Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Agent Orange In 1962, the United States Military began to use a potentially toxic chemical known as Agent Orange. The toxic chemical was used a defoliant to destroy crops and eliminate ground cover during the Vietnam War. Vietnamese troops would hide underneath the thick forest and make it impossible for United States troops to spot them. So in 1962 the Army began using Agent Orange as a way of eliminating that problem. The government had very little knowledge about the deadly chemical but went ahead and used it anyway. They had no idea of the disastrous long-term effects that it would have on men, women and children. But the hardest group hit by the chemical was not Vietnamese civilians but United States troops. In 1962, Project Ranch Hand was being deployed all over Vietnam. The idea was to destroy the forest on the battle field and make it easier for the United States troops to see the Vietnamese soldiers. The term ?agent orange? was given to the chemical because of the bright orange canisters that it was stored in. (Online, Mar 27. 1999) The orange canisters were used to distinguish the chemicals in the warehouses so that they would not be confused with anything else. During the Vietnam War, 11.2 million gallons of Agent Orange were used as defoliants throughout Vietnam and Southeast Asia. (Online, lewispublishing, Mar 27. 1999) Approximately 2.6 million United States soldiers served in South Vietnam and nearby areas during the war. (Online, lewispublishing, Mar 27. 1999) As the planes would drop the massive amounts of Agent Orange onto Vietnam, United States soldiers would unknowingly walk to certain disaster. The deadly chemical affected everyone from ground troops to pilots to seamen. The hardest hit of course were the ground troops. In some cases the defoliant was dropped almost right on top of them while in the field. At that time they may have had some idea that it might be potentially hazardous but they were not certain. As the soldiers were carrying out their orders they would inevitably breathe in the toxic fumes. The chemical would be sprayed over huge areas sometimes in a 10-mile radius destroying everything in its path. Through out the Vietnam War soldiers were beginning to complain of severe medical problems. The army was not certain of the causes but believed them to be from the people of Vietnam or the surrounding areas. By 1968, the United States army had received an estimated 4,000 reports of unexplainable illnesses. Many scientists became suspicious and began to conduct experiments to find out the causes of these illnesses. They came up with many different explanations for the sicknesses but the most important one was Agent Orange. The United States Military heard the conclusions of the tests and in 1971 decided to discontinue the use of Agent Orange forever. Between the spring of 1962 and 1971, 19 million gallons of defoliant chemicals had been dropped all over Vietnam destroying millions upon millions of acres of forest and contaminating thousands of soldiers and civilians. (Isserman, America at War 89) The period between 1971 and 1974 was a disaster. Some 15,000 veterans filed reports of Agent Orange related illnesses. Some of the illnesses are as followed: chloracne, soft-tissue sarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's disease, acute peripheral neuropathy, subacute peripheral neuropathy, porohyria cutanea tarda (PCT), respiratory cancers (lung, larynx, trachea, broncus) and prostate cancer. (Bender + Dudley, The Vietnam War 157) The most common illnesses were the different types of cancer. More soldiers were diagnosed with the many types of cancers then any other illnesses. Vietnam Veterans are not required to prove exposure to Agent Orange. The VA just presumes that all military personnel who served within Vietnam were exposed to Agent Orange. (Online, Mar 29. 1999) Even though military personal were exposed to Agent Orange that does not mean they all contracted a disease at all. My father was in Vietnam as a helicopter pilot. He said that he saw Agent Orange being dropped almost everyday. He witnessed first hand the destruction that it caused on the forests and land. He did not come in direct contact with the chemical but he did see fellow soldiers come down with different diseases during his time. He's
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Creating High-Quality Content With Geoffrey Keating From Intercom There are some companies that have extremely high standards for the industry that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re in. When it comes to content teams, one of the best is Intercom. Today weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to be talking to Geoffrey Keating, an editor for the Intercom content team. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s going to let us in on his secrets when it comes to the jobs-to-be-done theory, how to create unique content, and how keep yourself on schedule by planning and prioritizing. Some of the highlights of the show include: Information about Intercom and what Geoffrey does there. Thoughts on crafting a message that reaches the readers where they are. The types of content and marketing collateral produced by GeoffreyÃ¢â¬â¢s team. How a small team gets all of the work completed that needs to be done. Why Geoffrey shies away from calling himself a content marketer. What Jobs-to-be-Done is and how it can help people create better content and better reach and engage with their target audience. The four main Ã¢â¬Å"bucketsÃ¢â¬ that the Intercom team draws its ideas from when developing unique content. GeoffreyÃ¢â¬â¢s best advice for marketers who are not happy with the status quo. Powered by PodcastMotor Actionable Content Marketing powered by By AMP040: How To Create Exceptionally High-Quality Content With Geoffrey Keating From Intercom 00:00/00:00 1x 100 > Download file Subscribe on iTunes Leave Review Share Links: Geoffrey on LinkedIn Intercom Jobs-to-be-done method BaseCamp Groove HQ Priceonomics If you liked todayÃ¢â¬â¢s show, please subscribe on iTunes to The Actionable Content Marketing Podcast! The podcast is also available on SoundCloud, Stitcher, and Google Play. Quotes by Geoffrey: Ã¢â¬Å"I like to think of us as the internal journalist of the company. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re always digging for our latest scoops.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"When someone buys a drill, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re looking to drill a 3/4 inch hole you want to make progress in your life. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what Jobs-to-be-Done is. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about understanding the emotions that drive people to buy the products.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"My main advice for anyone working content marketing or starting at a content team is make sure that you have a really, really clear opinion about the world.Ã¢â¬
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Business (stratergy) - Essay Example The paper has explored Terranoba's views on free labour and discussed how she explained the new concept of new world of information. Tiziana Terranova's Network Culture is written at a post-dot.com conjuncture, at what time e-mail, discussion groups, e-zines, and blogs are daily informational tools used en masse. In an era of email lists and discussion groups, e-zines and weblogs, bringing together users, consumers, workers and activists from around the globe, what kinds of political subjectivity are rising What kinds of politics turn out to be possible in a time of information overload and media saturation What structures of power and control operate over a self-organising system like the Internet There have been many books written in the consequences of the dot.com crash that have reinterpreted the crippling economic fall down with critical hindsight. Such manuscripts tend to re-evaluate the overjoyed energies that built Silicon Alley and Valley and re-situate the utopian visions of the new economy in an endeavour to comprehend what went wrong. Terranova's book explains how the politics of the Information Age will break down all barriers. Cyber-politics prediction reached its height between the period of 1995 and 2000. Information technology is no longer in fashion, as it was just a few years ago, to gush eagerly about politics in the age of the Internet. During the last period of 1990s, many commentators were influenced that a new day had dawned in the life of our republic. Some people were of the view that direct democracy was just around the corner, as tens of millions of British people in "chat rooms" would form, in one author's words, "a committee of the whole, made up of all citizens online." Others saw enormous increases in voter contribution, the increase of a more informed and active population, and a decline in the significance of money in politics. It seemed for a moment as though the whole thing was about to change, and for the better. That moment has passed, and the subject seems to have been dropped. It may b e too soon to pick it up again in full. The influence of IT on our politics has not been playing out as anyone fairly expected, and to say that we now know the shape of the future would be to repeat the error of earlier prognosticators. The forecasts of a new world of cyber-politics were not entirely unreasonable. After all, IT makes information more widely available and communication easier, and almost the whole thing in politics has to do with information and communication. A functioning democracy requires an informed electorate, and it seems rational that a new means of providing access to information might very much help citizens stay informed. An election movement aims to convey ideas and arguments, and it seems only sensible that a new and more well-organized way to communicate might radically reshape campaigning. Empowered by the information technology with the help of Internet and the personal computer, citizens could now know more, participate more, and influence the system more directly and efficiently. Terranova is not worried with any one historical happening; Terranova is not engaged in an analysis of a singular juncture in the history of
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Global climate change is responsible for the increasing frequency of severe weather - Essay Example The message from top climate scientists who gathered in Japan is louder than ever. In a statement issued by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Patricia Lankao warns of the dangers of thinking that the climate changes in the polar region is a danger just to polar bears in a far land. According to the scientists, climate change effects are nearer that imagined. It is now beyond melting ice, endangered animals and plants, it has escalated to more real issues such as droughts, hunger, diseases, and refugees (Borenstein par 5). The report further states that the present situation as observed by scientist is due to the increase in heat waves across continents such as Asia, Africa, North America and Europe. This increase has led to severity of damaging floods like the one experienced in Mozambique that displaced 90,000 people in 2008. Such floods have increased in Africa and Australia much as there is an increase in down pour felt in Europe and North America. Changes in the climate have also impacted on the change in livelihoods of people living in Northern Canada (Borenstein par. 7). According to Chuck (par. 2), the livelihoods of the Inuit (Indigenous people living in the Artic circle) are changing. For example solid ice that used to serve as a road for the hunters have become unpredictable in recent years as it has melted into water. Now they have to use their dogs to pull boats into the water instead of sledging through the ice as before. As explained by Box who has been studying the Arctic in the last 20 years, the amount of ice discharged into the ocean has double in the past 10 years. This melt down is not just experienced in the arctic region but also in other areas such as the Alps, Himalaya and Peru. The burning of gas, oil, and coal releases heat trapping green house gases such as carbon dioxide, leading to warmer
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Argument-driven essay - Research Paper Example Sadly, both ideologies set back the feminist cause by a number of years due to the way the satire has become not only a part of pop culture, but a part of the ideology of our society. That is why I am writing this paper with the full intention of exposing the damage done by the skit to the post-feminist ideologies and the various ways that feminism is portrayed in the political arena. My main argument is that the show has done irreparable damage to the image of women as future political leaders of the world in ways that one could never have imagined to be possible. It was Durham and Keller who mentioned the relation of media to popular culture in their book Media and Cultural Studies: Keywords. They explained that: Ã¢â¬Å"Forms of media culture like television film, popular music, magazines, and advertising provide role and gender models, fashion hints, lifestyle images, and icons of personality. The narratives of media culture offer patterns of proper and improper behavior, moral me ssages, and ideological conditioning, sugar coating social and political ideas with pleasurable and seductive forms of popular entertainmentÃ¢â¬ (Durham & Keller, xv). ... They managed to make fun of one woman, while clearly exalting the other in what turned out to be a simultaneous process for the two actors. Tina Fey characterized Sara Palin like a red-neck hillbilly who got to where she was in life solely because luck was on her side. The woman, from the portrayal of Fey, is shown to be blessed to have been in the right place at the right time, which is why it did not matter that she was weak when it came to political matters. It was expected of her since she came from the Alaskan backwoods. It was a stroke of luck and opportunity that afforded her the chance to get ahead politically without really having to pay her dues towards the support of the post feminism political agenda. On the other hand, Amy Pohler portrayed Hillary Clinton as a clear supporter of the post-feminist agenda meant to strengthen the political station of women in our society. The strength and weaknesses of both women were highly played up during the skit which is why the public came to view Sara Palin as a joke who just got lucky in the world of politics while Hillary worked very hard to get the respect and acceptance that she deserved in the political arena. The ideology that the skit promoted the perception that Ã¢â¬Å"... all cultural texts have distinct biases, interests, and embedded values, reproducing the point of view of their producers and often, the values of the dominant social groups. Ã¢â¬Å" (Durham & Kelner, xiv). Clearly, the skit anted to promote the post-feminist cause in the skit. But they were not sure as to which message they wanted to clearly share which is why they tried to the fair thing and simply put both post-feminist ideologies out there for society to decide upon. These
Friday, November 15, 2019
Use Of Embryonic Stem Cells Philosophy Essay As we have entered into a new millennium, we are witnessing a number of changes around us, ranging from a small technology to biggest medical discoveries. It has also brought vast changes or rather improvements into bioscience as well, like completion of genome sequence, microarray technology to measure simultaneously the expressions of thousands of genes (Okarma). We have even been able to improve the efficiency of drugs. The latest technologies are really being helpful into the cure of chronic diseases. Among these the outstanding advancements is successful derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells. (Thompson 1998, 282). The embryonic stem cells are the self-renewing cells and they have got the capacity to produce all kind of human body cells. The sparkling advantages of these stem cells are, they allow permanent repair of the failing organs by injecting healthy functional cells that are developed from them. This field of medicine is also known as regenerative medicine. For example, the nervous tissues and the heart tissues cannot repair themselves as gastro-intestinal cells and skin tissues; the stem cells therapy allows the repair of these kinds of cells. Human body is made of certain organ systems that are capable of regeneration by themselves only throughout life, the skin cells are constantly shedding and they are replaced timely, same with the blood cells as well. The embryonic stem cells are the cells, that can produce any kind of human body cells. (Okarma). Understanding Human developmental biology Now for the obvious practical medical purpose it is nearly impossible to vigorously study the embryonic development of the humans. However the study of embryonic stem cells allows us to reveal the nature of human body development in every aspect from cells to cells and from tissues to tissues. Despite the study of laboratory animals for these purposes as they are identical with human body, certain aspects of human body and its mechanisms are different. (Okarma). It has been an objective of US health care system to study the reproductive and embryonic development in humans because according to statistics, one in every six couple trying to conceive show fertility disorders. 15% of the recognized pregnancy show premature pregnancy loss in United States. (Okarma). Until now study of embryogenesis at earlier stages was out of reach of scientists to direct studies. Since the introduction of the embryonic stem cells study it has become possible to study all the stages of human embryo or fetus development. This is an revolutionary invention that has provided us a number of ways to reach the roots of developmental defects and birth defects in humans. (Okarma). Identifying teratogens During the pregnancy the women are exposed to number of agents that can result into the child birth defects and fetal abnormalities, known as Teratogens. The human stem cells study can allow the screening of the environmental toxic agents and pharmaceuticals that could cause abnormalities of the developing fetus. (Okarma) Source of Human embryonic stem cells The invention of the stem cells from human embryo has been the most exciting development in the medical science. The medical experts worldwide have been more interested in using the Human embryonic stem cells into Regenerative medicine. The use of the human embryonic stem cells raises different ethical questions. The application of these cells can be applied to tissue engineering, genetic engineering and other medical research purposes. The use of the adult stem cells has not raised a controversy but the utilization of the human embryonic stem cells raise different ethical questions based on the sources of the cells. (Hug, Sources of human embryos for stem cell research, 2005) There are three different sources for the stem cells that are currently used: Existing stem cell lines of the embryo Spare embryo- the embryos that are left unused. Embryos that are created for the purpose of research only. (Hug, Sources of human embryos for stem cell research, 2005) Now from human embryos only there are two ways of getting the stem cells. First from the umbilical cord or uterine water and second is from the fetuses themselves. Now the first source of the cells produce less ethical questions because there are less moral issues related to the source of the cells. In second source when the fetuses are aborted, the cells are derived from them without difficulty. The ethical danger involved here is it is really hard and unethical to imagine that a woman is convinced to become pregnant for the sake of harvesting the fetus embryonic cells. (Teutsch). For example, surveys in the United States show that there is great public controversy about Embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning. (Hug, Sources of human embryos for stem cell research, 2005). These days limitations on stem cell research vary by country. In some places this research is not sufficiently supervised and regulated, and this raises moral questions themselves (Teutsch). The Ethical Problem When the question of moral status of embryo is raised, on one hand we are concerned with the rights they have got for the protection of life health, and body. And on the other hand what all obligations the moral agents do have towards them in regard to preserving these goods. (ÃËstnor) The critics of stem cell research state a couple of main objectives: some of them state that despite its worthy ends, stem cell research is unethical because there, destruction of the human embryos is involved. Whereas others fear that even if research in itself is not unethical it will obviously create the possibilities of the dehumanizing practices, for examples, cloned babies, and embryo farms and use of fetuses as spare parts. Eventually this will lead to commoditization of human lives. (Michael J. Sandel, 2004). Some view the destruction of the human embryos during the stem cells research same as yanking the organs from a baby to save any other human life so, baby dies and other lives. Some of them combine the religious beliefs that the ensoulments occur at the time of conception only. While others try to defend without recourse to religious that we begin our life as embryo. If our life is worthy of respect irrespective of our age, then these embryos also should be considered as living organisms and hence should not be killed. (Michael J. Sandel, 2004). If stem cell therapy will be in routine practice, then the embryonic materials will become the source of the therapeutics and by using them there will be a situation where the respect for the human life will decrease. In these ways the sacrifice of the embryos earlier in their life will encourage polices of sacrificing the vulnerable for the benefits of others. This is also known as slippery-slope argument, meaning if we accept one condition then this acceptance will lead us to the toleration of certain unacceptable conditions. According to some moral philosophers there has always been a difference between act and omission. Actively killing someone is different than the passive efforts not put into practice to save someone. Though the outcome into both the cases is same here, both can be argued as destruction. Counter argument: In the counter argument, there are several who believe that the use of the spare embryos would not mean the destruction of life. They say that there is no issue to believe that the destruction of human embryo will undermine the respect of the human life in society. As destruction of embryos during the process of invitro fertilization and abortion has been in practice since a long, no change in the respect of human life has been observed. The destruction of the spare embryos during the process of invitro fertilization should be considered more problematic than the destruction of the spare embryo resulting from invitro fertilization to produce stem cells for the purpose of the therapeutics. (Hug, Sources of human embryos for stem cell research, 2005) If we consider that the destruction of the embryos for the purpose of stems cells harvesting in order to find cure of certain incurable diseases immoral than the use of embryos for the purpose of treating infertility also should be considered immoral. It has been always in question whether the human embryos can be used for all purposes or for certain of them, for example certain prefers that its permeable to destruct the human embryos for the development of the cosmetics. Currently the accepted position is that that the human embryos should be used only in order to create the cure of certain human diseases only. (Hug, Sources of human embryos for stem cell research, 2005). When the spare embryos that are donated for the purpose of research remain unused after a long period, they are destroyed. So there is no ethical question is raised there. So ultimately the outcome that the embryos are going to be used for the goodness of humans should be taken into consideration rather than making ethical questions, according to some. (Hug, Sources of human embryos for stem cell research, 2005). The stem cells technology is also involved in the cloning process by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Now it can also be argues that allowing cloning technology by somatic cell nuclear transfer can be a step towards human reproductive cloning and its world wide acceptance. But there has been some counter arguments against human cloning by these techniques as use of certain techniques for this purpose is prohibited in most part of the world so legislation might prohibit reproductive cloning even if the application of somatic cell nuclear transfer technology to generate embryos for the purpose of harvesting stem cells from embryos may be an important step in the development of the cloning technology. There is also a danger of commercial pressure driving to promote more research of these kinds resulting into the decreased intrinsic respect of human body and life. (Hug, Sources of human em bryos for stem cell research, 2005). The research program on embryonic stems cells produces moral dilemma. It makes us to choose from two moral principles. Alleviate suffering or a duty to prevent. The duty of respecting the human body and life. (Hug, Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical dilemma, 2011) Either an embryo is considered as a person whilst its still an embryo, or its viewed as a potential person. The criterion of a personhood is really unclear. Arguments: the development of a person from an embryo is the continuous process; it starts as early as the egg is fertilized. As infancy is the stage where the human is in infant stage like that only this is the stage where the human is in the stage of embryo, the only fact that it does not hold any human characteristics at this stage. Eventually it will become a person so it should be given respect. Counter-arguments: Before implanting them into uterus, the embryos invitro does not hold any psychological, emotional and physical characteristics of a person. So it does not hold any interest to be prevented and those can be used for the benefits of the patients who are persons. (Hug, Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical dilemma, 2011) There has been also argument that the embryo has increasing status as it grows. There are several stages that might give importance to the embryos, e.g. implantation of embryo after six days of fertilization, the appearance of the primitive steak which is the beginning of development of the nervous system. The stage at which if baby is delivered prematurely then also can be survived. And finally birth. (Hug, Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical dilemma, 2011) Counter-arguments: we protect persons interests and life because they are important and valuables from the point of interest to universe but because they are valuable to the persons they are concerned with. Whatever moral status the embryo holds, the life it lives has a value to embryo itself. We cannot make any moral judgment based on the age of embryo, if we say that it becomes human as the primitive steak is formed, then what if the person who loses its nervous system in a stroke? is he not a human? (Hug, Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical dilemma, 2011) Religious views Different religions view stem cell research in different ways. Roman Catholic, orthodox and other protestant churches believe that the life begins as early as conception occurs, so no research should be permitted. Judaism and Islam emphasize the importance of helping others, so they prefer that the stem cells research should be permitted. They consider that there is no life before 40 days. (Hug, Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical dilemma, 2011) Should public funds be used to support such research? Though they are very microscopic, the stem cells have created a issue between the research scientists and the right to life advocates. As the stem cell research program needs a lot of investments, the question of who should fund the research program, has been in discussion since last few years. Scientists want to study and research the embryonic stem cells in hope of finding the unanswered treatments of certain incurable human diseases like spinal cord injuries, Parkinsonism, certain birth deformities, nervous system diseases and many more life threatening conditions. President of USA, Barack Obama issued an executive order to use the federal money in stem cells research programs in 2009. There have been many controversies against presidents this order. (Should the government fund embryonic stem cell research?) The United States Congress and the legislatures of more than 28 states have considered spending billions of tax payers dollars into the stem cell research program over next several years. In 2004 California state government organized a peoples pole to know their will of spending the public fund for stem cells research programs. It is also known as Proposition 71 bond measure, which had authorized the state to raise 3 billion USD over upcoming 10 years to fund such research. Then also the debates rage over the ethical question that whether the public fund should be used for such program in which the embryos, which are considered lives, killed. Is it really justified to use public funding for such research? (Elgin, 2008) The programs like Proposition 71 are stuck in to mud as they are politically debatable, speculative and controversial because the stem cells research itself is very politically controversial. Each stem cells research program remains to be highly speculative so the government should not gamble with public fund into such programs where we cannot predict the results at all. (Elgin, 2008). In an interview with the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) experts they expressed their view as follows. Owen Witte who is the director of the stem cell biology and medicine said that its governments responsibility to do everything possible. Edwin Bayrd, UCLA AIDS Institute had to say that this country has a long tradition of funding scientific research from taxpayers fund. So these research programs also can never be exceptions. Whereas Stephen Brainbridge added that if one believes that life begins at the time of conception then the act of creating lives by destroying them is an evil act. (Do you believe public funds should be used to support stem cell research?, 2006) At this point in time no one knows that how successful any stem cell research is going to be. Or it is still difficult to predict that whether the stem cell research can really find solution to certain incurable medical conditions. Embryonic stem cells are clearly versatile but the scientists have not been able to control the growth of those embryonic stem cells. On the other hand the interactions of stem cells with other types of cells may lead to the development of tumors and certain kind of tissue rejection reactions. In 2006, the US National academy of science stated that development of the feasible therapies out of the embryonic stem cells research may take years or even decades. Even if they find some therapies then, they are needed to be tested first, means more investments of time and money. So the politicians who promise of finding the cure for certain diseases are becoming totally disingenuous. (Elgin, 2008). In November 2007, New Jersey voters rejected the initiative to borrow the sum of $450 million to invest or fund in a state-run stem cells program. Because the people of New Jersey knew how little was the advantage of public funding into the stem cells program in state of California. Following James Thomsons discovery that stem cells are self renewing cells, the funding to stem cells research become political feasible and very popular, though the destruction of embryos for these purpose was considered unethical. (Elgin, 2008) Conclusion According to my personal views, my religious beliefs, it is unethical to kill the embryos and harvest the stem cells in a process to save the lives. It simply means that you are killing someone to save the lives of someone. Better would be the developments of the alternatives to be away from all these ethical issues. To date there are eight alternatives available to the embryonic stem cells. (Hug, Sources of human embryos for stem cell research, 2005) The Stem cells have been found into adult tissues like skin, intestine, bone marrow, brain etc. those who are against the use of embryonic stem cells research claim the use of these alternatives of the stem cells. There is a possible way to avoid destroying the viable human embryonic stem cells in the course of conducting research of stem cells could be to produce non-viable human embryo by performing nuclear transplant into a nuclear less egg of suitable species. The Embryonic stem cells that are to be transplanted may be immunologically incompatible with that of recipient. So to solve this problem a tissue bank with the large number of different kind of stem cells can be established. In place of using new embryos and embryonic stem cells line, scientists can use the embryonic stem cells and the differentiated stem cells obtained from them. The new possibility has been found by scientist recently that the stem cells can be produced at an early stage than they used to be. Scientists have found the possibility of growing stem cells at four day old human embryo called Morula. There is a theoretical possibility in which the possibility of destruction of the embryo can be avoided. Scientists are checking and testing the possibility of growing the single cell plucked from a Morula stage of embryo. If the researches on the embryonic stem cells are being prohibited because of the destruction of the embryo then there are the chances of splitting the embryos. There are the chances of genetic modification of the oocytes in such a manner that if fertilized they wont produce a viable human being. All currently available methods of harvesting stem cells from different sources and their research are the issues to be discussed ethically in respect to the human embryo and human life. To avoid the ethical issues there are new alternatives to the sources of the cells should be taken into the consideration. (Hug, Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical dilemma, 2011) To my personal views, the use of embryo to harvest the cells are totally unethical and public funds should not be used for this kind of anti-human act, though I appreciate the process of the research that has got the hope of development of many newer medical cures. But for that many available alternatives should be taken into consideration.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
PokÃ ©mon: Little Angels or Little Devils? My younger sisters are victims of the PokÃ ©mon craze. On the weekends when I go home for a brief break from college life, Claire and Natalie are drawn to the television to catch the latest episode of PokÃ ©mon on Saturday morning. Catching a glimpse of the illuminated screen, I walk into the kitchen and sit down with them as they blindly spoon cereal into their mouths, not missing one millisecond of the cartoon. Watching them absorb the show makes me laugh and, when I do, they turn to me and tell me, "Shut up! WeÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to watch the show!" I give them a funny look and proceed to watch the show with them. I find that I also am in love with the little yellow Pikachu and canÃ¢â¬â¢t get enough of this darling cartoon series. Our addiction to PokÃ ©mon is just as benevolent as the individual PokÃ ©mon themselves. "PokÃ ©mon started as the brainchild of Japanese creator Satoshi Tajiri, 34, who combined his two childhood passions: monster movies and the study of insects to invent PokÃ ©mon in 1991" ("Poka" 2/3). There are over 155 PokÃ ©mon to learn about and collect. There are PokÃ ©mon trading cards, video games (several different versions), and a cartoon series on the KidsÃ¢â¬â¢ WB television network. The name PokÃ ©mon actually means "pocket monsters" (Holmes 1/2). Pikachu, the most popular PokÃ ©mon and my personal favorite, is an electric PokÃ ©mon with special attacks such as "Thundershock" and "Lightningbolt." Other PokÃ ©mon and their attacks include Krabby, a water PokÃ ©mon, with a "vise grip" attack; Tauros a normal type PokÃ ©mon with a "tail whip" attack; and Squirtle, also a water type PokÃ ©mon, with a "hydro pump" attack (Walk 1/2). In the video game story there are three main trainers that travel around to different islands to catch wild PokÃ ©mon that they train and become their own: Ash, Brock, and Misty. Ash wants to become a PokÃ ©mon master which means that he must travel to all the PokÃ ©mon gyms, defeat the gym leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ PokÃ ©mon, and collect "badges" so that he can compete in the PokÃ ©mon league and achieve his dream. In the video games, the person playing the game takes on the role of Ash and attempts to learn about all the different PokÃ ©mon as well as how and when to use their corresponding attacks. As the different PokÃ ©mon become more experienced, they may evolve into a new and more powerful PokÃ ©mon that the trainer can battle with.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Question #1 a) Some advantages of an online survey of a cross section of Internet households are having a larger audience with a wider variety of responses, lower cost, and instant results. Some disadvantages are people may disregard the survey, answers may be careless just get the promo or offer, surveys may be sent directly to junk mail. b) Some advantages of an online survey of Carmex Facebook likers are The people that fill out the Facebook surveys actually know the products, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just completing for the free stuff, responses will come directly from product users, surveys will not get lost in spam or junk mail. Some disadvantages would be that it does not cover a wide customer base and the survey will only increase engagement and not likes Question #2 a) On a Facebook brand page, Ã¢â¬Å"engagementÃ¢â¬ measures how much activity is being made by its Facebook audience with a certain brand which is measured through posting a comment, liking a status or by replying to one of the posts on brand page. On the other hand Ã¢â¬Å"likesÃ¢â¬ measures the number of new likers or the size of the audience on Facebook b) For Carmex engagement is more important because it means its current likers are interested in learning about the company by interacting with posts Carmex makes by replying and liking their posts. Carmex would appreciate this because it shows customer interest and brand loyalty. c) Question #3 a) Consumers having the ability to engage with a brand they like and having the chance to create their own opinion about the products they sell will create activity between the user and the brand page. Engagements on a brand page like Facebook are evoked by making sure those opinions count and are heard, as well as by posting content to attract consumers and give them a chance to engage further b) To attract like to a brand page on Facebook you could give out prizes, have a contest that requires user to like the page, and offer coupons that offer a better deal than whatÃ¢â¬â¢s already in the market. Question #4 a) The advantages of a fixed alternative poll question on Facebook are the questions tend to be short and can be answered quickly, you can keep anonymous, more people may answer as it only takes a click. b) I think it would be best to use an open ended question when you are trying to get opinions on the company or products that could range from a variety of answers from a range of different users. This will allow the consumers to speak freely and give them the flexibility to write whatever they want Question #5 a) If I had a limited budget a time I would choose a poll only strategy because it has low cost and set-up associated with it. All you have to do is post the poll to the Facebook brand page and wait for users to respond, which will happen quickly. The last step would be to collect your data. b) On the other hand, If I had a higher budget and more time I would choose the contest only strategy because the results would be more rewarding. Promoting the contest will drive customers to participate, involving prizes will make the users take it more seriously, and they will result in more accurate and realistic answers.
Friday, November 8, 2019
A Short History of the Soviet and Russian Space Program The modern age of space exploration exists largely because of the actions of two countries who competed to get the first people on the Moon: the United States and the former Soviet Union. Today, space exploration efforts include more than 70 countries with research institutes and space agencies. However, only a few of them have launch capability, the three largest being NASA in the United States, Roscosmos in the Russian Federation, and the European Space Agency. Most people know of the U.S.s space history, but the Russian efforts occurred largely in secrecy for many years, even when their launches were public. Only in recent decades has the full story of the countrys space exploration been revealed through detailed books and talks by former cosmonauts.Ã The Age of Soviet Exploration Begins The history of Russias space efforts starts with World War II. At the end of that huge conflict, German rockets and rocket parts were captured by both the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Both countries had dabbled in rocket science before that.Ã Robert Goddard in the U.S. had launched that countrys first rockets. In the Soviet Union, engineer Sergei Korolev had experimented with rockets, too. However, the chance to study and improve upon Germanys designs was attractive to both countries and they entered into the Cold War of the 1950s each striving to outdo the other into space. Not only did the U.S. bring over rockets and rocket parts from Germany, but they also transported a number of German rocket scientists to help with the fledgling National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and its programs. The SovietsÃ captured rockets and German scientists, too, and eventually began experimenting with animal launches in the early 1950s, although none reached space. Yet, these were the first steps in the space race and set both countries on a headlong rush off Earth. The Soviets won the first round of that race when they put Sputnik 1 into orbit on October 4, 1957. It was a huge win for Soviet pride and propaganda and a major kick in the pants for the fledgling U.S. space effort. The Soviets followed up with the launch of the first man into space, Yuri Gagarin, in 1961. Then, they sent the first woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova, 1963) and did the first spacewalk, performed by Alexei Leonov in 1965. It looked very much like the Soviets might score the first man to the Moon, too. However, problems piled up and pushed back their lunar missions due to technical problems. Disaster in Soviet Space Disaster struck the Soviet program and gave them their first big setback. It happened in 1967 when cosmonaut Vladimir KomarovÃ was killed when the parachute that was supposed to settle his Soyuz 1 capsule gently on the ground failed to open. It was the first in-flight death of a man in space in history and a great embarrassment to the program. Problems continued to mount with the Soviet N1 rocket, which also set back planned lunar missions. Eventually, the U.S. beat the Soviet Union to the Moon, and the country turned its attention to sending unmanned probes to the Moon and Venus. After the Space Race In addition to its planetary probes, the Soviets got very interested in orbiting space stations, particularly after the U.S. announced (and then later canceled) its Manned Orbiting Laboratory. When the U.S. announced Skylab, the Soviets eventually built and launched the Salyut station. In 1971, a crew went to Salyut and spent two weeks working aboard the station. Unfortunately, they died during the return flight due to a pressure leak in their Soyuz 11 capsule. Eventually, the Soviets solved their Soyuz issues and the Salyut years led to a joint cooperation project with NASA on the Apollo Soyuz project. Later on, the two countries cooperated on a series of Shuttle-Mir dockings, and the building of the International Space Station (and partnerships with Japan and the European Space Agency). The Mir Years The most successful space station built by the Soviet Union flew from 1986 through 2001. It was called Mir and assembled on orbit (much as the later ISS was). It hosted a number of crew members from the Soviet Union and other countries in a show of space cooperation. The idea was to keep a long-term research outpost in low-Earth orbit, and it survived many years until its funding was cut. Mir is the only space station that was built by one countrys regime and then run by the successor to that regime. It happened when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 and formed the Russian Federation. Regime Change The Soviet space program faced interesting times as Union began to crumble in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Instead of the Soviet space agency, Mir and its Soviet cosmonauts (who became Russian citizens when the country changed) came under the aegis of Roscosmos, the newly formed Russian space agency. Many of the design bureaus that had dominated space and aerospace design were either shut down or reconstituted as private corporations. The Russian economy went through major crises, which affected the space program. Eventually, things stabilized and the country moved ahead with plans to participate in the International Space Station, plus resume launches of weather and communications satellites. Today, Roscosmos has weathered changes in the Russian space industrial sector and is moving ahead with new rocket designs and spacecraft. It remains part of the ISS consortium and has announced Instead of the Soviet space agency, Mir and its Soviet cosmonauts (who became Russian citizens when the country changed) came under the aegis of Roscosmos, the newly formed Russian Space Agency. It has announced interest in future lunar missions and is working on new rocket designs and satellite updates. Eventually, the Russians would like to go to Mars, as well, and continue solar system exploration.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Antigone Essays (457 words) - Antigone, Civil Disobedience, Creon Antigone Sophocles' trilogy of Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone is a powerful, tragic tale that examines the nature of human guilt, fate and punishment. Creon, Oedipus' uncle and brother-in-law, is the story's most dynamic character. His character experiences a drastic metamorphosis through the span of the three dramas. Creon's vision of a monarch's proper role, his concept of and respect for justice, as well as his respect for the design evolve considerably by the trilogy's tragic conclusion. In Oedipus the King (OK) , the audience is introduced to a Creon who seems to put loyalty to the king above all. He sympathizes with the tragic plight of King Oedipus and asserts no apparent ambition himself. His attitude toward the king is one of yielding and fulfilling reverence. Creon's notion of justice in OK stems directly from the divine. That which the gods have decreed must become law. It pains Creon to have Oedipus exiled, but he must do so as the gods have willed it. Creon's respect for divinity and prophecy seems to be his defining trait in OK. His attitude is one of unquestioning reverence. In Oedipus at Colonus (OC), one sees the beginning of Creon's decline. Creon has now come to occupy the throne that once belonged to Oedipus. It soon becomes apparent that his vision of the proper role of a king has changed to accommodate his new-found position. The emphasis shifts from that of a king who must rule wisely to one who must rule unyieldingly. The kingship becomes a selfserving instrument for Creon in his attempt to secure the return of Oedipus and the good fortune prophesied to accompany him. Creon's notion of justice is severely distorted in OC. He becomes monomaniacal - conducting his affairs with tyranny and belligerence. For example, he threatens to harm Oedipus' daughters if the blind beggar does not return to Thebes. His view of rightness and fairness is no longer in line with that of his subjects. In OC, Creon still retains some respect for divine prophecies. These have after all motivated his desire to return Oedipus to Thebes. Antigone reveals the ultimate extent to which Creon's character deteriorates. His transformation completes itself; he has become an unreasonable tyrant. Creon can no longer be called a king. He has become a despot. There is absolutely no justice to be found. Violence and threats of violence are the tools by which he rules. For example, his senseless threats to an innocent sentry reveal the true extent of his loss of reason. Creon has distorted the proclamation against Polyneices' burial, which was originally intended to foster Theban unity, into a display of rashness and incompetence. There is no mention of the gods and their intentions on Creon's behalf in Antigone. He has been so far destroyed by his own power as to dismiss the divine will that he originally thrived on.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Why has mental health policy been neglected - Essay Example onomically handicapped countries would rise to problematic proportions if measures are not adopted to give ample attention to these ill people and treat them too. If the Government is deaf and blind to the needs of the mentally ill, the chances are that the problem is going to be blown out of proportions. The mentally ill are looked after by relatives who can ill-afford the cost of treatment apart from arranging the care. Mental ill health also has an impact on the other physical illnesses that a human can have (BBC News, 2007). This finally will result in a situation where medical help, social support and therapy do not reach the ill person for want of resources. There is an opinion saying that (Tabish, 2005, p. 34). The well being of a person is dependent on all the three together but the crucial component is undoubtedly mental health. Mental well-being includes the behaviours which provide an atmosphere of confidence and satisfaction. This person with good mental health would exhibit enhanced self efficacy, autonomy, general competence, intergenerational dependence and emotional intelligence. Like any physiological illness, mental ill-health is the consequence of the interaction between the biological, psychological and social factors (Tabish, 2005, p. 34). Neuroendocrine and immune functioning act through one pathway and health behaviour as a second pathway contribute to mental health. Social factors like uncontrolled urbanization, poverty and rapid technological innovation are significantly bothering mental health. Mental ill health is seen in about 25% of people at some time in their lives. The illness affects all types of people in all countries, men and women, and children, the rich and the poor, urban and rural alike. This universal nature causes a heavy economic impact on societies. 20% of patients in the primary health centre are coming under the umbrella of mental illness with one or more mental illnesses (Tabish, 2005, p. 34). Four families would
Friday, November 1, 2019
Oppression and power within diversity and inclusion - Essay Example The concept of oppression and power within educational systems and from social stigmas create different expectations within society. Specifically, there is a sense of oppression and power that is based on creating and defining boundaries and expectations among specific identities. While the forms of oppression come with associations from race, class and gender, there are also more subtle forms of oppression which I have noted among the classroom and those that are categorized according to various formats. For the terms and conditions of oppression and power to change, a different concept of power needs to be formed. This is based on changing characteristics of leadership while redefining both personal and institutional powers that lead to forms of oppression while creating a sense of diversity and inclusion. The concept of oppression and power is one which is formed with a sense of lacking equality among groups. Specifically, there is social stratification that takes place among grou ps and which creates an imbalance among groups that hold a specific identity. The problem which arises is one that is based on social and institutional powers that combine to change the lack of justice and equality among groups while defining and creating boundaries that are accepted among groups at higher levels. As this moves into the individual mannerisms, it begins to create social stigmas and formats of how one should behave and approach others. The dividing lines then begin with the powers of those who define the institutional and social powers that are unequal and lead to individual behaviors that continue with this particular problem (Sensoy & DiAngelo, 2012). While the power of oppression has led to institutional and social alterations, there is also an understanding that the group and individual powers have altered with the understanding that this needs to change. The result has been a backlash in the format of oppression and power. This has led to a sense of deculturaliza tion within institutions. Not recognizing differences or identities has become one of the growing trends, specifically with promises for equality and justice that have become more important. This particular concept is based on changing the levels of education and development within society while creating even more value to the educational expectations among those that are receiving an education (Spring, 2006). The backlash that has been taken with oppression and power is one which I have found to not create consistent efforts for change. The first problem is that many within social orders still recognize the identity differences. At the same time, many teachers and administrators continue to exercise a sense of oppression by labeling others in a different way, such as through learning systems. The concept of inclusion by trying to not notice the culture within a classroom is creating even more difficulties with developing a sense of inclusion from other formats. While the concept of deculturalizaation works at an institutional level to form policies while creating gaps within the system at a social level, others are formatting different responses which are expected to alter the educational system and the sense of oppression or inclusion. The recognition and trend has moved from not recognizing culture and focusing on equality into one which is based on the multicultural classroom. The initiative which this is creating is one which is based on understanding the different levels of diversity while noticing that there are differences between each student based on various cultures and formats. This particular application is one which demands equality but at the same time recognizes a sense of diversity is required for those that are within the classroom. This is continuous with trying to define the identity and behaviors while welcoming the diversity that is within the school system and which is a part of the main format for those that are working at an institutio nal level (Pang & Shimogori, 2011). It is the format of believing in multicultural