Tuesday, March 12, 2019
Multiple Births: Twins, Triplets, and Beyond Essay
AbstractThe high subprogram of sextuple pregnancies is a preserve because women who be expecting much than than unmatchable baby argon at annex fortune of infection of real pregnancy complications, including premature induce.Multiple totallyiances gibe, Triplets, and BeyondReferencesMartin, J.A., et al. Births last-place Data for 2006. National Vital Statistics Reports, book 57, issue 7, January 7, 2009. Reddy, U.M., et al. Relationship of p arental Body Mass Index and Height to Twinning. Obstetrics and Gynecology, volume 105, number 3, March 2005, p mount ups 593-597. Wright, V.C., et al. support productive Technology Surveillance2005. Morbidity and deathrate Weekly Report, volume 57 (SS05), June 20, 2008. Practice Committee of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology and the Ameri female genitals Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility and Sterility, volume 86, Supplement 5, November 2006, pages S51-52. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. M ultiple Pregnancy and Birth Twins, Triplets, and Higher Order Multiples A Guide for Patients. Birmingham AL, 2004, accessed 12/16/08. Rossi, C., and DAddario, V. Laser Therapy and Serial Amnioreduction as Treatment for Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome A Metaanalysis and freshen up of Literature. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, volume 198, number 2, February 2008, pages 147-152. Lopriore, E. et al. Risk Factors for Neuro pay offment declension in Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Treated With Fetoscopic Laser Surgery. Obstetrics and Gynecology, volume 113, number 2, February 2009, pages 361-366. Senat, M.V., et al. Endoscopic Laser Surgery versus Serial Amnioreduction for Severe Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. impertinently England Journal of Medicine, volume 351, number 2, July 8, 2004, pages 136-144. American College ofObstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Multiple Gestation complicated Twin, Triplet, and Higher-Order Multi foetal Pregnancy. ACOG Practice Bulleti n, number 56, October 2004. Institute of Medicine. Weight Gain During Pregnancy Reexamining the Guidelines. whitethorn 2009. New York National Academy of Sciences, accessed 12/8/09. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Having Twins Patient Education Pamphlet. ACOG, Washington, DC, 2004, accessed 12/9/08.When a charwoman is carrying iodine baby, it is called a singleton pregnancy. When She is carrying two or more than(prenominal) babies it is called multiple hand overs. In the old 2 decades, the rate of multiple births in the United States jumped dramatically. The rate of equal births increased by 70 per centum between 1980 and 2004, and the rate of higher(prenominal)-order multiples (triplets or more) increased four-fold between 1980 and 1998 . However, the rapid rise in multiple birth rates may be ending. In 2005 and 2006, the rate of twin births remained static .The rate of higher-order multiple births has declined 21 percent since its peak in 199 8 . Today, more than 3 percent of babies in this country are born in sets of two, three or more about 95 percent of these multiple births are twins. The high number of multiple pregnancies is a concern because women who are expecting more than unrivaled baby are at increased risk of certain pregnancy complications, including premature birth . Premature babies are at risk of serious health problems during the newborn period, as comfortably as lasting disabilities and death. Some of the complications associated with multiple pregnancy can be minimise or saveed when they are diagnosed early. There are a number of steps a pregnant woman and her health care supplier can take to help improve the chances that her babies leave be born healthy. approximately one-third of the increase in multiple pregnancies is due to the fact that more women over age 30 are having babies. Women in this age chemical throng are more credibly than younger women to conceive multiples. The remainder of the increase is due to the use of fertility treatments, including fertility-stimulating drugs and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). In IVF, eggs are removed from the m an new(prenominal)(prenominal), fertilized in a laboratory dish and then transferred to the uterus. approximately 44 percent of ART pregnancies result in twins, and about 5 percent in triplets or more. Doctors now monitor fertility treatments carefully so that women withstand fewer, but healthier, babies. This involves limiting the number of embryos transferred during IVF.In 2006, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology issued updated guidelines on the outmatch number of embryos to transfer, depending on a womans age and other factors . For example, the guidelines recommend that doctors transfer no more than two embryos for women under age 35, and consider transferring only one embryo for women in this age group who are considered roughly likely to become pregnant. Doctors monitor women taking certain fertility drugs with ultrasound. If ultrasound shows that a large number of eggs could be released during a treatment cycle, the doctor can stop the treatment and instruction the woman accordingly. The following factors can increase the chances that a woman will conceive multiplesFertility treatmentAge over 30 historic periodA personal or family history of fraternal (non-identical) twins fleshiness or taller-than-average heightAfrican-American race (African-American women are more likely to have fraternal twins than caucasian women, and Asian women are the to the lowest degree likely to have fraternal twins)Although preliminary generations often were surprised by a multiple birth, today most parents-to-be learn the news slightly early. A routine first-trimester ultrasound can detect most multiples. (Sometimes a twin pregnancy that is identified very early is later put up to have only o ne fetus. This is called vanishing twin syndrome, and its cause is not well understood. The surviving twin loosely is not harmed.) Other factors can mobile a health care provider that a woman may be expecting twins or more. These include Rapid slant arrive at during the first trimesterThe uterus being larger than expectedSevere pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (morning sickness) much than one heartbeat heard by a provider using a hand-held ultrasound device (Doppler) More fetal movement than the woman experienced in a previoussingleton pregnancy Abnormal results on maternal blood screening through with(p) around 16 weeks of pregnancy to screen for certain birth defects A health care provider who suspects a multiple pregnancy most likely recommends that the woman have an ultrasound to find out for sure.Women who are expecting more than one baby are at increased risk of a number of pregnancy complications. The more babies a woman is carrying at once, the greater her risk. C ommon complications include Premature birth About 60 percent of twins, more than 90 percent of triplets, and virtually all quadruplets and higher-order multiples are born premature . The length of pregnancy decreases with each additional baby. On average, most singleton pregnancies last 39 weeks for twins, 35 weeks for triplets, 32 weeks and for quadruplets, 29 weeks. hapless birth weight (LBW) More than half of twins and almost all higher-order multiples are born with low birth weight (less than 5 pounds or 2,500 grams). LBW can result from premature birth and/or poor fetal growth. Both are common in multiple pregnancies.Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) About 10 percent of identical twins who share a placenta develop this complication. TTTS occurs when a connection between the two babies blood vessels in the placenta causes one baby to get too much blood flow and the other too little. Until recently, severe cases often resulted in the loss of both babies. preeclampsia Women e xpecting twins are more than twice as likely as women with a singleton pregnancy to develop this complication, characterized by high blood pressure, protein in the urine and generalized edema.Severe cases can be dangerous for flummox and baby. In some cases, the baby must be delivered early to prevent serious complications. Gestational diabetes Women carrying multiples are at increased risk of this pregnancy-related attain of diabetes. This condition can cause the baby to grow in particular large, increase the risk of injuries to mother and baby during vaginal birth. Babies born to women with gestational diabetes as well as may have breathing and other problems during the newborn period. Early diagnosis and management of these complications can help protect mother and babies.Women who are expecting multiples generally need to visit their health care providers more frequently than women expecting one baby. These extra visitscan help prevent, detect and treat the complications th at develop more often in a multiple pregnancy. Health care providers may recommend twice-monthly visits during the second trimester and weekly (or more frequent) visits during the third trimester. During the third trimester, the provider may recommend tests of fetal well-being. These include.Eating right and gaining the recommended amount of weight reduces the risk of having a premature or LBW baby in singleton, as well as multiple, gestations. A healthy weight gain is especially important if a woman is pregnant with multiples because they have a higher risk of premature birth and LBW than singletons.The chance of a cesarean birth is higher in twin than in singleton births. However, a pregnant woman has a good chance of having a normal vaginal deliverance if both babies are in a head-down position and there are no other complications. When a woman is carrying three or more babies, a cesarean birth usually is recommended because it is safer for the babies.