Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Causes and Effects
short letter Traumatic try on upset (posttraumatic stress disorder) Causes and Effects locating Traumatic prove inconvenience oneself, also live onn as posttraumatic stress disorder, is one of the close to widespread, costly, and least understood of the many anxiety disorders. posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychoneurotic condition that is linked to stressors of traumatic howeverts. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is norm solelyy a delayed reply to the unpleasant effects of total events of a catastrophic nature (Rumyantseva Stepanov, 2008). Many mess with this disorder arrest a strong sensation of aid and may also purport of helpless. These feelings disturb the persons perception of their own security (Dieperink, 2005). in that respect has been interest for more than a century in the psychological and behavioral effects of trauma. However, the empirical research in this compass is only somewhat twenty- historic period old (Roy-Byrne, 2002). In this paper I will review triad empirically supported articles simultaneously in effort to better recognize how to diagnose this disease, manage its effects, and treat the patients.Post Traumatic Stress Disorder causes clinically signifi chiffoniert severe emotional states in social, professional, or former(a) important aspects of life. The diagnosis of PTSD requires the incident of a traumatic incident, so it is reason able-bodied to suggest that the stressor, its duration, and its meaning should have considerable influences on the occurrence and clinical features of the long-term psychopathological response. It is important to establish the ordinary clinical features and differences of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder due to the different stressors. This is spanking non only in the theoretical aspects, but also in the practical aspects (Rumyantseva Stepanov, 2008).Dieperink suggests the options to treat patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder could accommodate exposure therapy, host psyc hotherapy, inpatient therapy, and individual therapy, among other. However, non everyone with PTSD would be a candidate for exposure therapy, although it is often considered an initial interference for people with PTSD (Dieperink, 2005). According to Roy-Byrne, studies have not looked into the possible medications away(p) of benzodiazepines neu fibreptics. no(prenominal) of the prior studies examined the differences between treatments within large mental health networks (Roy-Byrne, 2002). there have been relatively well researched studies in exposure therapy a outcome of medications. These studies have been found to be passing effective in the treatment patients. However, it has been difficult to find a single therapy to be consistently boffo for patients with PTSD. Dieperink says that the Food and Drug Administration has only approved two medications for the treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Sertraline and Paroxetine. Selective serotonin reup place inhi eccentr ic personors are considered the first-line medication for the treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. To Better understand what constitutes effective treatment for patients with PTSD, one must take the first step to determine what is existence done in PTSD studies at this clipping (Dieperink, 2005). The following is a study regarding workers in the Chernobyl chance that were diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress DisorderRumyantseva and Stepanov studied the cases of a group of sixty-six patients regarding their involvement in combat actions and working in the post-Chernobyl nuclear energy station clean-up. The test used several diagnostic methods including, organize clinical interviews, clinical PTSD diagnostic scales, and Gorovits scales for the self-evaluation of traumatic events. Thirty of the subjects were gnarled in combat actions and the other thirty-three were clean-up workers. The mean ages of the patients were 27 2.8 years for the combatants and 43.7 4.5 years fo r the clean-up workers. Combatant patients had incomplete higher education and corresponding study for military action. Most clean-up workers had higher education, though some had some mid-level peculiar(a)izer education. They were observed for 5 to 6 years and again 15 to 17 years after involvement in the stress situations. After 56 years after Chernobyl, the combatants had rare (12 times per month) episodes of borderline or moderate, controllable levels of distress in situations that reminded them of the event. Emphasis was placed on the features of the stress situations in both groups. Combatants had directly experienced a fear of being killed or wounded, horror of capture, torture, and humiliation. They were involved in battle and special operations and they had witnessed the deaths of many of their peers. Most combatants spent around six months in military action zones. The result was exceeded the individuals exceeded their ability to cope. They were confronted with uninte rrupted vigilance, perceptions of a hostile environment, and the need to make rapid responses to sources of threat. A exclusively different type of stress occurred in Chernobyl clean-up workers who had to spot with can be considered a prolonged traumatic event. The social-psychological consequences of this disaster were observed for 19 years. The mischance was an extraordinary event, the first of its type in human experience. As a result, Chronic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder was diagnosed in all the patients studied.When combatants were presented with real threats, flash clog ups were seen. These flashbacks were mainly in hypngagogic/hypnopompic states or when they were intoxicated with alcohol. These flashbacks were of moderate intensity. Patients were able to maintain partial control of their actions by sustaining a link with the outside world. In their dreams, combatants saw many people that were unable to protect themselves, being captured, shooting, detonations, and others . They would often state that they were being surrounded and that the enemies were close. In the dreams, they would fire back with their guns but the bullets would come out of the barrel in slow motion. Also, the bullets did not fly or seem to come out of the barrel and fall. The patients considered these dreams as nightmarish. When they woke up, they struggled to get back to sleep. Many of the patients that were seeking medical help like to use alcohol to help them sleep. in that respect were signs indicating difficulties in concentrating or even maintaining minimal levels of attention in several combatants and virtually all clean-up workers. At the psychological level, most members of this group experienced increased symptoms and depression with feelings of fear, guilt, despair, impotence, hopelessness, and grief. The patients lacked curse in the help and treatment proposed for them, including psychotherapeutic treatment. They thought treatment was out(predicate) and their con dition was irreversible. Most people ultimately characterized themselves by the passive-aggressive social role of a victim.The main principle at the core of the treatment of patients with PTSD is the ability to recognize the priority of psychotherapy and the use of antidepressants with primarily minor tranquillizer effects and minimal side effects in small doses. mental hygiene included a variety of psychotherapeutic approaches. Therapies used included psychological debriefing for individuals, evidence-based psychotherapy cognitive behavioral therapy as a manifestation treatment and progressive desensitization, which must be done individually for patients of this group.There was a particular curiosity in the use of Coaxil in patients Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. It is associated with the establishment of its ability to change the neuroendocrine response to stress. It can prevent stress-induced behavioral and cognitive insufficiency in animals and corrects the responses of stre ss, not only weakening the stress-induced changes in the hypothalamus, but also assisting in the opposite of those changes. Preclinical and preliminary clinical data have shown evidence that Coaxil can be effective in the treatment of the specific and nonspecific symptoms of PTSD (Rumyantseva Stepanov, 2008).Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a very intricate disease. Although scientists have come a long way in canvass and treating PTSD, it is clear that much more research may be call for to fully treat these patients. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is extremely widespread and has become very expensive to treat and manage. Ideally, we should be taking steps toward relieving the experience of fear and helpless in those affected with this disorder. It is tenable to assume that patients with PTSD can be rehabilitated and live normal lives without the stressors associated with this condition.My answer to writing this paper is a mixed one. I was a bit overwhelmed with the notion o f having to read a published article in an area that I am unfamiliar with. However, after spending some time dissecting each one, I have developed and appreciation for the well create verbally ones. These articles are very dense in information for their size and a lot can be learned from reading them. There are others that were a bit difficult to read and left me wanting to know more information than what was given. However, I learned a great deal from this assignment. I have a new appreciation for the complexities of this disorder and I have enjoyed reading the articles.ReferencesRumyantseva, GM Stepanov, AL (2008). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Different Types of Stress (clinical features and treatment). Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, Vol. 38, No. 1.Dieperink, Erbes, Leskela, Kaloupek (2005). Comparison of Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Three Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Military Medicine. volume 170.Ray-Byrne, MD (2000). Pos t-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnosis, Management and Treatment. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 4.