Thursday, August 22, 2019
Earthquakes in GCC countries Essay Example for Free
Earthquakes in GCC countries Essay An Earthquake known also as tremor is resulted from a sudden release of energy ,which takes place in the earths crust, which then creates seismic waves. They are vibrations triggered by movement of rocks that have been strained (deformed) beyond their elastic limit. This activity called seismicity or seismism of an area refers to type , size and frequency over a time period. Earthquakes are measured using many instruments ( up to atleast 20 different types of measures) seismometers and the richter scale are most common and known, and ranges from 1. hich is the smallest to 9. 0, typically the highest possible value of any earthquake . They occur along faults, faults are fractures in the lithosphere caused by regions of rock rubbing against each other and become displaced. Earthquake terms: Seismic waves: These spread out towards all directions when the fault ruptures. Focus: The location from where the seismic waves are released. Epicenter: The point directly above the focus, on the earths surface. Earthquake damage depends on a number of factors such as: Distance from epicenter Magnitude of the earthquake Type of building construction (materials etc) Time of day Population around epicenter and other damages. Earthquakes forecasting Scientists have not been so successful in finding ways to make short term predictions as they seem to be very unpredictable however a lot of research and effort has been put into this in hope of finding a reliable system or device for short term earthquake environments scientists can make accounts of reasonable forecasts of where and how large an earthquake might be. In GCC: In the United Arab Emirates over the years a few minor earthquakes have taken lace, as assumed earlier this is no longer safe from this natural disaster. Especially with neighboring countries having major earthquakes such as Iran, which now has raised many questions as to if there is only a matter of time till when UAE faces one. GCC are now being monitored by several groups from United states of America and local groups also in the IJAE. Every year some earthquake tremors are felt due to the ones that have occurred in Iran and these vary in magnitude. Iran sits on multiple fault lines because of which the country faces earthquakes nearly everyday. n the 20th century itself, earthquakes have taken 126,000 lives according to the Encyclopedia Iranica. Sharjah residents of the Madam area situated on the Dubai-Fujairah road experienced a moderate intensity earthquake(3. 1)of Jus a few seconds,which sent panic waves across the residents forcing them to come out in the open when things stared moving inside their homes and business however no losses or deaths were resulted. This was a 1st time that the area noticed an earthquake generated locally. The last earthquake experienced by the region was on the 8th of May last year when 5. 5 magnitude earthquake hit the northern emirates 67 kms from Fujairah in the seas of the Gulf of Oman. Seismologists say, the UAE is located close to the Major Earthquake Zone and also has 3 local fault zones located at Wadi Ham,near Dibba, and between Bidyah and Jebel Sahal. Plates and Fault lines in the Region: A UAE based geologist suggests that Iran-style earthquakes are very unlikely to occur in the IJAE, because the tremore felt in the I-JAE are not caused by the same factors as those in Iran. Dr. Fowler suggested that in the area where maximum amount of aterial is being pushed aside,right at the edge of the plate is where most earthquakes occur,hence Iran. He also added that stresses become weaker and weaker the further they get from the egde,so Dubai is a much safer location where ther isnt any direct tectonic stress effects,ruling out the possibility of bigger earthquakes. Stresses are transmitted and that builds up to a bigger quake however before the build up there are lots of smaller quakes, there is no particular reason for the stresses to build up to a bigger quake though. Kuwaiti seismologist Dr. Faryal Bu Rabee has warned that a major earthquake is imminent in Iran which would have disastrous effects on the Gulf Arab states. He suggested that the epicenter would be in the Kerman area of South Iran, located north of the UAE. The last earthquake which magnitude earthquake on the 24th of November ,2005. Dr Fowler based her calculation on historic and scientific factors adding that the earthquake magnitudes could go up to 8 on the Richter scale. She also said that such earthquakes can result in a Tsunami which other scientists do not agree with,according to them a tsunami in he gulf is very unlikely because it is not deep enough. The Sea of oman which borders Iran opens into the larger n vast Arabian Sea where tsunamis have been recorded in the past. The last earthquake to rock the region was a 5. 9 February 08 quake, which was 10kms deep and located at about 250 kms frm Dubai Abu Dhabi. She also said any earthquake that occurs in the southern region of Iran frm the Zagros Mountains to the Makran Coast will have an effect on the Gulf Arab states. On Nov 28 1945, an 8. 1 magnitude quake had hit the Arabian Sea resulting in a tsunami that reached as far as Pakistan and India. Tsunami Hawaii-Based researcher George Pararas studied the Makran quake and tsunami,which caused 13metre waves of the Markan coast and 11 metre waves on the Gujrat India Coast killing 4000 people off the Makran coast. Fowler concluded by saying earthquake activity is not frequent in the country and it would definately take much longer to identify the trends on the Seismic activity in the region as compared to other regions that are more earthquake prone. However I-JAES close proximity to Iran which sits on multiple fault lines means that most the earthquakes felt there will also be felt in the IJAE.