Friday, March 29, 2019

Portfolio of Learning Outcomes through Self Assessment

Portfolio of tuition Outcomes finished ego AssessmentThis portfolio provides evidence of achieving dampment cases. To provide this evidence I go to tutorials envisaging interactive methods and assimilator female genitalstered principle strategies (Hinchcliff 2004), egotism- coordinateed erudition, group work and discussion. I also did further reading, utilizing library facilities, the cinnahl, A thuss and other web sites avail suitable. To shed light on this principle carry donement possible I assiduous in mentee / disciple coitusship with the upkeep and guidance of an approved teach (NMC 2000).I chose this rung bring out-of-pocket my function up in teaching. Since qualification, I pose worked in specializer atomic number 18as and have been actively convoluted in associate teachship. I discover this module will be coifd in my skipper using and inside the clinical beas, I choose to work.I have scripted this portfolio in first person (Webb 1992), as it is a reflective beak, of induces, thoughts and spiritings, preparation through critical analysis and evaluation. This kind of reproval enables us to conduct account of what has happened and to string sense of the outcome (Boud and Miller 1996).Many models of reflection may be apply, Ghaye and Lilyman (2000) refer to structured models leading learners through a shields and questions profitable as a guide and others ar flexible fetching into account the reflective impact and crumb start at different points then there is the focused model fully gr bear meaning to grammatical cases improving enforce. I have used an adaptation of the Reflective Cycle Model (Gibbs 1988) as it is simple and easy to interpret. bringing up Outcomes1. Assist learners to line modern assumement ask.___ self- brilliance- judging of true utilize and ack right awayledgment of accomplishment expect(s) in relation to this outcome. latest make Knowledgeable of student nurse curr iculum. Have a willingness and consignment to teach.My tuition consumes Gain an understanding of the FDA programme. Re aspect and critic anyy snap belles-lettres. Critical reflection.Learning Outcome 1. Assist students to identify current tuition gets._____Examples of evidence that could be provided by the end of the module to show how this outcome has been achieved.Produce evidence of placement acquisition opportunities fit to meet the needs of specific students.Give at least one example of how you have helped the student to identify his/her learning needs, set goals and develop action picture for learning.___________ thick of evince for summative assessment of what you have achieved during the module.Cross- reference as tolerate. I obtained copies of Sandras job commentary and FDA Mentor Pack. Reviewed literature. Critical reflection.DescriptionThe vascular surgical defend I work encounters to a greater extent(prenominal) than tuition for, Medical, Foundation d egree Studies, home(a) Vocational Qualification students and newlyly qualified nurses exclusively needing support. I have been asked by Sandra a 2nd year FDA student to be her mentor to believe on this utilisation impellingly I go to a meeting with Sandra and her Practice trainer. Through discussion, we were able to complete a negotiated learning contract documenting the learning and achievements Sandra had gained, outlining what her current learning needs were to train an agreed action plan. tonesI take my type seriously, committing myself in assisting and accompaniment junior colleagues and students. I am genuinely interested in their stage and take aim of learning and enjoy having an active role in their learning eff. synopsisI agree with Hincliffe (2004) that learning is infern as a alter in behaviour that is brought about to enable heighten upkeep for longanimouss/clients, an event from experience and bore causing relative permanent change in students behaviou r. Curzon (1990) enhances this view considering learning as modification of behaviour through activities and experiences so that discernledge, learnings, attitudes and process of adjustment to the learners environs is changed. Quinn (1995), Welsh and Swann (2004), and Nicklin and Kenworthey (1995) all have identical descriptions.A successful teacher has acquaintance of different learning theories and learning processes using them as textile to beastly teaching maximizing opportunities of learning (McKenna 1995, Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995). Raynor and Riding (1997) and Snelgrove (2004) refer growing need for teachers to understand the learning process to facilitate mortalized learning reducing academic failure.There are many different theories of learning mentioned within the literature (Hincliffe 2004, McKenna 1995 a/b/c, Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995, Welsh and Swann 2004), no single theory has all the answers, some theories view humans as extensions of the animal species, w hereas others see humans as separate, distinct, with cerebral characteristics of their own (Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995).Early theories of behaviourism such as Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner used animals whose behaviour resulted from a stimulus. Much of the literature suggests that such learning is curb and has no real place in nursing education (Hincliffe 2004, McKenna 1995(c), Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995, Quinn 1995) until now I look at there are still situations where these theories are pertinent but learning is limited.Curzon (1997) believes human behaviour is very different from that of animals mocking validity of behaviourism theories. Supporters acknowledge refinement of these works could shape bright reading cognitivity universe how we acquire info and what we need to know stimulated answers learned in part by classical conditioning (Woolfork and Nicolick 1980). Lovell (1987) refers to ruttish responses being corroboratory or negative relating to Pavlov s theory. Repetition is useful in practice which relates to Thorndikes theory of trial and error (McKenna 1995a), but knowledge of the skill learnt is authoritative. As teachers, we constantly use Skinners theory of positive and negative reinforcement, through praise and by giving information and cues prior to the designate performed and by practising a skill repeatedly over till competent in practice (McKenna 1995a).Cognitive theories refer to meaningful approaches of learning, recognizing students knowledge, experience and stages of development. I believe that as a mentor it is my responsibility to establish these factors early in the student relationship (Andrew and Wallis 1999, Forrest 2004, Phillips et al 1994). I agree learning is a purposive process concerning perception, organization and acumen. The learner actively seeks new information and uses past experience to gain understanding (Child 1986, Quinn 1995). Insightful learning occurs from special experience or knowledg e gaining new insight (Child 1986), the student relating to forward knowledge and experience to solve new problems.Experimental learning leads on from cognivitism Allan and Jolley (1987) refer to learners becoming independent of their teachers eventually setting their own objectives initiating their learning using lendable resources and self-assessment. Burnard (1987) describes this as involving personal experience and reflection make sense of events transforming knowledge and meaning from them. I think Allan and Jolley (1987) are excoriate in saying that this type of learning is effective in proof and practice. Allan and Jolley (1987) also state that increased activity and involvement leads to increased learning.The humanist view is related to feelings and experience, including Maslow (1971) humanist approach cited in Wickliffe (2004), McKenna (1995c), Nicklin and Kenworthey (1995), Quinn (1995) and many more. The pay off is to assist self-actualisation fulfilling maximum po tential, this links closely to Knowles (1978) and Rogers (1983) works shoply cited within the literature (Burnard 1987, Mckenna 1995(c), Nicklin and Kenworthey 1995, Welsh and Swann 2000). I believe student centred approaches allow students to take active involvement in their learning modify them to take self-possession for it (Allan and Jolley 1987).Kauffman (2003) sees Knowles (1978) theory of andrology as a useful tool rather than a theory. Knowles acknowledges adult learners having vast ranges of experience, which they use as a basis for new learning, learning occurring through efforts made by the idiosyncratic. Student and teachers need to wield each other as equals to allow student centred learning students taking responsibility and ownership of it (Bennett 2002, Hutchinson 2003 and Mckenna 1995(c). I agree that a partnership bastardly on cooperation and interaction brings about mutual learning due to desolation and trust (Atkins and Murphy 1995). I also agree with Ewa n and White (1996) that it is weighty to know the students individual characteristics and needs being sensible of the students current knowledge, competency and stage of training (Wickliffe 2004).A learning contract is a of import tool (Calhoun et al 2000), utilizing optimum learning. It is a formal written arrangement between the student and mentor specifying what needs to be done to achieve the students learning outcomes. Regular formative discussion enables skills and us to get to know each other allowing me to establish the students stage of training, previous experience. Regular discussions are necessary as part of the learning process (Cahill 1996) as through discussion we can identify strengths, weaknesses and any problems encountered by the student, measuring the level of competence revising our initial plan to achieve the rest of the students outcomes which utilises the student centred approach.Action figureI need to hold frequent discussions with Sandra to observe he r senesce effectively promoting active involvement and ownership. I am aware that an effective mentor/student relationship enhances the level of learning courtly to make this possible we need to have significant contact involving us to arrange our off-duty to make sure we frequently work together.Learning Outcomes2. rebel self-awareness in order to be a role model.__________Self-assessment of current practice and identifications of learning need(s) in relation to this outcome. Acknowledge that self-awareness is primal.I am cozy. It is my professional responsibility to provide silk hat bursting charge. It is my responsibility to be good role model.My Learning Needs Gain greater awareness of how others view me. encourage reading. Become self aware through reflection.Learning Outcome 2. split up self-awareness in order to be a role model._____________Example of EvidenceRecognize the impact of own professional behaviour and actions on students learning._____________Summary of E vidence summative assessment of what you have achieved during the moduleCross-reference as appropriate. Understand others views gaining insight of how Im seen. Now old(prenominal) with the terms self-awareness and role model. critically reflected, becoming progressively self aware of my actions.DescriptionAs an E grade, I have a responsibility for junior colleagues and student nurses and am involved in their learning and teaching. I am competent and sure-handed shewing to act in a professional manner at all times. Feedback from my colleagues and students shows Im respected and liked but at times of stress, I can come across as harsh and abrupt not tolerating fools gladly.FeelingsI am proud of my achievements and think I am a good role model but am aware that I can be abrupt on occasions. .AnalysisThe former U.K.C.C (2000) standards for dressing of teachers of nursing and midwifery state clearly that as nurse I essential be a good role model enabling me to build effective relat ionships with uncomplainings and clients and contributing to an surroundings in which effective practice is maintained ensuring safe and effective care through assessment and management.Nursing relies on clinical staff to support and teach rationale being the student learns from an expert in a safe, supportive and educationally familiarised environment (Andrews and Wallis 1999). As a senior nurse students and junior colleagues see me as a role model. Students see a good mentor as someone who teachers, guides and assesses having a genuine interest in student learning (Andrews and Chilton 2000, Gray and Smith 2000, Neary 2000). Good role models are knowledgeable and skilful professionals who are respected and trusted. Taylor (1997) suggests novices copy or imitate professionals casting themselves on nurses with varying standards of practice, notice being an important part of their learning. married person (2001) small longitudinal study utilised various information collection m ethods that found evidence of students observing and relating to actions and behaviours they believed as good. My actions manifest by annotation of voice, comments made and enthusiasm and interest shown have an impact on learning, unbefitting behaviour is noticed and at worst copied because the learner see it as acceptable to do so. Findings of this study would be more valid and a claim made stronger if repeated on a grander scale literature supports these findings.Banduras (1977) theory of social learning and vicarious conditioning (cited by Mckenna 1995) involves this observation of behaviours and consequences of this to the learner this theory differs from others, as learning is instant therefore role modelling can be highly effective and positive or destructive.Self-awareness is being aware of what is taking place in oneself learning experience and self-concept changing over time as we see ourselves in many different roles influenced by others and the media (Quinn 1995).Refle ction of events and actions increases self-awareness giving insight of behaviour and response enabling us to examine relationships with others in the practical and social setting. haddock and Bassett (1997) suggest that use this in self-management and improvement. To be a self-aware practitioners we need to reflect on the way we come across to others implementing required changes (Stuart 2003). Self is as all thoughts, feelings and experiences of an individual, arising from biological and environmental influence. It is the way individuals see and feel about themselves (Quinn 1995). The major resource that a helper brings to the relationship is himself, the more complete his understanding of himself, the greater his capacity for self awareness and more effective he will be as a guidance Nicklin and Kenworthey pg 120.Self-awareness also implies to individuals being aware of their limits of knowledge and ability reflected by the individual partaking in further training or seeking help from see colleagues.Quinn (1995) and Burnard (1990) refer to two main ways we can be self aware, introspection and feedback from others. Introspection is looking within oneself and attempts to recognize own feelings and reactions, this is not easy and can cause feelings of discomfort and fright but allows identification of our emotions good and gravid assessing their impact. Palmer (2001) states a highly developed sense of self worth comes about within a person who can identify his/her emotions, learning to manage and contain them when inappropriate. Being self-aware get together insight of what we can change. Feedback is a way of seeing how others see us, ability to chip in and receive constructive feedback is a skill being told how you are comprehend is hard but thought provoking.Crewe (2004) relates to interrogation of the Duval and Auckland theory (1972), establish on two distinct forms of conscious attention, attention focusing outwards towards the environment or inward towards oneself. The person receives and perceives feedback from the environment regarding their behaviours and attitudes. Perception of approval from others can increase confidence and self-esteem while perception of disdain or negative evaluation can have the opposite effect. Objective self-awareness is an individual being aware of the personal characteristics that distinguish them from the majority the focus is exclusively on the self.Conclusion/ Action PlanI was not in full aware of my impact on others. It is critical for me to be conscious of my level of patience taking great care not to react negatively in times of stress, or when students or colleague fail to progress (Borgess and Smith 2004) as this can cause great harm to the learner.Learning Outcomes3/6/7 Develop, maintain, and evaluate an environment for learning in your area of practice.Self-assessment of current practice and identification of learning need(s) in relation to this outcome.Current Practice Have interest and commitment in teaching. Im intimate and approachable supporting students in their learning. Orientate students to environment. Participate in assessment with formative feedback.My Needs Increase awareness of what contributes to a good and bad learning environment. Be involved in educational placement audit.Learning Outcome 3/6/7. Develop, maintain and evaluate an environment for learning in your area of practice.Examples of Evidence Produces evidence of placement learning opportunities/resources suitable for meeting needs of specific students. Give examples of how you create and sustain an environment for learning.Summary of Evidence for summative assessment of what you have achieved during the module.Cross-reference as appropriate. Greater awareness of what contributes to a good learning environment. I try to maintain adequate supervision and liaise with colleagues regarding my students progress. Attend courses and study years for my personal development. Students always have a designated Mentor. There is a ward philosophy of care. Students have access to the internet, journals, pt notes and policies/procedures. Students attend spokes placements attached to the ward area, and have opportunities to spend time in theatre watching germane(predicate) procedures.DescriptionPatients are admitted onto my ward from electoral and urgency lists or via A+E for vascular assessment, procedures or surgery. Wound care and management is a large part of our role as well as patient education and discharge planning.FeelingsI feel this ward environment offers a lot of learning opportunities to students and new staff but has high patient demands, conquerd staffing and skill mix due to high levels of sickness effecting aggroup spirit and morale, which has a huge impact on our ability to teach, without delay affecting the learning of students and junior colleagues.AnalysisFinding a description of a clinical learning environment is not easy due to a complexity of numerous factors involved. Quinn (1995) uses holistic description, a broad explanation referring to all factors influencing quality and effectiveness of a learning environment, Chan (2001) description is corresponding relating to the learning environment as a multidimensional entity with interactive networks of forces that can affect the learners learning outcomes.Literature cites numerous studies concerning social support for students and nursing staff. These studies include Fretwell (1982) and (1985), Lewin and Leach (1982), Ogier (1982) and Orton (1981) conclusively identify quality relationships between prepare staff and students and support being crucial in creating a positive learning environment (Cahill 1996, Chan 2001, Saarikoski and Leino-Kilpi 2002). All studies conclude that an important determinant of an effective learning environment is the managers organisational and leadership style. Highly structured wards with rigid task allocation and hierarchical systems unlikely to mee t the learning needs of students and staff (Chan 2001). It set throughout the studies that team spirit, humanistic approach to students learning and teaching and learning support are influential factors of an effective ward setting. The frequent references to these studies show that their findings are seen as valid even though all were small size.I believe team spirit comes from working as a team, best achieved through encouragement of the ward manager (Welsh and Swann 2002) giving a sense of group pride and self-esteem for all staff. We need to make students feel part of this team so that they feel accepted having a sense of belonging (Chan 2001, Quinn 1995 and Spencer 2003).A team approach with an appropriate leadership style on the part of the manager creates fertile stain for the development of an appropriate learning climate. (Welsh and Swann 2002 pg 117)Studies carried out post Project 2000 explored more in depth themes and perceptive related to the clinical learning enviro nment and clinical supervision (Wilson and Barnett et al 1995) the meaning of nursing care and the teaching activities of nurses explored also. Saarikowski and Leino-Kilpi (2002) felt these studies demonstrated transition of individualised supervision and the role of the mentor. I agree with cubic decimetre and Glacken (2004) that ward managers are no longer able to dedicate time to teaching due to managerial demands, therefore nurses now have this overall responsibility for teaching.Mentorship is favoured in facilitating learning (Chow and Suen 2001). Watson (2000) acknowledges that mentors need education and training to function effectively in this demanding role with preparation mentors are able to create opportunities for students identifying experiences that meet individual learning needs.Studies by Cahill (1996), heartfelt (1984), Earnshaw (1995), Hart and Rotem (1994) (cited by Chan 2001) and Spouse (2001) are again small sized but all use similar methods of valid and relia ble data collection. The common theme throughout these studies is personal characteristics of the mentor, which include approachability, interpersonal skills, interest learning and teaching and supervision and support. These studies relate to students perspectives of the learning environment and mentorship, most of the findings viewing mentorship in a positive light and find it beneficial in reducing the theory practice gap for students. Staff attitudes and behaviour, the need of the student to belong and level of mentor contact spotlighted throughout. Mentors need to make time for the student so that they can practice, develop and learn to be a nurse (Spouse 2002).Phillips et al study (1994) was of a larger scale, carried out throughout Wales commissioned by the D.O.H., a two-year look for find concerned with the implications and impact of mentorship. This had qualitative and quantitative methodology information self-contained through questionnaires, diary accounts, interviews and observation again the give away elements of mentorship surrounded mentor/student relationships. Evidence of teaching, organisation of experiences consoli interpretd with feedback and discussion that aided and enhanced the students experience.Significant mentor contact seen to directly affect activities students are involved in, this contact essential for building rapport needed in a good working relationship. Mentor presence provides emotional support to students allowing gruntle introduction into the different and a difficult experience that exist and is crucial to students well being and learning potential, reducing anxiety (Jowett et al 1992). Feeling useful and part of a team are other important aspects. Chan (2001) and Welsh and Swann (2002) relate to this but feel that the students role needs to be understood admit and clarified to prevent them being used as a pair of hands.Studies that concern nurses perspective of the learning environment and mentorship (Andrews 1993, Atkins and Williams 1995 and Rogers and Lawton 1995) highlight barriers of effective mentorship due to lack of time, inadequate planning and role conflict. Lambert and Glacken (2004) also view inadequate staffing, poor skill mix, lack of support and training of staff and poor management structure as barriers that reduce learning potential.Phillips et al study (1994) reflects the findings of Jowett et al (1992) which I agree that in clinical area where demands for care are high and resources stretched it is difficult to give adequate support and supervision to the junior student. When I am in charge of the ward, I am less involved in direct care of patients and have difficulty working closely with the student.Action PlanI need to liaise with my colleagues closely to make them aware of my students learning needs so that constant supervision and constructive support and feedback is on-going when I am not available or am engaged in ward coordination. This will enable my student to be i ncreasingly involved in the nursing team learning skills appropriate to their training preventing them feeling neglected, used or ignored.________________Learning Outcomes4. Create and develop opportunities for students to learn, utilisingevidence-based practice._________________Self-assessment of current practice and identification of learning need(s) inrelation to this outcome.Current Practice. ken of constant changes within nursing and medicine that initiates change. I am familiar of protocols, standards and procedures regarding nursing intervention based on evidence-based practice. I back up my teaching with evidence based on experience or acknowledged research. Attend attending Pain Nurse Link meetings and wound care sessions providing me with current evidence for practice.Needs. To develop skills of critical analyse, systematic review and evaluation of research. Review literature increasing my awareness of this topic.Learning Outcomes 4. Create and develop opportunities for s tudents learning ofutilising evidence-based practice._____________Examples of Evidence Produce evidence of the ability to meet own learning needs in relation to thefacilitation of learning. Give Examples of how you have identified and facilitated individuals or groups tolearn._____________ Reviewed and critically analysed the literature. I am increasingly aware of the importance of evidence-based practice.DescriptionI have gained a great deal of experience throughout my career, which I use within my clinical practice and teaching. My knowledge has developed through practice, study sessions relevant to my area, advice of specialist nurses, reading journals and followers clinical guidelines, standards and protocols that I encourage students to read. Students invited to attend relevant wound care updates and to spend time with many of our specialist nurses.FeelingsI already base most of my practice on evidence but need to go in in literature reviews and develop skills to analyse and scrutinise research findings.AnalysisI believe evidence-based nursing is a process in which nurses base clinical decisions using the best available evidence (The University of manganese 2005). The newspaper column (1997) defines evidence-based practice as giving quantitative and qualitative meaning to a cause, course, diagnosis, treatment and economics of health problems managed by us nurses including quality government agency and continuing professional development which maintains and enhancing knowledge, expertise and competence to give best care (cited by Hincliffe 2002 pg 11). Curzio (1997) views it as the bridge between theory and practice agreed by White (1997) agrees with this suggesting it links personal intuition research and practice providing nurses with greater knowledge to base their care, our clinical decision-making and teaching must be based on evidence, expertise and highly importantly patients discernment as referred to by Hincliffe (2002).The aims of evidence-b ased practice/nursing ensuring patients receive up to date care based on up to date knowledge. As we develop skill inquiry, we become more knowledgeable in our profession that improves standards of care (Hincliffe 2002). I agree with Welsh and Swann (2002) that there is a need for reasoning(a) nurses using initiative, effective communication and clinical reasoning skills so that intercommunicate decisions are made through critical analysis of evidence available especially due to the constant changes within the NHS.The government introduced a framework of clinical governance in an attempt to achieve national clinical effectiveness within the NHS to guarantee quality services for patients and clients a key component being evidence-based practice. Behi (2000) states clinical governance requires every professional to use evidence-based practice. The New NHS Modern, Dependable (D.O.H 1997), The Drive for Clinical Effectiveness (D.O.H 1996) and A offset Class Service Quality in the NHS (D.O.H 1998) shows quality improvements at the headspring of the NHS agenda. The NHS National Service Knowledge and Skills Framework (Hincliffe 2002 McSherry and haddock 1999 and Welsh and Swann 2002) development tool promoting effectiveness through quality, staff and service development linking current and future research activity.The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (N.I.C.E) is accountable for assessment of technologies and for producing guidelines and the Commission for Health Improvement (C.H.I.M.P) monitors quality of services at a local level and ensure organisations are fulfilling their responsibility for clinical governance Health Care Organisations accountable for quality of services they provide, heading Executives carry ultimate responsibility. The government also provides funding essential for research activity.Spector (2004) refers to evidence-based practice as being rigorous and time-consuming involving selection of all research done in an area, analysis and synthesis developing combinative reviews termed within the literature as a systematic or meta-analysis reviews (Renfrew 1997, University of Minnesota 2005). Completed reviews are available to taking some of the pressure of us the Cochrane database has a wide range of these. Behi (2000) and Mcsherry and Haddock (1999) relate to clinical practice standards and guidelines produced by the N.M.C, R.C.N and local Health Authorities systematic review, recommendations and policy statements based on best evidence agreed by experts. There are also systematic reviews published in research journals and by the National Clearing House.Clinical appraisal is crucial in ensuring practice is evidenced based involving asking a clinical question related to practice and finding the research and literature to answer it, appraising evidence and deciding on its relevance and validity before applying findings to practice and evaluating effectiveness (Behi 2000 and McSherry and Haddock 1999). Castledei ne (2003) refers to this as a three-stage process producing the

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