with Mumbai and Bangalore leading the pack. In India cities are classified as Tier I, Tier II, Tier III and Tier IV cities. Tier I cities consist of Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai. Tier II cities consist of comparatively smaller cities as Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Kanpur, Pune, Surat etc. Tier III cities consists of even smaller cities and large towns such as Indore, Cochin, Jamshedpur etc. Tier IV consist of smaller towns. Approximately there are 35 cities in India with a po