Saturday, August 31, 2019

Curley’s Wife Essay

Examine how your chosen novelist presents a particular character. Refer closely to the text in your answer to support your views. In this essay I will explore â€Å"Of Mice and Men† written by John Steinbeck and how the author represents the character â€Å"Curley’s Wife† who is a vindictive and cruel person throughout the story up until near to her death Steinbeck portrays her as â€Å"can be nice†. Curley’s Wife from the start was seen as property of Curley and Steinbeck has never mentioned that Curley’s Wife never had a name and is always referred to as ‘Curley’s Wife’ the possessive apostrophe is symbolic Curley’s Wife was very flirtatious ‘She put her hands behind her back and leaned against the door frame so that her body was thrown forward’. She was also very lonely because her husband didn’t love her and only wanted her as property. Steinbeck first introduced Curley’s Wife as a girl not a woman which implies that she is looked down upon and obviously isn’t yet worthy enough to be a woman. She always pr etends to be looking for Curley for an excuse to talk to the other men on the ranch and flirts with them and when Slim tells her Curley is in the house she instantly runs off this would mean that she’s scared of Curley and doesn’t want to socialize with him. She wears red clothing as sign as danger to men and is responsible of her death because Lennie has a mind of a seven year old and her red clothing attracts Lennie. She likes to talk to George and Lennie even though she doesn’t know them. Candy discriminates Curley’s Wife by saying ‘Curley’s married†¦ a tart’. He warns George and Lennie about her. The novel is set in the 1930’s at the time of the great depression in America. The woman back then had then had no rights and was classed as ‘property’ of their husbands. Also racism was a problem and the black people also had no rights. They were treating as slaves. Crooks in Of Mice and Men is black and Curley’s Wife is racist towards him numerous times throughout the story ‘Well you keep your trap shut, Nigger’, she also calls Lennie horrible names such ‘Dum-Dum’ because of his disability. Because of the great depression in the 1930’s and employers wouldn’t employ woman because of the discrimination, she couldn’t leave Curley because she couldn’t afford to. She also attacks Candy and calls him ‘a lousy ol’ sheep’ because he is  old and not very active he also follows round with the group (Curley, Crooks G&L etc). In part 5 of the story we see a softer side of Curley’s wife because she shares her hopes and with Lennie. She sees herself in movies and hopes to be a big Hollywood star. She herself was once taken advantage of by a man who stated that he would make her hopes and dreams come true

Discussion and Application Questions Essay

1. (a) The mission statement should be a clear, short, and to the point representation of the companies purpose for existence. It should incorporate socially meaningful and measurable criteria addressing concepts such as the moral/ethical position of the enterprise, public image, the target market, products/services, the geographic domain and expectations of growth and profitability. The intent of the Mission Statement should be the first consideration for any employee who is evaluating a strategic decision. The statement can range from a very simple to a very complex set of ideas. (b) Medtronic gives a strategic direction to its organization by committing to the research, design, manufacturing, and the sale of their product. (c) My career mission statement: Obtain my degree to position myself for future advancement within the organization I work. Exceed expectations by persistence, professionalism, and integrity. 2.(a) Empire State competencies is providing adult education through individualizes degree programs, distance learning, and flexible independent studies. (b) My favorite restaurant competencies are customer service and a large variety of beer and soups. (c) Dell’s competencies are customer service and technology. 3.The main result of each of the three phases of the strategic marketing process. (a) Planning: Marketing plans (or programs) that define goals and the marketing mix strategies to achieve them. (b)Implementation: Results (memos or computer outputs) that describe the outcomes of implementing the plans. (c)Control: Corrective action memos, triggered by comparing results with plans, that (1) suggest solutions to problems and (2) take advantage of opportunities. 4. Select one strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat from the SWOT analysis for Ben and Jerry’s shown in Figure 2-6, and suggest a specific possible action that Unilever might take to exploit or address each one. Strength: Prestigious, well-known brand name among U.S. consumers and Unilever can expand its growth globally as is a market for quality ice cream. Weakness: Need for experience managers to help grow. Unilever is the world’s largest ice cream company and has the resources Ben and Jerry need. Opportunity: Unilever can help Ben and Jerry react to the demand for frozen yogurt and other low-fat desserts by using their knowledge and experience. Threat: Pillsbury and Haagen-Dazs brands are their competitor’s and Unilever being the largest ice cream company would help them increase their market share.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Chemistry Lab Report on standardization of acid and bases Essay

Purpose: To prepare standardize solution of sodium hydroxide and to determine the concentration of unknown sulfuric acid solution. Data and Calculations: This experiment is divided into two parts (Part A and Part B). In the first part of experiment, the standardize solution of sodium hydroxide is prepared by titrating it with base Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). The indicator Phenolphthalein is used to determine that whether titration is complete or not. PART A: Standardization of a Sodium Hydroxide solution NaOH Sample Code = O Trial 1 Mass of KHP transferred = 0.42 g Volume of Distilled water = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 22.50 mL Molar mass of KHP = 204.22 g/mol No. of moles of KHP = Mass of KHP used / Molar mass = 0.42 g / 204.22 g/mol = 0.0021 moles Concentration of NaOH = No. of moles / Volume = [0.0021 mol / {(22.50 + 25) / 1000} L] * 100 = 4.4 M Trial 2 Mass of KHP transferred = 0.4139 g Volume of Distilled water = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 22.80 mL Molar mass of KHP = 204.22 g/mol No. of moles of KHP = Mass of KHP used / Molar mass = 0.4139 g / 204.22 g/mol = 0.0020267 moles Concentration of NaOH = No. of moles / Volume = [0.0020267 mol / {(22.80 + 25) / 1000} L] * 100 = 4.24 M Trial 3 Mass of KHP transferred = 0.4239 g Volume of Distilled water = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 23.10 mL Molar mass of KHP = 204.22 g/mol No. of moles of KHP = Mass of KHP used / Molar mass = 0.4239 g / 204.22 g/mol = 0.0020757 moles Concentratio n of NaOH = No. of moles / Volume = [0.0020757 mol / {(23.10 + 25) / 1000} L] * 100 = 4.32 M Trial 4 Mass of KHP transferred = 0.4311 g Volume of Distilled water = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 22.60 mL Molar mass of KHP = 204.22 g/mol No. of moles of KHP = Mass of KHP used / Molar mass = 0.4311 g / 204.22 g/mol = 0.0021109 moles Concentration of NaOH = No. of moles / Volume = [0.0021109 mol / {(22.60 + 25) / 1000} L] * 100 = 4.43 M Table: Trail 1 Mass weighing bottle + KHP (g) Mass empty weighing bottle (g) Mass of KHP transferred (g) Initial volume of burette, Vi (mL) Final Volume of burette, Vf(mL) Volume of NaOH used (mL) Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 11.561 11.6217 11.6113 11.6329 11.1461 11.2078 11.1874 11.2018 0.4200 0.4139 0.4239 0.4311 4.30 6.30 10.1 33.20 26.80 29.10 33.20 55.80 22.50 22.80 23.10 22.60 Concentration of NaOH (moles/L) 4.4 4.24 4.32 Average concentration of NaOH = [4.4 M + 4.24 M + 4.32 M + 4.43 M] / 4 = 4.35 M 1. % Difference between Trial 1 and Trail 2 = [4.24 M / 4.4 M] * 100 % = 96.3 % Difference = (100 – 96.3) % = 3.7 % 2. % Difference between Trial 2 and Trail 3 = [4.24 M / 4.32 M] * 100 % = 98.1 % Difference = (100 – 98.1) % = 1.9 % 3. % Difference between Trial 3 and Trail 4 = [4.32 M / 4.43 M] * 100 % = 97.5 % Difference = (100 – 97.5) % = 2.5 % 4.43 Observations: KHP is white color crystals and has definite shape. NaOH is clear and transparent solution with no color. In the first trial, after adding 90 drops of NaOH solution there was repeatedly appearance and disappearance of light pink color. When the whole solution of KHP and water get titrated then, the color of solution becomes light pink and it stays permanently. The same color changes happen with the next three trials. Concentration of NaOH was almost similar for every trials. PART B: Concentration of Sulfuric Acid solution H2SO4 Sample Code = 34 Trial 1: Volume diluted acid = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 14.39 mL H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) 2H2O (l) + 2Na2SO4 (aq) Average concentration of NaOH = 4.35 M No. of moles of NaOH = (Average concentration of NaOH) * (Volume of NaOH used) = 4.35 M * (14.39 / 1000) L = 0.0626 moles No. of moles of H2SO4 = 0.0626 mol / 2 = 0.0313 moles Concentration of H2SO4 = No. of moles / (volume of diluted acid / 1000) = 0.0313 mol / (25 / 1000) L = 1.2 M Trial 2: Volume diluted acid = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 13.51 mL H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) 2H2O (l) + 2Na2SO4 (aq) Average concentration of NaOH = 4.35 M No. of moles of NaOH = (Average concentration of NaOH) * (Volume of NaOH used) = 4.35 M * (13.51 / 1000) L = 0.0588 moles No. of moles of H2SO4 = 0.0588 mol / 2 = 0.0294 moles Concentration of H2SO4 = No. of moles / (volume of diluted acid / 1000) = 0.0294 mol / (25 / 1000) L = 1.2 M Trial 3: Volume diluted acid = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 14.10 mL H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) 2H2O (l) + 2Na2SO4 (aq) Av erage concentration of NaOH = 4.35 M No. of moles of NaOH = (Average concentration of NaOH) * (Volume of NaOH used) = 4.35 M * (14.10 / 1000) L = 0.0613 moles No. of moles of H2SO4 = 0.0613 mol / 2 = 0.0307 moles Concentration of H2SO4 = No. of moles / (volume of diluted acid / 1000) = 0.0307 mol / (25 / 1000) L = 1.2 M Trial 4: Volume diluted acid = 25 mL Volume of NaOH used = 14.20 mL H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) 2H2O (l) + 2Na2SO4 (aq) Average concentration of NaOH = 4.35 M No. of moles of NaOH = (Average concentration of NaOH) * (Volume of NaOH used) = 4.35 M * (14.20 / 1000) L = 0.0618 moles No. of moles of H2SO4 = 0.0618 mol / 2 = 0.0309 moles Concentration of H2SO4 = No. of moles /  (volume of diluted acid / 1000) = 0.0309 mol / (25 / 1000) L = 1.2 M % Difference between Trail 1 and Trail 2 = [1.2 M / 1.2 M] * 100 % = 100 % Difference = (100 – 100) % =0% % Difference between Trail 1 and Trail 2 = [1.2 M / 1.2 M] * 100 % = 100 % Difference = (100 – 100) % =0% % Diff erence between Trail 1 and Trail 2 = [1.2 M / 1.2 M] * 100 % = 100 % Difference = (100 – 100) % =0% % Difference between Trail 1 and Trail 2 = [1.2 M / 1.2 M] * 100 % = 100 % Difference = (100 – 100) % =0% Table 2: Trail 1 Volume diluted acid titrated (mL) Initial Volume of burette, Vi (mL) Final Volume of burette, Vf (mL) Volume NaOH used (mL) Concentration Of Sulfuric Acid Trail 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 25 25 25 25 2.41 17.20 8.50 22.60 16.94 30.71 22.60 36.80 14.39 13.51 14.10 14.20 1.2 M 1.2 M 1.2 M 1.2 M Observations: The H2SO4 is colorless and transparent liquid. The NaOH solution is colorless, odorless and transparent liquid. While doing the first trail, there were continuous appearance and disappearance of light pink color. After adding 10 mL of NaOH solution the pink color starts appearing. At certain volume the light pink color appeared, indicating that titration is done. The indictor phenolphthalein has no color and there was no specific odor of reagent. Discussion: Average concentration of NaOH solution was 4.35 M. There are many sources of error in this experiment as we got some percentage differences in the two different trials. For the Trial 1 and Trial 2, the percentage difference is 3.7 % which is significant difference to be noted. This percentage difference could occur due to many reasons such as not measuring the KHP properly as we got 0.42 g for first trial and 0.4139 g for second trial of KHP for performing titration but it is more than required value as per literature value is concerned (0.40 g). The almost same percentagedifference occurs for next two trials (1.9 % and 2.5 %). The KHP is always 99.9 % pure, so the titration should give perfect results (Lab Manual). The other possible errors was due to the disturbance on the shelf by other students where analytical balance is placed in balance room, as it cause variability in the values in weight of KHP. In Part B of experiment, the average concentration of sulfuric was found to be 1.2 M and there was 100 % titration of both reagent (NaOH and H2SO4). This 100 % results comes due to significant figures, if significant figures would not be concerned then there would be error of 1.0 % to 2.0 % in every two trials. There was identical difference of volume of NaOH used to titrate the acid for each  trial due to some possible errors. The possible errors in this Part of experiment were same as for Part A, as the process is followed in the same way. The most significant error could occur by not shaking the flask properly while adding sodium hydroxide solution and not recognizing the pink color on the instant it appears and adding the NaOH solution vigorously into the sulfuric acid. Questions: The 10 mL volumetric pipette is rinse 2 or 5 times to make sure there is no bubble inside because air bubble can cause error in the measurement of concentration because the actual volume of unknown will be less. The accuracy and precision for both sets of experiment was almost same as there were percentage difference of concentrations lies only in 2 % to 4 %. The endpoints of titration for each set of trails in both cases (Part A and Part B) were almost same but there is little difference in volume of NaOH used which cause errors in accuracy and precision of experiment. Using the analytical balance is really careful job as it is most accurate weighing machine with accuracy of 0.0004 g (Lab Manual) and we need to be prà ©cised using the balance but some few disturbance can cause big error such as disturbance other students on the shelf it is placed on and not reading the balance properly and taking measurements fastly. Using Volumetric glassware is other method to be more accurate in experiment but there are some possible random error while reading the values such as not reading the lower meniscus of liquid cause error and not removing the air bubble from the burette and using the beaker in place graduated cylinder in case of volume as graduated cylinder is more accurate as compared to beaker (0.02 g) (Lab Manual). Sources of Experimental Error include: The Analytical balance could give wrong reading because of the disturbance due to other students on the shelf it is placed on. Also, taking the reading rapidly and not considering the reading when balance display gets steady. The possible error can occur using wrong glassware like using beaker instead of graduated cylinder. The error could occur while taking reading through graduated cylinder and not considering the lower meniscus of liquid. The air bubble in burette can cause error in the true value of NaOH used. Few drops of liquid remain in burette and volumetric pipette which causes the error. Not shaking the flask properly while adding the NaOH solution. Adding the NaOH solution vigorously into the flask. Not recognizing the pink color instantly as it appears.  Adding the more drops of indicator as needed (2 or 3 drops). The biggest error occur due to leaking of NaOH solution form burette, we lost 4 drops during every one trial and it cause the significant error in reading the volume of NaOH used. There is water left after washing the glass wares which can cause the error. This lab could be improved by improving the method of drying the graduated cylinder and beaker before filling it with the NaOH solution. The glassware could be dried by small amount of acetone. Any acetone could be removed by evaporation. Finally, the experimenter should remove the clinging droplets to the neck of burette and volumetric pipette by using Kim Wipe. Conclusion: After careful consideration of all the results and all the possible concentration, it is concluded that the average concentration of NaOH (sample code O) was 4.35 M and average concentration of H2SO4 (sample code 34) was 1.2 M.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Burj Khalifa Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Burj Khalifa - Assignment Example From the outset, we decided a leader and set about delegating tasks and dividing labor to be more productive (Murphy, pg.12). Someone was assigned to draw the schematic that we were to follow. Another pair was assigned to make the measurements and do the adequate research to ensure accurate replication. Moreover, assignments were made to ensure that there were a few people that were dedicated solely to the actual building of the tower, while someone was delegated the task of painting the tower, and finally, the most diligent of us all was selected to make final measurements and check to see whether everything has been up to par. Delegation of tasks really helped us save time, while allow each individual to focus on one task, making the whole project efficiently done throughout (Lussier & Achua, pg. 194). We started by drawing out a schematic picture of the tower, as we wanted to build it. This stage involved a lot of work as every line and angle had to be accurately drawn, as it woul d be the blue print we would be working against. Pictures of the tower were downloaded, and much research was done to get the images of the inside of the tower, with its floors, ceilings, and curvatures. Those of our team that were the best with a pencil got to work, and drew a good, detailed and revealing picture of the tower, with exact dimensions and angles. ... We used rulers, setsquares, and many protractors while building the erect tower. The base of the hotel was built using plaster of Paris hard clay that was left to dry overnight to give the model a hard, sturdy texture. The plaster was shaped into the curved "sail" that the hotel is often compared to by building it upright by adding layer upon layer of the plaster and making minute changes as it grew taller and took on its final shape. The final, top most portion of the tower, which was pointy was the hardest bit, and was made using a blade and a softer plaster to allow for finesse that is more delicate. Finally, after leaving the figure to dry, the rough edges of the top layer of the tower were scraped off with a blade, leaving a smooth, tall tower behind, that appeared majestic, even without being coloured into. Once the base of the tower and the building itself had been made, the painter got to work by painting the tower, adding details such as windows and lights that gave the towe r a realistic look. To ensure the colors were close to the actual building, we used color charts and different shades of paint. Finally, last measurements were made using the finest of rulers and vernier calipers to check whether the plan was adequately followed, and that the tower was really a miniature version of the hotel we had set out to replicate. Even though this was a very hard project, we were pleased with what we had achieved, although it was not without challenges. For example, during our planning stages we had not allowed enough time for the Plaster to dry up and harden, and so, once we continued to mold it after letting it stand for a few hours, we felt it give.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The mutual effect between quality and cost management Essay

The mutual effect between quality and cost management - Essay Example The scope when measured accurate results in the project’s success, more so in terms of quality. Finally, cost the main focus of the paper often pays attention to the total amount of money that is needed to ensure that the project is finished up. Cost is said to be a resource sacrificed or foregone so as to achieve a specific objective (Schwalbe, 2014); costs are consequently measured in monetary amounts. Being an important aspect of project completion entails any given aspect of the project that requires some sort of funding. Aspects like; cost of materials to be utilized, labor charges, risk estimates and others. This only reflects the fact that project do cost money even more reason as to why project managers ought to understand Project Cost Management. For instance, if the original or official cost estimates of a project are low due to unclear project requirements and stipulations; chances are that cost overruns are to be incurred. However, if a good project cost management technique is to be applied, then cost overruns throughout the project can be avoided. Project Cost Management (PCM) often sees to it that the project team in place completes a project within an approved budget. Therefore, this only means that the project has to be well defined with accurate time and cost estimates. Eventually, the project manager has to ensure that project stakeholders are satisfied while at the same time making sure that costs are reduced and controlled. Therefore, this is to say that project management aims at fulfilling the needs and expectations of stakeholders; thus if a stakeholder is dissatisfied only more time will be invested and higher costs incurred. Stakeholder satisfaction is attained through quality; and this is only possible when cost of quality is measured and analysed. PCM usually does operate on the foundation of various

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Cause-Effect essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cause-Effect - Essay Example For couples in the countryside, a little leeway is given. They are allowed two children. Any succeeding child though is equivalent to heavy fines. This restriction has resulted into mass abortions, abusive behavior from officials and a lot of male children. In China, it is customary for the sons to take care of their parents in their old age. Between having a son or a daughter, the obvious choice then is to have a male child. The girls are married off, implying a transfer of responsibilities to the girls’ in-laws. Daniela Deane writes â€Å"in the absence of a social security system, having a son is the difference between starving and eating when one is old†. (80) Because of China’s one-child policy, this has brought in a generation of male children who are obese, lazy and rude. As Deane continues, there exists a 4-2-1syndrome – four grandparents and two parents who zealously ensure that their son has a comfortable life. (78) They feed him anything he wants. They lavish him with attention. They spend hard-earned money on extra-curricular lessons for him. They act like he’s the most precious thing in the world and he is. He is their ticket to a secure life as senior citizens. One example in Deaneâ€⠄¢s essay would be the woman who wanted an operation to revert a previous ligation she had just to have another child as her only son had perished in a car accident. (83) This obsession with male children has other effects than only spoiled male offsprings. For those who are capable of paying fines for another child, their daughters are often neglected. For some who are not so fortunate, daughters are abandoned, neglected or worse, killed. Some moms give birth in seclusion. Baby girls are left in hospitals or in empty lots and open fields, sometimes even on sidewalks. Those who belong to families are not given as much love or attention as the male children. As Deane reported in her essay, the number of missing

Monday, August 26, 2019

Frist assay in helth an safety management Essay

Frist assay in helth an safety management - Essay Example It includes both large scale civic surroundings i.e. places of work, as well as personal places such as homes. The phrase, today, has been widely known and used to illustrate the interdisciplinary field of study which seeks to address various aspects of man – made surrounding such as its design, management, and safety issues in relation to human activities. The construction industry has a disturbingly low safety mechanism as compared to the other industries where accidents which involves temporary access systems, fitting of defective components, unauthorized modification of structures, omission of barriers as well as other more common factors arising on account of management failure such as failure to control and prevent risk, unsafe methods and practices, and inadequate training and supervision account for a large proportion of injuries in the construction industry worldwide1. Although the construction industry has been widely appreciated for making major contributions in accelerating development across the globe, its image has been tarnished by the number of accidents and health hazards that occur on an almost regular basis on the sites. This research paper deals with the various aspects involved in the workplace safety management practices with regard to the construction industry. It analyses and discusses the contemporary issues, current trends and strategies that could be used to improve the working conditions and reduce the health hazards which are faced by construction workers. According to HSE approximately 2.2 million3 people work in Britain’s construction industry, which is incidentally considered to be one of the most dangerous places to work, making it one of the largest industries in the country. Statistics suggest that nearly 2800 people have died as a result of accidents on construction sites in the past 25 years4. Most of the accidents occurring on

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Finance interview summary Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Finance interview summary - Assignment Example However, this exercise was nothing like that. It was an informational interview about career prospects in two areas that I would be most interested in. I am doing a specialization in Finance and Accounting and would also like to look at Human Resources and Administration as an alternative field. The prime reason for this is that when it comes to a downturn in the economy, it is far better to be on the other side of the table letting people go, than being a victim yourself. I first interviewed Mr. Keith Sherin, Vice President of Finance at General Electric and secondly Mr. John Lynch, who was the Vice President of Human Resources at the same organization. Summary of First Interview Q. 1. Mr. Sherin, how would you describe the job you handle as VP of Finance at General Electric? Being VP of Finance of a company as large as General Electric, I am sure you will realize entails a lot of different responsibilities. Finance as you understand is the lifeblood of modern business. In fact peop le are ready to do business with you as long as you have a good reputation in the market and can be trusted and are ethically sound. The lines of cash and credit open to organizations as large and varied as General Electric are many. In fact there are banks and other lending institutions wanting to do business with us. ... Finance is not only about generating funds for projects but the proper use of these funds when in excess. One can pay back a loan in advance, create a sinking fund for replacement of key assets or even buy back stock available in the market. In fact I find it very exciting and challenging and no two days are ever the same. Finance is also about controlling the market value of the shares and maximization of shareholder wealth and prevention of a dilution in value or a hostile takeover (Brigham & Ehrhardt, 2009). So the responsibilities are quite varied. Q. 2. How did this interview affect my knowledge about career interests and my own career exploration? I was really impressed with the wide ranging responsibilities of the VP Finance at GE. I could see that authority was commensurate with the responsibilities that a VP Finance had- it was not all about meetings, but the need to make decisions about the flow and direction of the business. Finance was needed to assist in meeting business plans and current situations and a proper effort at financial planning and budgeting was necessary to meet these ends. The VP Finance had to have an overview of budgeting, cash flows, interest payments, bank dealings and all such related matters. It was certainly more difficult than I had expected. Q. 3. What new information, ideas, and insights did I gain from the Interview? For one thing, it requires a dynamic personality with the ability to motivate people to listen to you. You should have the ability to lead and direct subordinates on how to prepare stuff for meetings for internal purposes as well as banks or other institutions. It is not a desk job but

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Journals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Journals - Essay Example The Seattle man stands at 48 feet and weighs 26,000 pounds, each hammering man has a unique number instead of a name like most artistic work, for example, the man is Seattle is numbered #3277164. The typical hammering man statue is made up of hollow fabricated steel, and mechanized arm made from aluminum and operated by an electric motor, the whole contraption is covered in black automotive paint. The most striking aspect of the hammering man is that unlike other works of art that remain static throughout, the aluminum arm, hammers four times every minute as its run by a 3-hp electric motor set on automatic timing to keep the movement steady. The fact that it is huge and painted black also sets it apart from the rest of the surrounding environment since most are brightly colored and I found its apparent intrusion into the landscape making it even more compelling. The hammering man’s primary significance is its representation of the worker, according to the artist; it celebrate s the every worker whether it is a village craftsman, a South African coal miner computer tech in DC or any other individual engaged in work effort. After observing it for a few minutes, I felt that, aside from representing the workers, it also holds a profound philosophical meaning as it helps individuals contemplate on the meanings of their lives. Through the sculpture, people can reflect on their own lives based on their interpretation and how they can relate it with various aspects of their lives (Borofsky). Furthermore, the hammering man despite being fundamentally a machine also attempts to humanize labor by only hammering till evening and taking breaks on Labor Day every year. At the end of the day, while the sculpture/s are crude in comparison to other more traditional forms of art, it there is no doubt that it carries a deep meaning and is very significant both as an artist and humanist symbol. The Rotary Tumble Muharrem Yildirim has a degree in computer science and much of his work is geared towards the enhancement of human and machine interaction, his media for generating art is computer graphics through which he creates interactive works. David Tinapple is an artist and engineer and his work is focused on the creation of tools to gather and analyze media real time media and interactive video environment. They goal of his work is to illuminate those forces that are constantly in action around the human environment and explore assumption humans make in their consideration of the world. These two talented individual pooled their complementary tools to come up with the Rotary Tumble; the main objective was to create a digital object which would be both interactive and physically tangible and to this end, they focused on the physical spinning or tumbling of an object. They contemplated the impact of making the computer aware of the position and motion of a spinning or tumbling body, they assumed that if it is aware of the objects exact projection and mo tion in real time, it can be accurately mapped in spins. As such, they created what can be termed as a DIY (do it yourself) optical rotary encoder which is made up of black and white strips printed in a radial pattern and carry a digital encoding of the angle of rotation. Through an 8 bit a

Friday, August 23, 2019

Evaluation model Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Evaluation model - Essay Example The sensitization will not only include educating the youth on ways of avoiding falling into addiction but will also be testing different models of ensuring the youth keep away from drug abuse. In addition to that, the program intents to implement models and techniques of breaking the cycle of youths addicted to drugs. The purpose and scope of the program is to identify the communities within Washington DC where drug abuse is prevalent and the incident rate for health related complications resulting from the addiction. The complications resulting from drug abuse will be identified and categorized. These effects will be grouped and assessed in the following categories; spiritual, emotional, mental, social and financial health. Drug abuse among the youths in Washington DC will be gauged on the basis of subpopulation within the city. This will be an attempt to help unearth communities where incidences of drug abuse are high. A detailed analysis of each subpopulation will proceed to determine its socioeconomic status, level of education, the rate of crime and access to drugs. The main that will be used in the third assessment of the communities is categorical socioeconomic status of the communities. This aspect will categorize the community in terms of the community with high socioeconomic status, the one in between and the one on the lower end of the socioeconomic status. This way, it would be easy for Discover Hope organization to come up with a hypothesis from the results that will draw a relationship between a community’s socioeconomic status, level of education and drug abuse. Using that criteria in assessing the relationship of drug and substance abuse within the communities, conclusive results will enable identification of the target community and Discover Hope will be in a position to roll out its program in the most effective way

Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Case Study Example So, he measured high on the self awareness. Other than that, he did not control his emotions, so his score on self management is very low. He lost all hope for building his career in the company, and therefore took the extreme steps which speaks of his low score on self motivation. He did not understand Marilyn’s reason for disapproving his promotion, so he measured low on empathy. He took actions against the peers because of poor social skills which earned him bad name in the company. 2. Alex needs to improve his emotional intelligence particularly on the dimensions of empathy and social skills. He should have realized how abrupt he used to talk on the phone, and how often he refused to provide answers through emails when he was required to do so by his peers. He should make a written note of apology to the company’s owners and all of the management and peers. 3. Alex’s suspension and recommendation for his termination is very justified given his misconduct and lack of consideration for the reputation of the company.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Earthquakes in GCC countries Essay Example for Free

Earthquakes in GCC countries Essay An Earthquake known also as tremor is resulted from a sudden release of energy ,which takes place in the earths crust, which then creates seismic waves. They are vibrations triggered by movement of rocks that have been strained (deformed) beyond their elastic limit. This activity called seismicity or seismism of an area refers to type , size and frequency over a time period. Earthquakes are measured using many instruments ( up to atleast 20 different types of measures) seismometers and the richter scale are most common and known, and ranges from 1. hich is the smallest to 9. 0, typically the highest possible value of any earthquake . They occur along faults, faults are fractures in the lithosphere caused by regions of rock rubbing against each other and become displaced. Earthquake terms: Seismic waves: These spread out towards all directions when the fault ruptures. Focus: The location from where the seismic waves are released. Epicenter: The point directly above the focus, on the earths surface. Earthquake damage depends on a number of factors such as: Distance from epicenter Magnitude of the earthquake Type of building construction (materials etc) Time of day Population around epicenter and other damages. Earthquakes forecasting Scientists have not been so successful in finding ways to make short term predictions as they seem to be very unpredictable however a lot of research and effort has been put into this in hope of finding a reliable system or device for short term earthquake environments scientists can make accounts of reasonable forecasts of where and how large an earthquake might be. In GCC: In the United Arab Emirates over the years a few minor earthquakes have taken lace, as assumed earlier this is no longer safe from this natural disaster. Especially with neighboring countries having major earthquakes such as Iran, which now has raised many questions as to if there is only a matter of time till when UAE faces one. GCC are now being monitored by several groups from United states of America and local groups also in the IJAE. Every year some earthquake tremors are felt due to the ones that have occurred in Iran and these vary in magnitude. Iran sits on multiple fault lines because of which the country faces earthquakes nearly everyday. n the 20th century itself, earthquakes have taken 126,000 lives according to the Encyclopedia Iranica. Sharjah residents of the Madam area situated on the Dubai-Fujairah road experienced a moderate intensity earthquake(3. 1)of Jus a few seconds,which sent panic waves across the residents forcing them to come out in the open when things stared moving inside their homes and business however no losses or deaths were resulted. This was a 1st time that the area noticed an earthquake generated locally. The last earthquake experienced by the region was on the 8th of May last year when 5. 5 magnitude earthquake hit the northern emirates 67 kms from Fujairah in the seas of the Gulf of Oman. Seismologists say, the UAE is located close to the Major Earthquake Zone and also has 3 local fault zones located at Wadi Ham,near Dibba, and between Bidyah and Jebel Sahal. Plates and Fault lines in the Region: A UAE based geologist suggests that Iran-style earthquakes are very unlikely to occur in the IJAE, because the tremore felt in the I-JAE are not caused by the same factors as those in Iran. Dr. Fowler suggested that in the area where maximum amount of aterial is being pushed aside,right at the edge of the plate is where most earthquakes occur,hence Iran. He also added that stresses become weaker and weaker the further they get from the egde,so Dubai is a much safer location where ther isnt any direct tectonic stress effects,ruling out the possibility of bigger earthquakes. Stresses are transmitted and that builds up to a bigger quake however before the build up there are lots of smaller quakes, there is no particular reason for the stresses to build up to a bigger quake though. Kuwaiti seismologist Dr. Faryal Bu Rabee has warned that a major earthquake is imminent in Iran which would have disastrous effects on the Gulf Arab states. He suggested that the epicenter would be in the Kerman area of South Iran, located north of the UAE. The last earthquake which magnitude earthquake on the 24th of November ,2005. Dr Fowler based her calculation on historic and scientific factors adding that the earthquake magnitudes could go up to 8 on the Richter scale. She also said that such earthquakes can result in a Tsunami which other scientists do not agree with,according to them a tsunami in he gulf is very unlikely because it is not deep enough. The Sea of oman which borders Iran opens into the larger n vast Arabian Sea where tsunamis have been recorded in the past. The last earthquake to rock the region was a 5. 9 February 08 quake, which was 10kms deep and located at about 250 kms frm Dubai Abu Dhabi. She also said any earthquake that occurs in the southern region of Iran frm the Zagros Mountains to the Makran Coast will have an effect on the Gulf Arab states. On Nov 28 1945, an 8. 1 magnitude quake had hit the Arabian Sea resulting in a tsunami that reached as far as Pakistan and India. Tsunami Hawaii-Based researcher George Pararas studied the Makran quake and tsunami,which caused 13metre waves of the Markan coast and 11 metre waves on the Gujrat India Coast killing 4000 people off the Makran coast. Fowler concluded by saying earthquake activity is not frequent in the country and it would definately take much longer to identify the trends on the Seismic activity in the region as compared to other regions that are more earthquake prone. However I-JAES close proximity to Iran which sits on multiple fault lines means that most the earthquakes felt there will also be felt in the IJAE.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

History of Catherine II of Russia

History of Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia who is commonly referred as Catherine the Great was the Russian Empress from 1762 until her death in 1796. Catherine’s real names were â€Å"Yekaterina II Velikaya†. She was in the category of the â€Å"Enlightened despots† who were rulers influenced by the enlightened principles that embraced religious tolerance, freedom of speech, press and property. Catherine was born as Sophie Augusta Fredirica to her father Christian August., the Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst and her mother Johanna Elisabeth of Holstein Gottorp. She thus was from a noble family. She received her education from a French governess and included other tutors. Catherine’s parents were devout Lutherans. In 1745 she was to married to Tsar Peter of Holstein Gottorp becoming the Princess. Because of her ambition to get married and become a princess, she abandoned her father’s religion and instead converted to Orthodox Church. The eminent marriage also forced her to learn French, which she did with so much effort to an extent that she got a severe pneumonia attack, because of walking barefoot in her bedroom repeating the Russian lessons. Her and her husband Peter settled in the Palace of Oranienbaum. Unfortunately her husband was immature and impotent and became unfaithful to her. This eventually led to the breakup of their marriage. Catherine read widely on and befriended many powerful political groups that opposed her husband. Empress Elizabeth died on 1762 and Peter succeeded her to become Peter III of Russia. This made them move to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. Automatically Catherine became the Empress. By then they had a son named Paul who was the heir-apparent in case of the father’s death. In July of that year, there was a bloodless coup where Peter was dethroned by the Leib Guard who were the military personal guards of the Emperor of Russia. The throne was bequeathed to Catherine; she reigned till she died in 1796. After six months as a Prince and three days after disposition, Peter III died at Ropsha. Catherine the great was very intelligent, hardworking and had a very strong will. Her ambition to become the Empress of Russia saw her strike sharply at those who seemed to try and replace her with the rightful heir of the throne, Paul her eldest son. In her reign Catherine broadened Russian Empires’ boarders both to the south and the north absorbing new Russia, Crimea, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus and Courland. Catherine was eventually able to expand the Russian territory to 518,000 kilometer squared. This was not an easy task bearing in mind that the expansion was at the expense of the Ottoman Empire and the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth. She was able to achieve all this through a very shrewd statesman named Nikita Panin. In her initial years of her reign, Catherine directed most of her efforts towards making her position in the throne more stable. This was to enable her have an extended period of peace in order for her to be effective in other domestic affairs and foreign affairs. She understood the essence of a cautious foreign policy, which Panin did on her behalf. Panin fell out with her after his plans to counter the power of the Bourbon and Habsburg who had formed a league failed. It was not until 1764 that she felt secure and stable enough to start working on reformation towards improving social conditions in Russia. For such expansive reformation Catherine utilized the ideas of the enlightenment. It was through such ideas that she undertook to change Russia’s old legal system that was inefficient because it was based on the code of laws that dated from 1649. Towards this end she came up with a proposal she called â€Å"The instructions† which was circulated through out Europe and turned out to be a sensation. This is because it provided for a very advanced level of legal system. The legal system was to be enshrined on the principles of equal protection and prevention of criminal acts. This was as opposed to the previous method of meting out harsh punishment. In 1767 Catherine formed a legislative commission to revise the old laws using â€Å"The instruction† as the basis. The commission failed the set purpose leading to the suspension of the review. After Panin fell out with Catherine in 1781, she replaced him with Alexander Bezborodko who was a Ukrainian born councilor. Because of her ideas from the Enlightment, Catherine commissioned the Court betskoy whose sole purpose was to draw up plans to ensure the provision of education for all boys and girls through out Russia. The type of education she advocated for was the European style. As a result of her efforts schools and universities were established throughout Russia. This led to the foundation, for the first time of special girls’ schools in Russia. This also led to the establishment of a medical college whose sole purpose was to provide adequate health care for all the citizens. One good example is the Smolny Institute for girls, which was founded in St. Petersburg. Catherine rarely used violence to consolidate power and strengthen her grip on Russia. However, she resorted to other methods that usually proved very effective. For example during her time the church had become quite powerful, to weaken it she seized the church’s wealth and then employed the clergy as state employees. Foreign affairs demanded much of her attention between 1768 and1774. Catherine made Russia as the most powerful empire during this time. This came about after the first Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Empire. This war included the Battle of Chesma (1770) and the battle of Kagul (1770). This war began after Catherine sent Russian troops to support her former lover Stanislaw Poniatowski, who she wanted to suppress a revolt that had come about because of Russia’s influence in Poland. The revolution got support from Turkey and Austria. However, after two years lengthy negotiations with Turkey led to ceasefire. Catherine was very persuasive which came in handy at this time. This enabled Russia gain a foothold on the Black Sea. Acquisition of the right to the Black Sea was an important milestone. This was because Russian merchant ships acquired the right of sea whereby they could sail and passing through the Dardanelles which was an important European waterway. Also from the negotiations the vast steppes of modern South Ukraine were incorporated in the Russia Empire. In 1783 Catherine, in her quest for expansion annexed the Crimea, this led to the second Russo- Turkish war (1787-1792) where the Ottoman Empire sort to regain the lands it had lost to Russia during the first Russo Turkish war (1768-1774). The Ottoman troops lost miserably which led to the signing of the Treaty of Jassy. The treaty led to the end of the Second war and led to the confirmation of Russia’s dominance in the Black Sea. This was because from this treaty Russia’s claim to the Crimea was legitimatized. In 1773 in the Volga River Basin a peasant revolt led by Cossack started but was crushed by the Imperial forces when Cossack was captured in 1774, this was the only time that peace was realized for some time which enabled Catherine concentrate on domestic affairs, especially affairs that concerned the functioning of the government. It was during this time that the education standards were raised. Catherine played a very important role in shaping the role of Russia in the field of diplomacy. In the European foreign issues, Russia under Catherine played a very instrumental role in mediating on disputes that sometimes led to war. She mediated in the War of the Bavarian succession (1778-1779), between Prussia and Austria. It was through Catherine also that Russia witnessed the partitioning of Poland, where all the commonwealth territory with Prussia and Austria were divided. After all these expansion Russia turned into a vast empire that was in position to compete with other European neighbors. On the art and sciences scene, Catherine played a critical role. She viewed art and science as a means through which Russia could be recognized as a civilization centre. St Petersburg was turned into a great and dazzling capital. Through her patronage, theatre, music, painting and other form of art improved tremendously. She developed a manual for the education of children which she borrowed from the ideas of John Locke a famous English Philosopher. She established the famous Smolny Institute. It was established for the purpose of educating ladies from noble families and rich merchants. This institute became one of the best institutes not only in Russia, but the whole of Europe as well. Catherine was a prolific writer and exchanged ideas and correspondence leading philosophers and writers like Voltaire and Diderot. She wrote plays, fables Satires and memoirs. The Russian age of ‘age of Imitation’ happened during her reign where the Russians imported and studied the classical works from Europe. She spent millions of Rubles to build the Hermitage art collection. Today, Hermitage Museums that occupies the whole of the Winter Palace is one of the largest Museums in the world with one of the largest art collections totaling to over three million. Despite her great support of art, during her reign there was censorship of the press and publications and sometimes writers were exiled. For example Radishcev after publishing The Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow which addressed the poor leaving standards of the peasant serfs, he was exiled to Siberia. After converting from Lutheran to Orthodoxy, Catherine became indifferent to religion. Thus she never hesitated to suppress any religious dissent and never allowed dissenters to build chapels. However she exploited the Christian faith by promoting the protection of Christians under the Turkish rule. This was to ensure the weakening of the Ottoman Empire. After the partitioning of Poland she sort to control the Roman Catholics. On the other hand, Russia became a safe haven for The Society of Jesus whose members were running away from the persecution of Jesuits across Europe. Catherine the Great personal life was characterized by multiple lovers. She had a total of around 13 lovers in her reign that included Alexander Potemkin. Potemkin was a former lover who she had fallen off with but he continued to select future lovers for her. Catherine was kind to her lovers even after breaking up with them. She had a reputation of rewarding them handsomely. Works Cited Alexander, John.T â€Å"Catherine II, Bubonic Plague, and the Problem of Industry in Moscow† The American Historical Review, Vol. 79, No.3. (Jun, 1974), pp.637-671. Cruse, Mark. The memoirs of Catherine the Great. New York: Modern Library, 2005. Dukes, Paul. Catherine the Great and the Russian Nobility: A Study Based of the Legislative Commission of 1767.Cambridge at the University Press, 1967 Haslip, Joan. Catherine the Great: A Biography .New York: G.P Putnam’s, 1977 Rasmussen, Karen â€Å"Catherine II and the Image of Peter I† Slavic Review, Vol. 37, No. 1. (Mar., 1978), pp.51-69. Thomas, Gladys Scott. Catherine the Great and the Expansion of Russia. London: The English Universities Press, 1947 Waters, Brenda Meehan-â€Å"Catherine the Great and the Problem of Female Rule† Russian Review, Vol. 34, No. 3. (Jul., 1975), pp.293-307.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Expression and Purification of recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein

Expression and Purification of recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if a His-6 tagged recombinant form of Green Fluorescent Protein could be expressed in a pRSETA vector of E. Coli. This was determined through multiple procedures beginning with purifying the sample with Ni +2 agarose chromatography which showcased the relative fluorescent activity of the samples, which elution sample two (E2) had approximately 100,592.2 RFU/mg . The yield of total protein was found by use of a Bradford Assay and a standard curve. The purity of the GFP was determined by comparing the intensity of bands that appeared at around 31.4 kDa (the molecular weight of rGFP) to a molecular weight ladder on an SDS-PAGE gel. The Western Blot test, utilizing a nitrocellulous membrane, confirmed the expression of rGFP. The Western Blot confirmed that the correct bands were analyzed in the SDS-PAGE gel which E3 had an estimated purity of 0.4, indicating a yield of approximately 29.4 ug of rGFP for the third Elution (E3) after a total p rotein amount of 49 ug was extrapolated from the Bradford assay. INTRODUCTION: The Green Fluorescent Protein was first isolated from the Aequorea Victoria jellyfish and studied by Osamu Shimomura. In other organisms other than this specific jellyfish, there are fluorescent proteins with more color varieties than just green (Ward). GFP is able to fluoresce due to the formation of a chromophore in its center that resides in a stable beta barrel structure. The interactions between Ser64 and Gly67 on an alpha strand form a five member ring structure and its this structure that contains properties for fluorescence. When ultraviolet light is absorbed at 395nm, an emission wavelength of 510nm is seen as fluorescent green light. The excitation wavelength of 395nm excites the electrons within the protein and raises the energy of the protein. As the protein loses energy, it emits the energy at a wavelength of 510nm. Wild type GFP does not have immensely visible fluorescence, therefore a genetically modified form of GFP, GFPuv, was used in order to better observe fluoresc ent activity. For rGFP to be fully expressed, GFPuvs open reading frame was pRSETA vector, which was cut by a restriction enzyme at sites that complimented the start and stop codons of the His-6 tag sequence. A T7 promoter and Xpress Epitope were also genetically added into the vector with the purpose of simplifying purification. T7 polymerase minds to the T7 promoter and activates the production of GFP, while the Xpress Epitope allows for the binding of a primary antibody. The binding of a primary antibody allows for the binding of a secondary antibody which contains horseradish peroxide, producing bands on the nitrocellulose membrane. (2 pg 351) Histidine-6 tags primary purpose is to aid in the purification of rGFP proteins in affinity chromatography. Histidine has an affinity to bind with transition metal ions, and is why a Nickel+2 agarose chromatography was chosen. When a sample is passed through the Nickel+2 agarose column, the His-6 tags fused with rGFP protein will bind to the column and any proteins not of interest or containments will pass through the column. To elute the bound rGFP proteins from the column, elution buffer containing Imidazole is used and competes with the histidine residues for the binding sties to the Nickel+2 agarose column due to its higher affinity for them. Elutions from the column therefore contain rGFP. (2 pg 359) The purpose of this experiment was to see if a His-6 tagged recombinant form of GFP, from the E. coli strain BL21pLysS, could be expressed and then purified using Ni+2 agarose affinity chromatography technology. If this experiment is successful, an inexpensive and relatively simple method to measure gene expression and locate and track proteins may be at hand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacterial Expression Grow two bacterial cultures: G, containing BL21, DE3, pLysS, and the plasmid pRSETA-GFPuv with the GFP sequence, and V, which is identical to G, but it does not have the GFP sequence. Incubate both cultures at about 37Â °C until OD600 equals 0.5. Transfer 1ml of each culture into separate centrifuge tubes and centrifuge to obtain a pellet. The supernatant from the tubes will be discarded and then label the tubes V0 and G0 and stored at -20Â °C. Induce the rest of the culture with IPTG and allow to grow for 3 hours. After the 3 hours, collect 1ml of each culture and centrifuge. Label the tubes V3 and G3 and were store at -20Â °C. Collect 15 ml of G and centrifuge, and label it as G3-15ml and store at -20Â °C. (1 pg 105) Preparation of Crude Extract After the slow freeze process, add 1 ml of breaking buffer (10mM Tris, pH 8.0; 150mM NaCl) to the frozen bacterial pellet G3-15ml, and pipette up and down until completely dissolved. Then transfer the contents to a centrifuge tube and vortex for 5 minutes and place in a 37Â °C water bath for 10 minutes. Afterwards, incubate in dry air at 37Â °C. Centrifuge the mixture at 4Â °C and transfer the supernatant into a clean centrifuge tube and take a small sample to label as GCE. The remaining supernatant will go through the Nickel+2 agarose column. (1 pg 110) Ni+2 NTA Chromatography Pack a 3ml plastic syringe with a small amount of glass wool to prepare the Ni+2 agarose column. After that, pipet 1 ml of breaking buffer into the syringe to remove any air bubbles. As the breaking buffer is going through the syringe, pour some breaking buffer into the leur-lock and then screw it onto the syringe. Add 1ml of 50% Ni+2 agarose into the column and then open the leur-lock to pack the agarose matrix in the colum. Add 5 ml of breaking buffer subsequently into the column to push the ethanol of the Ni+2 agarose through the column. Then close the leur-lock and apply the crude extract to the column and allow 5-10 minutes for the histidine tags on the rGFP to bind with the Ni+2 agarose beads. Open the leur-lock and collect the non-crude extract in a centrifuge tube labeled W1 for the first wash. Add 0.5ml aliquots of breaking buffer to the column and collect the washes in tubes W2-W10. Add 10 increments of 0.5ml of elution buffer and collect in tubes E1-E10. Then store your GC E, W1-10, and E1-10 samples at -20Â °C. (1 pg 111-2) Bradford Assay Analysis To create a Bradford assay, mix protein sample with water, and then add Bradford reagent dye. Vortex the mixture and then transfer it to the wells of a microtiter dish, so that the absorbance of your protein sample can be determined at 595nm using a spectrophotometer. To determine the amount of total protein present in the sample volume, you must create a Bradford standard curve using 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ug of BSA and the absorbance values observed to determine a best-fit line. Perform the assay in singlicate using samples W1-W6 and E1-E6 to determine if the microplate data falls within the standard curve. Once you have determined what volume of sample to use, repeat the Bradford assays two more times for each sample. Use the standard curve and experimental absorbance values to extrapolate the total protein present in the volume of sample you use. (1 pg 124-6) SDS-PAGE/Coomassie Blue Analysis of rGFP Fractions Create a 12% Resolving Gel by mixing water, 30% Acrylamide, 10% APS, TEMED, and 4x resolving buffer [0.75M Tris pH8.8, 0.4%SDS]. Pour the resolving gel into a gel electrophoresis set up and overlay with some water. Allow the resolving gel to polymerize and proceed to making a 5% Stacking gel by mixing water, 30% Acrylamide, 10% APS, TEMED, and 4x stacking buffer. Pour the stacking gel on top of the resolving gel and immediately insert a comb to form the wells. Prepare your loading samples with 4x sample loading buffer and then vortex, boil, and centrifuge. Do this for the G0, G3, GCE, W2, W3, E2, and E3 samples (or fractions that contained the most rGFP fluorescence). (1pg 111-2) After the gel has solidified, transfer the apparatus into the electrophoresis tank and load the electrophoresis buffer into the tank. Then load your samples into lanes one through seven respectively along with a marking ladder to compare the distances the samples traveled after electrophoresis. Electrophorese at 200V for approximately 45 minutes and then stain your gel with Coomassie Blue dye. To remove the stain that has not been absorbed by proteins, the gel is soaked in dilute acid and methanol. Western Blot Develop an SDS-PAGE gel as previously described using your sample fractions and transfer the proteins onto nitrocellulose transfer membrane using two locking cassette lids with sponges and filter paper encompassing the gel and nitrocellulose. Remove the nitrocellulose and stain the membrane with Ponceau S stain, and allow to incubate for approximately 2 minutes. Once stained, wash the membrane with nanopure water until bands are visible on the membrane. Next, perform the blocking step by placing the membrane in a container containing 5% non-fat dry milk/TBS solution and incubate on a shaking platform. Pour out the blocking solution and add 0.05% Tween 20/TBS solution and then allow it to incubate on a shaking platform, and then pour out the solution. Repeat this wash step two more times. Add mouse IgG anti-Xpress epitope MAb and allow incubate on a shaking platform this is the primary probe step. Then repeat the wash step as mentioned previously three more times, and add Sheep IgG a nti-mouse IgG conjugated horse radish peroxidase polyclonal anti-serum solution (the secondary probe). Allow the membrane to incubate, and then perform the wash step twice. For the final wash, use only TBS, and then add TMB substrate solution and incubate until appropriate banding is shown. Stop the reaction with distilled water and scan or photograph the membrane as the results may fade with time. RESULTS: In the specific strain of E. coli, BL21pLysS, pRSET-GFP represses the lac promoter which is part of the operon needed for T7 polymerase activity. T7 polymerase binds to the T7 promotes of pRSET-GFP and activates the His-6 tag that expresses the fluorescence of GFP. Even though some GFP is produced this way, it is experimentally not enough, so IPTG is added to repress the repressor so an increase of GFP production can occur. V0, V3, G0, and G3 were all bacterial cultures of E. coli with specific distinctions between all of them. V0 and G0 were collected from bacterial cultures that were not yet induced, but G0 contained the GFP sequence while V0 did not. V3 and G3 were the V0 and G0 samples after induction had occurred for 3 hours, and again G0 contained the GFP sequence while V0 did not. W1-W10 were washes collected from the Ni+2 agarose column using the breaking buffer whereas E1-E10 were washes collected using elution buffer. Figure 2. SDS-PAGE/Coomassie Blue stained gel analysis of rGFP SDS-PAGE gel, which was used to analyze our purification of rGFP from a crude extract, and the corresponding molecular weight. This gel was made with a 12% resolving gel and a 5% stacking gel. Wildtype rGFP has a molecular weight for 27kDa. The ladder has kDa rungs of 97.4, 66.2, 45.0, 31, 21.5, and 14.4. The band for rGFP has been indicated on the figure. The different samples were taken during our purification. The highest protein containing washes and elutions were used in the SDS-PAGE gel. G0 represents a sample containing rGFP prior to induction. G3 represents a sample containing rGFP after 3 hours of induction. GCE represents the GFP crude extract after the slow-freeze/quick-thaw process. Figure 3. Western Blot of rGFP We used the Western Blot to detect, and more importantly, quantify proteins that react with antibodies. The Ponceau S stain was performed to highlight the existence of our proteins successfully being transferred from the SDS-PAGE gel. We then performed a blocking step with 5% non-fat dry milk/TBS solution followed by washes with 0.05% Tween20/TBS. The probe first used was mouse IgG anti-Xpress epitope MAb solution, which we followed with washes of Tween20/TBS solution. The second probe used was sheep IgG anti-mouse IgG conjugated horseradish peroxidase polyclonal anti-serum solution, which we followed with two washes of Tween 20/TBS solution with the third wash being pure TBS. Then, TMB solution was added to develop the nitrocellulose membrane and this reaction was stopped by pouring distilled water over the membrane. Above are the 8 lanes, G0, G3, GCE, W2, W3, E3, E4, and a known molecular weight ladder, respectively. CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: A great amount of research has been put into the field of monitoring gene expression and there are currently many research laboratories that use labeled antibodies and other various means to do so. However, this new recombination technology, a vector can be created to provide a simpler and less expensive approach that can even be performed in vivo. The purpose of this experiment was fulfilled as His-6 tagged rGFP from a particular E. coli strain was successfully expressed, purified, qualified, and quantified by means of Ni+2 agarose chromatography. GFP was initially expressed as a histidine tagged protein that was inserted in E. coli and subsequently a crude extract of this protein was isolated. Throughout the experiment, we were able to inspect and measure the fluorescing activity of our elutions with the use of handheld UV lights. GFP was successfully expressed because of the fluorescent activity that was emitted when shown under UV light. This rGFP was purified using a Ni+2 agarose column which allowed for the binding of the His-6 tagged rGFP to the Ni+2 agarose beads in the column, and subsequently let all other proteins not of interest and containments to be collected in washes. Then, rGFP proteins were eluted by passing elution buffer containing Imidazole through the column because Imidazole has a higher affinity for the Ni+2 agarose beads than does Histidine. Therefore, one could expect that most if not all of the rGFP would be found in the elution washes and would present higher fluorescing activity than the washes with breaking buffer. Figure 1 clearly supports this argument. From referencing Figure 1, the most rGFP was found in E2 because it exhibited the highest fluorescent activity in RFUs. Using a standard curve based off of known quantities of mass of a certain protein, one is able to extrapolate the amount of protein present in ones sample. This can be used to estimate the amount of rGFP activity. For instance, E2s specific activity was found to be approximately 100,592.2 RFU/mg. W1-W6 had the least amount of fluorescing activity because the washes were done prior to the addition of Imidazole through the column. This is expected as Imidazole would flush out rGFP in the elutions, which would produce the highest GFP fluorescing activity. Percent purity of the rGFP samples were approximated using the SDS-PAGE gel with Coomassie blue staining to allow visible bands to appear which were used for comparisons. The molecular mass from each individual sample was determined by comparing the bands with the bands of the known weight ladder. The percent purity of each individual band was determined by comparing the bands against each other. The molecular weight of wild type rGFP is 27 kDa, and the molecular weight of rGFP for mutant rGFP used for this experiment was approximately 31.4 kDa with the 40 extra amino acids that were added taken into account. For example, E3 percentage of purity was found to be .4. The amount of protein yielded was 29.4 ug of rGFP for the third Elution fraction (E3) after a total protein amount of 49 ug The Western Blotting technique detected and quantified proteins that reacted with a specific antibody. In our case, it verified rGFP was expressed and whether or not it fell in the range of the expected molecular weight of 31.51 kDa. Lanes GCE, G0, G3, and E3 all contained a bright band around 31.4 kDa, indicating that rGFP was existent. This result corresponds to the expected of E3 having the one of the highest rGFP activity. The fact I had used E3 for the SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting skewed my results, but E2 and E3 had the highest activity for me. Even with my error, GFP was effectively expressed and purified and its finding is important to science because it can be used to track cancer causing cells one day to help figure out where problem spots begin and can help eliminate the issue before it escalates indicating that fluorescent proteins might eventually be clinically useful in cancer patients (Hoffman). This can occur since GFP can successfully be expressed in other organisms as this experiment through the use of E.coli, humans cells can certainly be tagged and label the tumour before treatment and then monitor for fluorescence after treatment to identify possible recurrence or metastases (Hoffman). The same can be said with heart disease and other health related problems. The future of GFP remains limitless when scientists can unlock its full medical potential. REFERENCE/BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) Rippel, Scott. BIOL 3380 Fall 2010: Biochemistry Lab Manual. The University of Texas at Dallas. Richardson, TX. (2) Rippel, Scott. BIOL 3380 Fall 2010: Biochemistry Lab Lecture Notes. The University of Texas at Dallas. Richardson, TX. (3) Ward, William. History of GFP and GFP Antibodies. Brighter Ideas. 2009. 26 Oct, 2010. (4) Ninfa, Alexander J. and David P. Ballou (1998). Fundamental Laboratory Approaches for Biochemistry and Biotechnology. (5) Hoffman, Robert M. Uses of Fluorescent Proteins to Visualize Cancer In Vivo: Can Fluorescent Proteins be Used in Humans? 2005. 28 Oct. 2010.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Kantian Morality Essay -- essays research papers

Kantian Morality   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Kant's theory of morality seems to function as the most feasible in determining one's duty in a moral situation. The basis for his theory is perhaps the most noble of any-- acting morally because doing so is morally right. His ideas, no matter how occasionally vague or overly rigid, work easily and efficiently in most situations. Some exceptions do exist, but the strength of those exceptions may be somewhat diminished by looking at the way the actual situations are presented and the way in which they are handled. But despite these exceptions, the process Kant describes of converting maxims to universal laws to test their moral permissibility serves, in general, as a useful guide to and system of ethics and morality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Kantian Theory of Ethics hinges upon the concept of the Categorical Imperative, or the process of universalization. Kant describes taking a possible action, a maxim, and testing whether it is morally permissible for a person to act in that manner by seeing if it would be morally permissible for all people in all times to act in that same manner. Thus, Kant says that an action is morally permissible in one instance if the action is universally permissible in all instances. In fact, parts of the theory even say that it is one's moral duty to act on these universalizable maxims, and that people should only act on those maxims that can be universalized.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The stability of Kant's theory rests not only on the fact that it is completely objective-- every action is definitely either morally permissible or not-- but also on the fact that the theory is non-consequentialist. Kant truly does not look to the consequences of an action to see whether the action is morally permissible, but rather to the morality of the action itself. Kant assumes that universal morality is inherent in being, thus avoiding complications in trying to determine which actions lead to better consequences. However, Kant does not speak of perfect and imperfect moral duties, those duties that respectively do or do not involve qualifications as to the particulars of the situation at hand, thus complicating the issue.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Several objections can be raised to the theory Kant sets forth, but each ... universally applied, acting on those maxims would not be permissible. An example would be allowing anyone with a star shaped birthmark on their back to steal. Universalizing this seems to be possible, at least at first glance. However, universalization implies that a maxim be applicable throughout time. No matter how unlikely, perhaps the future will contain nothing other than birthmarked clones. In that case, the maxim cannot be universalized. And again, the conditions presented do not affect the morality of the situation, but rather to whom the morality is applied, thus contradicting the idea of an objective, universal morality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The main issue with these objections seems to be that Kant's theory breaks down to some extent in certain situations. However, it becomes possible that by further analyzing the situation at hand, certain allowances can be made. Perhaps then the most convincing argument for the theory is that on a day-to-day basis. Kantian Ethics provides a method for deciding the best and most moral course of action. Perhaps this is the purpose of moral theory in the first place.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Kantian Morality Essay -- essays research papers Kantian Morality   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Kant's theory of morality seems to function as the most feasible in determining one's duty in a moral situation. The basis for his theory is perhaps the most noble of any-- acting morally because doing so is morally right. His ideas, no matter how occasionally vague or overly rigid, work easily and efficiently in most situations. Some exceptions do exist, but the strength of those exceptions may be somewhat diminished by looking at the way the actual situations are presented and the way in which they are handled. But despite these exceptions, the process Kant describes of converting maxims to universal laws to test their moral permissibility serves, in general, as a useful guide to and system of ethics and morality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Kantian Theory of Ethics hinges upon the concept of the Categorical Imperative, or the process of universalization. Kant describes taking a possible action, a maxim, and testing whether it is morally permissible for a person to act in that manner by seeing if it would be morally permissible for all people in all times to act in that same manner. Thus, Kant says that an action is morally permissible in one instance if the action is universally permissible in all instances. In fact, parts of the theory even say that it is one's moral duty to act on these universalizable maxims, and that people should only act on those maxims that can be universalized.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The stability of Kant's theory rests not only on the fact that it is completely objective-- every action is definitely either morally permissible or not-- but also on the fact that the theory is non-consequentialist. Kant truly does not look to the consequences of an action to see whether the action is morally permissible, but rather to the morality of the action itself. Kant assumes that universal morality is inherent in being, thus avoiding complications in trying to determine which actions lead to better consequences. However, Kant does not speak of perfect and imperfect moral duties, those duties that respectively do or do not involve qualifications as to the particulars of the situation at hand, thus complicating the issue.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Several objections can be raised to the theory Kant sets forth, but each ... universally applied, acting on those maxims would not be permissible. An example would be allowing anyone with a star shaped birthmark on their back to steal. Universalizing this seems to be possible, at least at first glance. However, universalization implies that a maxim be applicable throughout time. No matter how unlikely, perhaps the future will contain nothing other than birthmarked clones. In that case, the maxim cannot be universalized. And again, the conditions presented do not affect the morality of the situation, but rather to whom the morality is applied, thus contradicting the idea of an objective, universal morality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The main issue with these objections seems to be that Kant's theory breaks down to some extent in certain situations. However, it becomes possible that by further analyzing the situation at hand, certain allowances can be made. Perhaps then the most convincing argument for the theory is that on a day-to-day basis. Kantian Ethics provides a method for deciding the best and most moral course of action. Perhaps this is the purpose of moral theory in the first place.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Awakening Vs. Greenleaf :: essays research papers

A strong critique by existentialist writers of modern society is the way in which humans live unexamined, meaningless lives with no true concept of what it is to be an unique individuals. In Kate Chopin’s novel The Awakening and in Flannery O’Connor’s short story â€Å"Greenleaf† the characters Edna and Mrs. May, respectively, begin almost as common, stock characters living unfulfilled lives. They eventually converge, however, upon an elevated life and death filled with new meaning through their struggle with their role as individuals surrounded by other important beings.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jesuit philosopher Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1948) believed that humankind follows a certain evolution of mind and body. This process involves a beginning (komogenese), a development (biogenese), and then a peak (noogenese) in which humans reach an Omega Point of higher being. Though his ideas were actually applied on a much broader scale of humanity over a large timespan, the theory can be applied to the individual’s process of human development. Single humans begin as common clones of one another. From this commonality many examine their lives and develop the things within them that make them uniquely them. This development of the self only can be ended at death when the individual converges upon an Omega Point in which he has an elevated understanding of and meaning for life. The characters Edna from The Awakening and Mrs. May from †Greenleaf† encounter a similar human development in which an individual is formed with an understanding of life. The means by which they achieve this differ greatly.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As the novel The Awakening opens, the reader sees Edna Pontellier as one who might seem to be a happy married woman living a secure, fulfilled life. It is quickly revealed, though, that she is deeply oppressed by a male dominated society, evident through her marriage to Leonce. Edna lives a controlled life in which there is no outlet for her to develop herself as the individual who she is. Her marriage to Leonce was more an act of rebellion from her parents than an act of love for Leonce. She cares for him and is fond of him, but had no real love for him. Edna’s inability to awaken the person inside her is also shown through her role as a â€Å"mother-woman†. She loves and cares for her children a great deal, but does not fit into the Creole mother-society in which other women baby and over protect their children.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

IMpact of industrialisation in indias economy Essay

Industrialization plays a vital role in the economic development of an underdeveloped country. The historical facts reveal that all the developed countries of the world broke the vicious circle of underdevelopment by industrialization. Pakistan being a developing country also wants to achieve higher standard of living for its masses. It has therefore, embarked upon various programmers of industrialization. The policies of privatization, deregulation and liberalization of the economy are being pursued. The role of industrialization in economic development is summed up as under. 1. Increase in national income. Industrialization makes possible the optimum utilization of the scarce resources of the country. It helps in increasing the quantity and quality of various kinds of manufactured goods and thereby make a larger contribution to gross national product. (GNP). 2. Higher standard of living. Industrialization helps in increasing the value of output per worker. The income of the labour due to higher productivity increases. The rise in income raises the living standard of the people. 3. Economic stability. Industrialization is the best way of providing economic stability to the country. A nation which depends upon the production and export of raw material alone cannot achieve a rapid rate of economic growth. The uncertainties of Nature, the restricted and fluctuating demand of the agricultural raw material hampers economic progress and leads to an unstable economy. 4. Improvement in balance of payments. Industrialization brings structural changes in the pattern of foreign trade of the country. It helps in increasing the export of manufactured goods and thus earn foreign exchange. On the other hand the processing of raw material at home curtails the import of goods and thereby helps in conserving foreign exchange. The export orientation and import substitution effects of industrialization help in the improvement of balance of payments. In Pakistan, the exports of semi manufactured and manufactured goods showed favorable trend. 5. Stimulates progress in other sectors. Industrialization stimulates progress in other sectors of the economy. A developments of one industry leads to the development and expansion of other industries. For instance the construction of a transistor radio plant, develops the small battery industry (backward linkage). The construction of milk processing plants adds to its line of production ice cream. cone cream plants etc.. (forward linkage). 6. Increased employment opportunities. Industrialization provides increased employment opportunities in small and large scale industries. In an agrarian economy, industry absorbs underemployed and unemployed workers of agricultural sector and thereby increases the income of the community. 7. Promotes specialization. Industrialization promotes specialization of labour. The division of work increases the marginal value product of labour. The income of worker in the industrial sector is therefore higher than that of a worker in agricultural sector. 8. Rise in agricultural production. Industrialization provides machinery like tractors thrashers harvesters, bulldozers, transport, aerial spray etc, to be used in the farm sector. The increased use of modern inputs has increased the yield of crops per hectare. The increase in the income of the farmers has given boost to economic development in the country. 9. Easy to control industrial activity. The industrial activity compared to agricultural is easy to control. The industrial production can be expanded or cut down according to the price cost and demand of the product. 10. Large scope for technological progress. Industrialization provides larger scope for on the job training and technological progress. The use of advanced technology increases the scale of production, reduces cost of production, improves quality of the product and helps in widening of the market. 11. Reduction in the rate of population growth. Industrialization leads to migration of surplus labour from farm sector to  the industries mostly situated in urban centers. In cities improved facilities of sanitation and health care are available. People through the adoption of family planning measures, reduce the rate of population growth. 12. Increased saving and investment. Industrialization increases the income of the workers. It enhances their capacity to save. The voluntary savings, stimulate industrial growth and by cumulative effect lead to further expansion of industry. 13. Provision for defense. If a country is industrialized, it can manufacture arms and ammunition necessary for the defense of the country. A nation which depends on other countries for the supply of ammunition will eventually suffer and may face defeat. The two wars with India should be an eye opener for Pakistan. 14. Lesser pressure on land. The establishment and expansion of industries lessens the excessive pressure of labour force from the agriculture sector. 15. Development of markets. With the development of industries the market for raw materials and finished goods widens in the country. 16. Increase in the Government revenue.  Industrialization increase the supply of goods both for internal and external markets. The export of goods provides foreign exchange. The customs excise duties and other taxes levied on the production of goods increase the revenue of the State. The income tax received from the industrialists adds to the revenue stream of the Government which eventually is spent for the welfare of the people as a whole.

Nike in China Essay

According Gasmi and Grelleau (2005), Many multinational companies outsource some of their production activities in countries where ethical standards differ from those in developed countries, which often is the majority of their consumer market. This is particularly the case of multinational producing sporting goods, such as Nike, Reebok and Adidas. Nike is the multinational leader in the world of sporting goods with 40% market sports shoes in 2000, before Adidas (15.1%) and Reebok (10.9 %). Paul Bowerman and Phil Knight founded the firm in 1964 in the USA under the name Blue Ribbon Sports (BRS). In the early 1970s, BRS began designing his own line of shoes, manufactured by Japanese subcontractors. In 1972, the company achieved a turnover of around $ 2 million and change its original name by the launch of the famous Nike brand. In 1978, due to the macro- economic environment (including the oil crisis) and economic development of Japan, Nike began to look for other countries cost of labour low to manufacture its shoes, as the Indonesia and Thailand , and then it goes to China and Vietnam. The quote at the beginning illustrates the problems faced by multinational companies that have chosen to outsource in a country other than the ethical standards of their country of origin. Nike was not scandalized by one incident. However, it is a rather comprehensive review of the political subcontracting conducted by Nike in Asia in general and China in particular. Indeed, Nike was criticized by players defending human rights of lacking ethical practices in outsourcing in China. These actors have insisted that Nike does not meet certain international conventions, inter alia, freedom of association, working conditions, forced labour, child labour and wage issues. Why and how multinational Nike has it become the main target, the  symbol of unethical behaviour, while the practice of its main competitors (Adidas and Reebok) are often similar? To illustrate, according to an opinion poll conducted in Novethic France in March 2002, Nike was the most cited â€Å"unethical† brand (8.7 %), all socio- professional so confused that Adidas has a good picture. The leading position of Nike on the world market, the reputation of its brand and its products, its profitability, visibility allowed actors social advocacy to make a symbol of the lack of ethics and use its market power sports items as leverage their strategies of protest. Kahle, Boushet Phelps (2000) emphasize that the focus of the controversy over Nike is due, among other factors, the characteristics of stakeholders. A stakeholder is a group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization. The ethical implications of outsourcing of production in developing countries, mainly Asian, are valued differently by stakeholders. It is thus possible to propose two rough categories, the first favourable outsourcing in low-cost countries and reluctant to ethical considerations and the second sensitive to ethical considerations of outsourcing. This binary categorization distinguishes key positions, knowing that many intermediate situations coexist. The following two sub- sections identify and briefly describe these two categories of stakeholders. The company is now looking for a compromise that would satisfy all stakeholders. This first category appreciate the choice of outsourcing, relegating ethical considerations into the background in favour of the organization for private economic benefits. It brings together consumers, shareholders, employees and the countries of sub-contracting and competitors. Nike consumers have a tangible product whose quality is satisfactory at an attractive cost due to low labour costs and savings related to the volume produced. This allows the multinational to reap substantial benefits that are valued by its shareholders, anxious to get the most from their investments. For these actors, ethical considerations are overshadowed over private profits, knowing that consideration of ethical standards – which have the properties of public goods – may be to the detriment of their private benefits. The success of Nike over its competitors is clear from the evolution of its  market share and its leadership. Other actors, namely workers and governments of the countries of sub-contracting, remain back from the ethical choices of the multinational for different reasons, mainly based on considerations of lesser evil for some, attractiveness and economic development for others. What measures have been adopted by Nike to cope with these accusations? If the three response strategies mentioned above is applied, one can examine the measures it has put in place. First of all, Nike has opted for a strategy of inactivity, keeping a low profile. Nike receded charges recalling that its subcontractors were independent foreign companies with which it simply had a contract to produce finished products. Nike also explained that the wages of workers of subcontractors were higher than those of other firms. Finally, Nike insisted that accomplish almost an ethical work by helping with its production activities in economic development and improving the living standard of the country. Then Nike has increased responsiveness. Several NGOs began to criticize Nike using the media to denounce the working conditions at subcontractors of Nike. In addition, actions such as lobbying, public protests, encouraging consumers to boycott products and trials cascade were made. All this has affected the reputation and results of the company and thus has grown considerably, forcing multinationals to react. In that time, Nike admitted its potential role and sought to address ethical problems from concrete and tangible elements, as is the case of the establishment in 1992 of a code of conduct † Memorandum of Understanding † a document that requires its subcontractors the elimination of forced labour and child labour, to apply the legal provisions in force in the country concerned, with the inclusion of one day off per week and a maximum of sixty hours of work per week. The company also undertakes to recognize the right of workers to freedom of association, and not to practice any form of discrimination. Despite the existence of this Code of Conduct, there is still a lack of control, transparency and sanctions may make it effective. At present, we can say that ethical and environmental issues are considered  priorities in the overall management of the company. Recognizing the benefit of proactive actions, Nike has recently launched in North America † Reuse- A-Shoe â€Å", a voluntary program to collect and recycle used sneakers for the manufacture of flooring for different types of sports fields . This initiative and others allow Nike to acquire an image of confidence, both technical and moral, in the context of environmental protection and regulations. To conclude, we can say that the existence of a power to international market such as Nike comes more of a notion of social and moral responsibility of the business, especially critical in activities based on reputation of the company. It is absolutely necessary for the company to find a balance between ethical and economic objectives, it means for the company to make substantial profits on financial matters without affecting the expectations and interests of the various stakeholders. The integration of the ethical dimension is generally perceived as a company generating costs. However, beyond this approach in terms of cost alone, it is possible to consider integration as a strategic option that can generate a competitive advantage. Indeed, the establishment of a pre-activated or proactive strategy may, under certain conditions, allow companies to integrate ethical issues and generate â€Å"winwinwin† situations (win for the company, consumers and activists), by inserting these efforts in a strategy of differentiating its products over those of competitors. These strategies raise many research questions, because of their characteristics. This type of differentiation, such as lack of child labour does not bring tangible changes to the product. This differentiation involves not visible and unverifiable characteristics of the final product by the consumer († credence goods â€Å"). To make perceptible to the consumer, taking into account informational dimensions (information asymmetry) and cognitive (informational overload) are crucial. In addition, ethical profits generated by these strategies generally have a favourable opportunistic behaviour collective dimension, as the risk of free riding. In addition to the costs associated with the implementation of ethical characteristics, previous problems generate transaction costs can be high, especially to ensure the  credibility of ethical differentiation. _PART B: PORTFOLIO OF EVIDENCE_ _Appendix A: Ethical debate_ We can say that Mike Gustavsson is indeed utilitarian for him happiness is the supreme good of life. So happiness must prevail on wealth, freedom, and equality. Indeed, Mike thinks that corporate behaviour is determined by the behaviour at the top of the organization, if you have good people at the helm of the company, make good decisions, and using the right rules, then the society itself is ethical. Mike was initially very happy that her daughter had a good job with good pay, but now he is worried business type of environment that is generated in the business that takes graduates of business schools fees and idealistic transforms them into frames bonus to research. We can say that Jan Edwards is utilitarian, in fact, it is to maximize the overall well-being of all sentient beings. Jan is involved in a program to provide education in Guatemala. January launched a program to encourage employees of his company to give their time to help the most disadvantaged people themselves. But Jan has become increasingly concerned in recent years the nature of graduates it employs trade schools on its internal development program graduate. Many graduates seem extremely focused on profitability and work their way up the corporate ladder rather than on good people management skills, being well-rounded citizens and good, genuine people. Arguably Mei- Hua is non- consequentialist right and justice, in fact according to John Rawls (1971) , justice is served when the burden and benefits of a corporation are distributed in accordance with the principles that free and rational persons would agree as conforming to their own interests without knowing in advance what are the advantages and disadvantages they would actually receive in the distribution process. The key to ethics is fairness. She believes that professionals have had in  recent years a very bad image and negative press about their ethical behaviour. Accounting as a profession has strict codes of conduct and strict rules, and Mei- Hua has consistently adhered to these rules, and she also believes that she and her colleagues are very professional ethical and moral people who are treated unfairly . In his company, for example, they have a strict code of business conduct, especially on financial matters such as fraud, and she was always impressed by the way the code of conduct is reinforced in the induction of company and the company documentation. Mei- Hua believes that strong ethical codes of conduct and codes of conduct strong professional to lead a moral and ethical company, and the generation of profits and wealth, as well as ethical, can work alongside each other. Finally, we can say that Deshi Chen is individualistic, in fact, according to Emile Durkheim Individualism is a political, social and moral conception which tends to favour the rights, interests and values ​​of the individual versus the group and the community. Its principle is that the individual is the only entity that can measure the moral worth of an action. And rejects the substitution of the individual by the group process often used to unfairly promote individual sacrifices for the benefit of others. The dream of him one day work for a large international companies but is concerned that without a good office job, he will never be able to provide a stable environment to raise a family, and it will not be attractive to potential brides. Deshi parents are the first in their family to have reached a comfortable lifestyle of the middle class. Deshi worked hard all his life in his education, and tried to build a good business experience to do office work. But he also knows that Western societies are hypocrites who say one thing and mean another when they operate in China. But even if Deshi is unhappy with the teaching of ethics and ethical leadership, if it fails this course, he knows he will be in danger and his diploma, which means not only the end of the dream work, but also the dream of being attractive for a bride. Deshi is not clear why these dreams have to suffer because of this useless ethics course, and would like to see removed from the curriculum. _Appendix B: Ethical Dilemma Case_ In this part, we are going to Identify and analyse all the ethical dilemmas for each characters. Using several concepts: such as the utilitarianism, egoism, and virtue ethics concepts. So first, we are going to explain All Those concepts according to Bentham and John Stuart Mill (1987), Utilitarianism is a system of morals and ethics, unable to objectively define what is good and evil, is proposes to ignore establishing useful as the first principle of action. He considers that what is useful is good and that the utility can be determined rationally. Utilitarianism is based on the sole criterion of optimization of the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people, assuming that the well- being of all is well for all men. He rejects the notion duty as first and measure the morality of an action with consequences we can expect quality. Ãâ€"sterberg explains that egoism states that the human being should always act in order to satisfy his personal interests in the long term it would be better for everyone and not only but for all. Finally, according Metayer (2008) the virtue ethics focuses on character traits as evidenced by the actions: to determine the morality of an action, we must look the character trait that is usually associated with such an act. Is it a virtue or a vice? An act is morally good because it is what would someone virtuous. Now that we have explained these concepts, we will apply them to the different characters. Firstly the characters are faced with a dilemma are: Borries, Borries ‘s manager and Marcus. Borries was due to go on holiday with his girlfriend Swee Lan but his manager told him to not to go to holiday because of work. Borries ‘s dilemma is to choose to go to meet his girl friend and her parents’, but Borries would face sanctions for his manager. Or to stay at work that would generate further contracts for the company but Swee Lan and her parents’ Would Be very upset not to meet him. Borries decided to cancel his holiday! According Bertham and Mill (1987), Borries is utilitarian because he wants the happiness of the greatest number of people and in this case these are the shareholders, managers and co-workers. The solution would be that shifts the date of his vacation he finishes his work and he leaves after. The manager ‘s dilemma is to let Borries to go to holiday and loose further contracts or to force Borries to stay by threatening to sanction that would generate lots of contracts. For Ãâ€"sterberg (1988) the manager is only egoist because he sees its own interests and the company interests because more contracts said more profits, and shareholders will best see him. The solution would be to leave Borries go on vacation because it give huge for the company and replace it with another person. Finally, Borries’s friend Marcus reacts after the decision of Borries to not go to holiday and he told him that he was a coward, he was to weak to say no and had jeopardised his relationship with Swee Lan. Marcus dilemma is to tell him his opinions on him decision to stay and to convince that he made the wrong decision (that what true friend do or to do not tell him and to be a bad friend. For Metayer (2008), Marcus is a holding of virtue ethics because the fact to help that person would be charitable or benevolent. Indeed, in this case Marcus just wants to do its best to him. He took the better solution that is to say to tell him its opinions. _Appendix C: Interpersonal and Team-working skills_ First, we were a group of 5 students, from different countries. In the group, there was no leader or no secretary. It was a group of communication. Indeed, the people participating in the group share the same â€Å"status† within the group. The social order is indeed based more on compliance but on consensus, compromise emerges an institutionalized dialogue in which everyone can participate either by a mutual adjustment. For each seminar, we had case studies to analyse. Firstly, we were doing our work in our side and one week before the seminar, we met all together to exchange our views and our differences. The interpersonal communication in our group was very strong between members of the group and the transverse flow and informal communication. After exchanging and gave its opinion, we put our thoughts together and divided the parts we would propose to the oral. At the end of the meeting, we asked questions to each other to see if we mastered well about us. Personally, these group projects taught me a lot, in fact, to discuss, say, and especially to defend my opinions, listen to those of others, to find a consensus. This allowed me to provide personal enrichment discuss with people with different cultures. And the fact that there was a good atmosphere and good communication within the group pushed ourselves to more investment in this module and I’m convince that we were more interested! REFERENCES : BENTHAM JEREMY AND STUART MILL JOHN (1987) UTILITARIANISM AND OTHER ESSAYS DURKHEIM ÉMILE (1898) L’INDIVIDUALISME ET LES INTELLECTUELS – Gasmi N. et Grolleau G., (2005) Nike face à   la controverse à ©thique relative à   ses sous-traitants – Kahle L. R., Boush D. M., Phelps M., (2000) â€Å"Good morning, Vietnam: an Ethical analysis of Nike activities in Southeast Asia – Mà ©tayer Michel (2008) La philosophie à ©thique : enjeux et dà ©bats actuels – Ãâ€"sterberg Jan (1988) Self and Others: A Study of Ethical Egoism – Rawls John (1971) A Theory of Justice