Thursday, February 7, 2019
Jonathan EtraProfessor Eric BlanchardInternational Politics 13 February 2014Word turn all over 1331Shifting Paradigms An Analysis of Conflict and Cooperation in International PoliticsWhen seek to understand the central problems that actors face in foreign politics, there be no universal tools, including paradigms and levels of analysis, that unilaterally account for the global state of affairs. However, by utilizing these instruments, policy-making scientists are able to analyze situations independently and account for context. Paradigms are statements of the underlying assumptions used by a school of analysis such as realism, liberalism and constructivism (Nye & Welch, 62). The models often explore levels of analysis, which include individual actors, states and the global system. Historically, when meditateing cooperation and divergence in the international arena, much emphasis has been placed on realist theory. However, it seems that a newly age of technological innovat ion and rapid globalization has spawned new avenues for liberalism to triumph. This transition is best explained through the lens of constructivism. By exploring the varying pertinence of the paradigms presented, one gains a greater understanding of the ever-evolving international arena. First, it is important to consider the anarchic system of states, the current form of world politics. In the outlaw(a) system, states are unboundedly independent and are neither obligated to, nor protected by international law (Doyle, 114). In what is often referred to as the Westphalian model, states are political entities that have territoriality and autonomy. Territoriality means that a states authority extends over a defined area. Autonomy infers that external act... ... However, the increasingly interdependent personality of the international system has substantially augmented international collaboration. While such cooperation cannot ensure peace, it certainly has made the cost of war much g reater. Constructivism and liberalism, impertinent the Hobbesian realist perspective, take mitigating institutions into account when analyzing world order. They reason that self-help theory does not hold and contend that when a system is more social, laws, rules and norms play a greater role. Yet, there are still situations in which the channels of alleviation do not exist and the realist perspective still dominates. Ultimately, while no universal system of analysis exists, by reviewing conflict and cooperation through varying lenses, that is to say realism, liberalism and constructivism, one can gain a considerable understanding of international politics.